A SURVEY ON ANTICANCER PROPERTIES OF INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS – A BROAD SPECTRUM ANALYSISHTML Full Text
A SURVEY ON ANTICANCER PROPERTIES OF INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS - A BROAD SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
K. Saranya, V. Manivasagan, R. Kanakadurga, V. P. Mohan Babu * and N. G. Ramesh Babu
Department of Biotechnology, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering (Autonomous), Hosur - 635109, Tamil Nadu, India.
ABSTRACT: Several plants across the world possess specific therapeutic and diagnostic properties. The identification of the properties among them is the most difficult task. Several researchers have used several methodologies to express the therapeutic properties in the plants. The interest of scientists among the anticancer studies has been increasing widely as cancer has become one of the deadliest diseases. The usage of different parts of the plant and using the different extracting solvents has shown effective results on different types of cancer cell lines. Several plants synthesize metabolites which possess anticancer properties that have been used in the development of drugs by clinical trials. The application of nanoparticles from plants in cancer treatment has been regarded as a successful method recently. The present review aims at the study of a broad spectrum of plants having anticancer properties using the in-vitro analysis of particular cell lines. The anticancer activity was analyzed by different assays such as MTT assay, “Alamar Blue” Resazurin reduction assay, SRB assay, and WST-1 assay. The results were calculated based on absorbance values. Thus, the potential of the plant extract against specific cancer cell line was evaluated.
Plant extracts, Cell lines, MTT assay, Resazurin reduction assay, SRB assay, WST-1 assay
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is one of the five leading causes of death in the world 1. Cancer is the abnormal, uncontrolled division of cells in the body 2. The cancer cells when malignant, invade various parts of the body through the bloodstream. Men are mostly affected by lung cancer, colon cancer, rectum, and prostate cancer. Women are mostly affected by breast, colon, rectal and stomach cancer 3. Every year, millions of people are affected by cancer, leading to death 4. It is estimated that by 2030, there will be 17 million deaths caused by cancer 5.
The cancer patients can be treated by some methods such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and chemically derived drugs 6. Among the methods, chemotherapy is the most used treatment used for curing the advanced stages of cancer. Apart from treating the cancer cells, it also produces toxicity to the normal cells 7.
Cancer can be broadly classified into carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Carcinomas include almost 81% of overall cancer available, which originate in the skin, lungs, breasts, pancreas, and other organs and glands. Lymphomas are the cancers of lymphocytes. Leukemia is the form of cancer in blood. Sarcomas occur in bone, muscle, fat, blood vessels, cartilage, or other soft or connective tissues of the body. Melanomas are cancers that arise in the cells that make the pigment in the skin. Cancer has been recognized for thousands of years as a human ailment, yet only in the past century has medical science understood what cancer is and how it progresses. Cancer specialists, called oncologists, have made remarkable advances in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Today, more people diagnosed with cancer are living longer. However, some forms of the disease remain frustratingly difficult to treat. Modern treatment can significantly improve the quality of life and may extend survival. According to the WHO, more than 80% of the population in the developing countries are dependent on traditional medicine for treating cancer 8. According to statistics, 60% of the drugs for treating cancer derived from plants 9. More than 3000 plants have anticancer activity 5. India is one among the 12 centers in the world that contain a diversity of plant producing novel bio-molecules 9. India is known as “the botanical garden of the world” and is the highest plant producer of the world 10. The main rationale of the review is to study the in-vitro anticancer activity of different plants available in a broad spectrum survey.
Extraction: The extracts from different parts of the plants such as leaves, fruits, stems, shoot, bark, flowers, roots, and rhizome were used for the analysis of anticancer properties. Soxhlet extraction apparatus was preferred by researchers for extraction. One among the following assays was used for the anticancer activity.
In-vitro Anticancer Activity:
MTT Assay: [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide] MTT colorimetric assay is the mostly used assay for anticancer activity. In this assay, the extracts were made to be dissolved in (dimethylsulfoxide) DMSO along with diluted cell culture media. Initially, the cells taken from the cell lines were counted. The cells were diluted and seeded in 96 well microtiter plates. This was kept for incubation. The absorption was measured and the cell viability was calculated 11.
“Alamar Blue” Resazurin Reduction Assay: In Resazurin reduction assay, the cells of cell lines were suspended in DMEM. This was seeded in 96-well plate at dilution. The plant extracts were made to be serially diluted along with the medium and supplied to the cells. This was kept for incubation. Following incubation, fresh media along with Resazurin was added and again incubated. The fluorescent intensity of dye was measured as a result of the cytotoxic activity of the cells 12.
SRB Assay: RPMI 1640 medium containing fetal bovine serum was selected, and the diluted cells were inoculated to 96 well plates. This was kept for incubation. The extract was then added and again incubated. The assay was then completed by the addition of TCA to the cells. Then the cells were finally added to the SRB solution. The absorbance was read 13.
