A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF LANTANA CAMARA LINN.HTML Full Text
A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF LANTANA CAMARA LINN.
Akash Ved *1, Tarannum Arsi 1, Om Prakash 1 and Amresh Gupta 2
Goel Institute of Pharmacy and Sciences 1, Faizabad Road, Lucknow - 226010, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Pharmacy College 2, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai, Etawah - 206130, Uttar Pradesh India.
ABSTRACT: Lantana camara Linn. is considered as a notorious weed and a popular ornamental plant. It is noted from ancient time that plants have been an excellent source of medicine. Since very long time Lantana camara has been reported as one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. Lantana camara is used in traditional medicine system for the treatment of cuts, swellings, ulcers, cataract, bilious fever, itches, eczema, and rheumatism. Various parts of Lantana camara plant are used in the treatment of cold, headache, whooping cough, asthma, chicken pox, bronchitis, eye injuries, and arterial hypertension. L. camara has scientifically studied for various therapeutic activities like antibacterial, antioxidant, antipyretic, insecticidal, antimicrobial, wound healing, etc. Nowadays this plant Lantana camara is worked in several recent advanced techniques like phyto-extraction of heavy metals, phytoremediation of particulate pollution and many others. Various literature has reported the phytoconstituents present in all parts of Lantana camara. In last few decades, scientist and researchers throughout the globe have elaborately examined the chemical composition of the whole plant of L. camara. The plant is spread widely over Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, and North-Eastern states of India. The present review is an aim to give a complete report of the literature on its phytochemistry and pharmacological activity.
Lantana camara, Verbenaceae, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological activity
INTRODUCTION: Lantana camara Linn. relating to the family Verbenaceae, familiarized in India as a decorating plant but entirely naturalized and found throughout India 1. Lantana camara has been standing as one of the most fundamental medicinal weeds in the world 2. The word Lantana camara obtains from Latin ‘lento’ which means ‘to bend’ 3.
This species was first represented and acknowledged its binomial name by Linnaeus in 1753 2. The plant Lantana camara, commonly known as wild sage or red sage, is the plant of the genus of Verbenaceae family with 600 variations existing natural, and it is an arboreous plant with different flower colours i.e. red, white, yellow and violet.
It is an evergreen potent smelling shrub, and its leaves are opposite, simple with large petioles, oval blades which are rugged and hairy and have bluntly toothed margins 4. Berries of Lantana camara are round, fleshy, two-seeded bean. In initially seeds of Lantana camara are green colour and turning purple and finally to a blue-black colour. Lantana camara is indigenous plant found in tropical regions. Lantana camara is well-noted by several names in several languages in India viz. Kakke and Natahu (Kanada), Arippu and Unnichedi (Tamil), Aripoov, Poochedi, Konginipoo and Nattachedi (Malayalam), Thirei, Samballei, Chaturangi and Vanacehdi (Sanskrit), Nongballei (Manipuri), Raimuniya (Hindi), Tantani and Ghaneri (Marathi) and Pulikampa (Telegu) 5, 6.
Lantana camara is regularly used as herbal medicine and in some areas as firewood and mulch 7. Especially in India, there has been to a great extent work conducted on the chemical constituents of Lantana camara. The leaf oil is employed as an antiseptic for scars; the roots are used for the treatment of a toothache and the flowers for chest complaints in children 8. Lantana camara leaves extract exhibited anti-proliferative, antimicrobial, fungicidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activities 9 -12. Lantana camara shoots extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity 13.
The berries fruits are useful in fistula, pocks, tumors and rheumatism 14 - 17. The essential oil of Lantana camara exposed a broad spectrum of antibacterial, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities 18 - 20. In Lantana camara, chemical constituents are present as triterpenes like lantadenes A, B, C, and D (Fig. 1- 4) 21, alkaloids, flavonoids 22, saponins, tannins 23, germacrene A, B and D (Fig. 5) and chief compounds are valencene and γ- gurjunene 3.
FIG. 6: LANTANA CAMARA PLANT
Taxonomical Classification: 24
Species: Lantana camara
Parts Used: Apart from the whole plant, seeds, stem, root, leaves and flowers are also used.
