ESTIMATION OF TOTAL ALKALOIDS IN WILD AND IN-VITRO REGENERATED TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIAAbstract
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers (Synonym: T. sinensis (Lour.) Merr.) is a genetically diverse plant known for its immense medicinal properties due to the presence of bioactive compounds among which alkaloids are most vital. So, the present study aimed to estimate the total alkaloid content in wild and in-vitro regenerated plant & callus tissue of Tinospora cordifolia. Different solvents, i.e., methanol, ethyl acetate, water, diethyl ether, and chloroform, have been tried and compared for their extraction efficiency. The presences of alkaloids were tested via Wagner’s and Mayer’s reagents. The quantitative estimation had been made by UV/Vis spectrophotometer using a dye-Bromocresol green. The methanol extracts of wild plant’s stem showed the highest concentration (3.3%) followed by water (1.85%) and ethyl acetate (0.99%). The alkaloid content in chloroform and diethyl ether extracts of wild plant’s stem was 0.49% and 0.28% respectively. The in-vitro regenerated plant extracts also showed the presence of alkaloids (though in minute amount) in all solvents viz. methanol (0.95%), diethyl ether (0.060%), chloroform (0.012%), water (0.80%) and ethyl acetate (0.67%). The methanol, water and ethyl acetate extracts of callus tissue hold alkaloids in the order- 0.79%, 0.65%, and 0.39% but the diethyl ether and chloroform extracts displayed the absence of alkaloids. So, methanol was found to be the most suitable solvent for extraction of alkaloids. This work further proves that in-vitro regenerated plant and also the callus tissue of Tinospora cordifolia retain their parental characteristics of alkaloid biosynthesis, which can be enhanced further by altering the physical and hormonal parameters of the cultural environment.