WST-1 Colorimetric Assay: WST-1 (4- [3- (4-iodophenyl)-2 -(4-nitrophenyl) -2H-5-tetrazolio]-1, 3-benzene disulfonate) colorimetric assay was performed by incubating the inoculated cells to the 96 well plates along with the media. After incubation, appropriate concentrations of the extracts were made to be added. This was again incubated. The cells and the extract were solubilized in DMSO, and an appropriate quantity of WST-1 was added. The absorbance was calculated 14.
In-vitro Anticancer Activity of Medicinal Plants: Some of the plants that exhibit anticancer activity are given in Table 1.
TABLE 1: LIST OF IN-VITRO ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS
|S. no.||Plant||Family||Part of Plant Used||Specific Cancer Suppressed||Reference|
|1||Aloe vera||Asphodelaceae||Whole plant||HepG2||15|
|2||Annona muricata||Annonaceae||Leaves||EACC, MDA and SKBR3||16|
|Ericaceae||Aerial parts||MCF-7, T47D, CACO-2, HRT18, A375.S2 and WM1361A||18|
|Aristolochiaceae||Roots||HCT-116, A431, A549, PC3, THP-1 and HeLa||20
|7||Asplenium nidus||Aspleniaceae||Whole plant||HepG2 and HeLa||21|
|8||Averrhoa bilimbi||Oxalidaceae||Fruit, leaves||MCF-7||22|
|9||Azadirachta indica||Meliaceae||Leaves, seeds||EACC||23|
|10||Barleria grandiflora||Acanthaceae||Leaves||A-549 and DLA||24|
|11||Beberis aristata||Berberidaceae||Root, stem||Colo 205, Hop 62,HT 29, SiHa, MIA-PA-CIA-2, DWD, T 24, PC 3, A549, ZR 75-1, A 2780, DU 145, MC F7 and K 562||25, 26|
|12||Caesalpinia sappan||Caesalpiniaceae||Hear wood, leaves||MCF7 and A549 cell lines||27|
|13||Calligonum comosum||Polygonaceae||Whole plant||HepG2||15|
|Pinaceae||Wood||Colo 205, Hop 62,HT 29, SiHa, MIA-PA-CIA-2, DWD, T 24, PC 3, A549, ZR 75-1, A 2780, DU 145, MC F7 and K 562||25|
|15||Cenchrus ciliaris||Poaceae||Aerial parts, roots||hepG-2, CACO, and A-549||28|
|16||C. antiochia var. praealta||Asteraceae||Aerial parts||Vero and HeLa||29|
|17||Centaurea nerimaniae||Asteraceae||Aerial parts||Vero and HeLa||29|
|18||Chrysanthemum coronarium||Asteraceae||Aerial parts||MCF-7, T47D, CACO-2, HRT18, A375.S2 and WM1361A||18|
|19||Cocculus hirsutus||Menispermaceae||Aerial parts||MCF-7||30|
|21||Cotynus coggygria||Anacardiaceae||Leaves||Vero and HeLa||29|
|22||Crataegus microphylla||Rosaceae||Leaves||Vero and HeLa||29|
|23||Croton caudatus||Euphorbiaceae||Leaves||DL, MCF-7, and HeLa||32|
|24||Curcuma longa||Zingiberaceae||Rhizome||HL-60, HeLa||33|
|25||Delphinium staphisagaria||Ranunculaceae||Seeds||H5-6 and N2A||19|
|26||Dillenia pentagyna||Dillenaceae||Stem bark||DL, MCF-7 and HeLa||32|
|27||Euphorbia tirucalli||Euphorbiaceae||Leaves, stem||Mia-PaCa2||34|
|29||Ficus carica||Moraceae||Fruit, leaves, sap||MCF-7, B16F10 and HeLa||12|
|31||Helicteres isora||Sterculiaceae||Whole plant||HeLa-B75, H-60, HEP-3B and PN-15||36|
|32||Hibiscus calyphyllus||Malvaceae||Aerial parts||HepG2 and MCF-7||37|
|33||Hibiscus deflersii||Malvaceae||Aerial parts||HepG2 and MCF-7||37|
|34||Hibiscus micranthus||Malvaceae||Aerial parts||HepG2 and MCF-7||37|
|35||Hypericum kotshcyanum||Hypericaceae||Aerial parts||Vero and HeLa||29|
|36||Inula viscosa||Compositae||Flowers||MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|37||Jasmium sambac||Oleaceae||Flowers||MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|38||Lavandula angustifolia||Lamiaceae||Flowers||MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|39||Leea indica||Vitaceae||Leaves||DU-145 and PC-3||39|
|Plumbaginaceae||Shoots||human lung carcinoma A-549, colon adenocarcinoma DLD-1Cell lines||40|
|41||Luffa cylindrica||Araceae||Aerial parts||MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|Nyctaginaceae||Aerial parts, roots, stems||MCF-7 and
|45||Narcissus tazetta||Amaryllidaceae||Aerial parts, fowers||MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|46||Nepeta italica||Laminaceae||Aerial parts||Vero and HeLa||29|
|49||Olea europaea||Oleaceae||Leaves||MCF-7, B16F10 and HeLa||12|
|50||Olea europaea||Oleaceae||Leaves||Vero and HeLa||29|