Synonyms: Lantana aculeate, Camara vulgaris, Lantana indica Roxb., Lantana salvifolia Jacq., Lantana trifolia, Lantana orangemene, Lantana tiliaefolia Cham, Lantana achyrantifolia Desf., Lantana montevidensis Briq., Lantana viburnoides Vahl 24, 25, 26.
Sanskrit Name: Chaturangi, Vanacchedi
Properties: Rasa: Kashaya, Tikta; Guna; Guru; Virya: Sita
Therapeutic Uses: Plant pacifies vitiated condition of vata and kapha 27.
Growth and Distribution: Lantana camara is the most outspread species growing abundantly at altitudes up to 2000 m in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The species name (camara) is probably followed from the West Indian 3. In its native range in tropical America, Lantana camara mainly endows in small clumps less than or equal to 1m in diameter 28. In its naturalized range, Lantana camara usually forms dense monospecific thickets 1 - 4m high and approximately 1 - 4m in diameter 29. Lantana camara has becoming naturalized in almost 60 countries 13.
The distribution of Lantana is still expanding with many countries and Islands that are Yap, Galapagos Islands, Palau, Saipan, Tinian, Solomon Islands and Futuna Islands 30. At disordered areas such as roadsides, railway tracks, and canals are also favourable for the species 31. It does not arise to have an upper temperature or rainfall limit 32. Lantana camara can’t come through under dense and intact canopies of taller native forest species, and Lantana camara is susceptible to frosts, low temperature, and saline soils 33.
Phytochemistry: Lantana camara has therapeutic activity due to the presence of natural agents, the greater part of their activity is due to bioactive compounds namely saponins, alkaloids, tannin, anthocyanins, flavones, isoflavones, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, catechins, iso-catechins, and triterpenoids. Wollenweber et al., have identified and reported the presence of two triterpenoid esters namely, camarilic acid and camaricinic acid 34.
Silva et al., in 1999 discovered the chemical composition of essential oils collected from different regions. The chief constituents present in the oil of Lantana camara were α- phellandrene (Fig. 7), germacrene-D (Fig. 5), limonene, β-caryophyllene, sabinene (Fig. 8), α-zingi- berene and α- humulene 35.
FIG. 1: LENTADENES A
FIG. 2: LENTADENES B
FIG. 3: LENTADENE C
FIG. 4: LENTADENE D
FIG. 5: GERMACRENE D
FIG.7: PHRLLA-NDRENE F
FIG. 8: SABINENE
Begum et al., in 2006 described presence of three new pentacyclic triterpenoids lantacin (=(3β,19 α,22 β)-3,19-dihydroxy-22-[(3-methylbut-2-enoyl) oxy]urs-12-en-28-oic acid) (Fig. 9), camarin (=(7α) -7-hydroxy-3-oxoolean-12-en- 28-oic acid) (Fig. 10), and camarinin (=(22β)-3β,25-epoxy-3-hydroxy - 22- [(3-methylbut-2-enoyl)oxy]-11-oxoolean-12-en-28-oic acid) (Fig. 11) in aerial parts of Lantana camara 36.
FIG. 9: LANTACIN
FIG. 10: CAMARIN
FIG. 11: CAMARININ
FIG. 12: α -CADINENE
FIG. 13: β - ELEMENE
FIG. 14: γ - ELEMENE
FIG. 15: 3β, 19α-DIHYDROXYURSAN-28-OIC ACID
FIG. 16: 21, 22β-EPOXY-3β-HYDROXY OLEAN -12-EN-28-OIC ACID
Khan et al., in 2002 presented a GC-MS analysis of Oil collected from leaves and flowers of Lantana camara and recorded that Lantana camara oils also contain α-cadinene (Fig. 12), β and γ-elemene (Fig. 13 - 14), α-copaene and as major constituents 37. It was identified and reputed 1, 8-cineole, Sabinene (Fig. 8), α- humulene, β-caryophyllene, 8-hydroxybicyelogermaerene, and sesquiterpenoids humulene epoxide III in leaf and flower oils of Lantana camara 38, 39, and 40. Two novel triterpenoids were also isolated from the roots of Lantana camara. Their structures were determined as 3β, 19α-dihydroxyursan-28-oic acid (Fig. 15), and 21, 22β-epoxy-3β-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (Fig. 16) 41.
