DETERMINATION OF As, Hg, Pb, Cd AND Al IN THE LIPSTICKS IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIAAbstract
Using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP–OES) I determined the concentrations of heavy metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) element after digestion using microwave pressure for 32 different types from the most popular and widely sold lipsticks in Riyadh markets. Analysis was conducted for the samples of expensive and cheap brand that advertise itself a natural (organic) and which advertise itself a medical. Samples of lipsticks from different countries were analyzed but with emphasis on China. I studied different concentrations of investigated elements with a different degree of color intensity, and gradation from the dark red to the light beige that shows the presence of significant differences in concentrations of the elements in the sample. The concentrations of investigated elements were also compared to the matte dry lipsticks and between the lipstick glosses and liquid lipsticks and between the lip glosses and the watery lip glosses and between white lip balm and the long lasting lipsticks. The results showed that only two samples of all investigated samples groups which were represented in the Chinese product category that contained arsenic which exceeded the allowable detection limit in one of them, as its concentration in the sample reached 3.44 ppm, and mercury was found beyond the permissible detection limit in only one sample of the samples under consideration, which were represented in the group of expensive international brands samples, and its concentration was 1.584 ppm, while in the remaining samples it ranged between 0.001 – 0.070 ppm, which indicates that expensive products are not necessarily safe in term of mineral content. The lead content exceeded the allowable limit of 20 ppm in only three samples of lipsticks found in the lipsticks group of Chinese products while in rest of the samples of different groups lead value ranged 0.7 – 12.34 ppm. In this study it became obvious that China is the main manufacturer of investigated lipsticks, and it was found that the samples contained high and serious lead levels, while cadmium in all investigated samples of lipsticks was found to be below the allowable detection limit, which ranged from 0.06 – 8.81 ppm. Aluminum element that presents naturally in high concentrations in cosmetic products, its concentration in the investigated samples ranged 8.76 – 23.418 ppm. Elements content in the samples were compared with the available data on the global limits proposed to these elements and their potential health hazards on the consumer public.
M. A. Alnuwaiser
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Princess Nourahbint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 28445, Riyadh, 11437, Saudi Arabia.
23 March, 2018
02 May, 2018
13 May, 2018
01 November, 2018