|51||Ononis hirta||Fabaceae||Aerial parts||MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|52||Ononis sicula||Fabaceae||Aerial parts||MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|53||Origanum sipyleum||Laminaceae||Aerial parts||Vero and HeLa||29|
|55||Phagnalon rupstre||Asteraceae||Aerial parts||MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|56||Phyllanthus emblica||Phyllanthacae||Leaves, fruit||HT-29||44|
|Picrorhiza||Root||Colo 205, Hop 62,HT 29, SiHa, MIA-PA-CIA-2, DWD, T 24, PC 3, A549, ZR 75-1, A 2780, DU 145, MC F7 and K 562||25|
|Piperaceae||Fruit||Colo 205, Hop 62,HT 29, SiHa,
MIA-PA-CIA-2 DWD, T 24, PC 3, A549, ZR 75-1, A 2780, DU 145, MC F7 and K 562
|Piperaceae||Leaves||UACC-62, MCF7, 786-0, NCI-H460, PC-3, OVCAR-3, HT29 and K-562||45|
|Lamiaceae||Leaves, stem||MCF-7, RAW 264.7 and Caco-2 cell lines||11|
|61||Populous alba||Salicaceae||Flowers||MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|63||Rosa damascena||Rosaceae||Flowers||Vero and HeLa||29|
|MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|65||Saliva pinardi||Labiatae||Aerial parts||MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|66||Salvia hypargeia||Lamiaceae||Aerial parts||Vero and HeLa||29|
|67||Salvia officinalis||Lamiaceae||Leaves, stems||MCF-7, B16F10 and HeLa||12|
|69||Scorzonera tomentosa||Asteraceae||Aerial parts||Vero and HeLa||29|
|70||Senecio scandens||Asteraceae||Leaves||DL, MCF-7 and HeLa||32|
|71||Solanum khasianum||Solanaceae||Fruit||DL, MCF-7 and HeLa||32|
|72||S. cretica subsp. vacillans||Laminaceae||Aerial parts||Vero and HeLa||29|
|73||Syringa vulgaris||Oleaceae||Aerial parts, seeds||MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|74||Syzygium cumini||Myrtaceae||Seeds||A2780, MCF7, PC-3 and H460||47|
|75||Tabernaemontana divaricata||Apocynaceae||Flowers||NIH 3T3 and
|76||Tecoma stans||Bignoniaceae||Leaves, flowers||A549||49|
|MCF-7, B16F10 T47D, CACO-2, HRT18, A375.S2 WM1361A, Hep-2 and HeLa||12, 38|
|79||Teucrium polium||Laminaceae||Aerial parts||MCF-7,||18|
|80||Teucrium sandrasicum||Lamiaceae||Aerial parts||Vero and HeLa||29|
|81||Tillandsia recurvata||Bromeliaceae||Whole plant||A375, MCF-7 and PC-3||14|
|82||Verbascum sinaticum||Scrophulariaceae||Flowers, aerial parts||MCF-7 and Hep-2||38|
|83||Vitis vinifera||Vitaceae||Liquid sap of stem||MCF-7, B16F10 and HeLa||12|
|Solanaceae||Root, leaves, stalk, Fruit||HeLa, MCF-7, RD, RG and
|Solanaceae||Root||Colo 205, Hop 62,HT 29, SiHa, MIA-PA-CIA-2, DWD, T 24, PC 3, A549, ZR 75-1, A 2780, DU 145, MC F7 & K 562||25|
CONCLUSION: In this review paper, the anticancer properties of various plants were analyzed in a broad spectrum. From this analysis, it is well understood that even locally available plants which all come across in day-to-day life can cure many deadly diseases and capacity to cure many deadly diseases and disorders. The in-vitro anticancer analysis is the basic step for identification of the anticancer potentials of the plants. Followed by the in-vitro studies, further studies such as preclinical and clinical studies can be carried out in detail. In the future, by understanding the importance of these plants and by utilizing their properties, further research can be carried out for drug discovery to reduce the viability of diseases.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: We acknowledge the support of Department of Biotechnology, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur, Tamil Nadu, India.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors declared no conflict of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Saranya K, Manivasagan V, Kanakadurga R, Babu VPM and Babu NGR: A survey on anticancer properties of Indian medicinal plants - A broad spectrum analysis. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2019; 10(8): 3635-40. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(8).3635-40.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
K. Saranya, V. Manivasagan, R. Kanakadurga, V. P. M. Babu * and N. G. R. Babu
Department of Biotechnology, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering (Autonomous), Hosur, Tamil Nadu, India.
15 November 2018
17 February 2019
28 February 2019
01 August 2019