FIG. 17: THEVESIDE
FIG. 18: 8-EPILOGANIN
FIG. 19: LAMIRIDOSIDE
FIG. 20: SHANZHSIDE METHYL ESTER
The white, pink or red flowering taxa yield considerable quantities of the the veside (Fig. 17) present as a sodium salt 42, 43. The leaves included 1.3 - 3.6 % and stem 4.3 - 5.8 % in the spring and summer, decreasing significantly to 0.6 % for both leaves and stems in autumn. Also from the roots geniposide, the biosynthetic precursor of the veside has been isolated together with 8-epiloganin (Fig. 18), lamiridoside (Fig. 19) and shanzhside methyl ester (Fig. 20) 44, 45.
Singh et al., in 1996 isolated two additional triterpenes, hederagenin (Fig. 21) and 25-hydroxy-3-oxoolean-12-en-28-oic acid (Fig. 22) from Lantana camara 46. Begum et al., in 1995 reported a new Δ12-oleanane triterpenoid and a new Δ12-ursane type triterpenoid, camarilic acid (Fig. 23) and camaracinic acid (Fig. 24) respectively from the aerial part of L. camara 10.
FIG. 21: HEDERAGENIN
FIG. 22: 25-HYDROXY-3-OXOOLEAN-12-EN-28-OIC ACID
FIG. 23: CAMARILIC ACID
FIG. 24: CAMARACINIC ACID
TABLE 1: USES OF LANTANA CAMARA
|Plant||Act as hedge plant, provide perch sites and cover||Ghisalberti et al., 2000; Day et al., 2003|
|Flowers||Nectar source for butterflies
|Mohan Ram and Mathur, 1984; Day et al., 2003|
|Bark||Astringent and used as a lotion in cutiginous eruptions, leprous ulcers||ISSG, 2008; Trek
|Stalks||Raw material for paper pulp which is used for wrapping, writing and printing paper. Making baskets and temporary shelters. Used as Biofuel||Ray et al., 2006; Naithani and Pande, 2009; Kannan et al., 2008; Sharma et al., 1988; Prasad et al., 2001|
|Leaves||Boiled and used for swelling and pain in the body. Alkaloidal fractions lower blood pressure, accelerate deeprespiration and stimulate intestinal movements.||Singh et al., 1996;
Noble et al., 1998;
Nagao et al., 2000
|Plants extract||Drought-tolerant plant so good candidates for xeriscaping. Employed in the folk drug for the treatment of cancers, chicken pox, measles, asthma, ulcers, swellings, eczema, tumors, high blood pressure, bilious fevers, catarrhal infections, tetanus, rheumatism and malaria.||Rauch and Weissich, 2000; Chavan and Nikam, 1982; Sharma and Sharma, 1989; Day et al., 2003; Begum et al., 2003; Sharma, 2007
CONCLUSION: Lantana camera is an important medicinal plant with several medicinal uses in folk and traditional therapeutic system. From this review, it is quite evident that L. camara contains some phytoconstituents which reveal its applications for different therapeutic purposes. The Plant or its specific parts can be used for the treatment of various disorders in the human being such as antiulcer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, anti-cancer antifungal, antibacterial and wound healing. Lantana oil is sometimes applied for the treatment of skin itches, as an antiseptic for wound and externally for leprosy and scabies. Yet, so much work is required with the Lanata camara to investigate the mechanism of actions with other therapeutic activities. In future, there is enormous scope in research for this plant. Ethnomedical and scientific reports about the medicinal properties of L. camara represent it as a valuable plant and establishing it as a candidate for the future drug development. Further examination of L. camara plants (active compounds) can be carried out by way of making use of various investigative methods such as HPLC, HPTLC, FTIR, NMR and UV spectrophoto -meter study.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors of this paper are very thankful to the managing director of Goel Institute of Pharmacy and Sciences.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Ved A, Arsi T, Prakash O and Gupta A: A review on phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of Lantana camara Linn. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2018; 9(1): 37-43.doi:10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.9(1).37-43.
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