AN UPDATED PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF COCCINIA INDICA (WIGHT & ARN.)HTML Full Text
AN UPDATED PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF COCCINIA INDICA (WIGHT & ARN.)
Mayank Kumar*1, Shashi Alok 1, Dilip Kumar Chanchal 1, Rohit Kumar Bijauliya 1, Rahul Deo Yadav 2 and Monika Sabharwal 3
Department of Pharmacognosy 1, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi - 284128, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Department of Pharmacy 2, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad- 211001, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 3, Panchkula Haryana, India.
ABSTRACT: Traditional system of medicine consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Coccinia indica belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. It is a rapidly growing, perennial climber or trailing vine. Traditionally different parts of this plant namely the roots, leaves and fruits are used in folklore medicine for several purposes like jaundice, diabetes, wound healing, ulcers, stomach ache, skin disease, fever, asthma, cough. The leaf and its constituents have been reported to possess anthelmintic activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity, antimicrobial activity, antihyper-glycemic activity, hepatoproetcective activity. This review provides adequate information to develop suitable therapeutics out of these plant parts.
Antidiabetic activity, Antibacterial activity, Coccinia indica (Ivy Gourd)
INTRODUCTION: Plants had been used for medicinal purposes long before recorded history. Ancient Chinese and Egyptian papyrus writings describe medicinal uses for plants as early as 3,000 BC. Indigenous cultures (such as African and Native American) used herbs in their healing rituals, while others developed traditional medical systems (such as Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine) in which herbal therapies were used. Researchers found that people in different parts of the world tended to use the same or similar plants for the same purposes.
In the early 19th century, when chemical analysis first became available, scientists began to extract and modify the active ingredients from plants. Later, chemists began making their own version of plant compounds and, over time, the use of herbal medicines declined in favor of drugs. Almost one fourth of pharmaceutical drugs are derived from botanicals.
Recently, the World Health Organization estimated that 80% of people worldwide rely on herbal medicines for some part of their primary health care. In Germany, about 600 - 700 plant based medicines are available and are prescribed by some 70% of German physicians. In the past 20 years in the United States, public dissatisfaction with the cost of prescription medications, combined with an interest in returning to natural or organic remedies, has led to an increase in herbal medicine use 1. There are many herbal products proved to be having good antidiabetic potential. Coccinia indica (Bimba, kanduri, Cucurbitaceae) is famous for its hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties in Ayurvedic system of medicine. (Fig. 1) Coccinia indica, the ivy gourd, also knownas baby watermelon, little gourd, gentleman's toes, tindora or gherkin (inaccurately) is a tropical vine. It is also known as Cephalandra indica 2. It is indigenous to Bengal and other parts of India. C. indica grows abundantly all over India, Tropical Africa, Australia, Fiji and throughout the oriental countries.
The plant has also been used extensively in Ayurvedic and Unani practice in the Indian subcontinent 3. Seeds or fragments of the vine can be relocated and lead to viable offspring. This can occur when humans transport organic debris or equipment containing C. grandis. Once the ivy gourd is established, it is presumably spread by birds, rats, and other mammals.
In Hawaii, it has been suggested that the fruit may be dispersed by pigs 4. Long-distance dispersal is most commonly carried out by humans due to its culinary uses or by mistake. In certain parts of the U.S., the ivy gourd is known as Rashmato (singular) or Rashmati (plural). Some people have begun using the plural term Rashmatoes, since it is sounds more like potatoes or tomatoes. In parts of the Caribbean it is known as lizard food.
FIG. 1: COCCINIA INDICA (ADOPTED FROM FLORA-EXOTICA)
1.1. Coccinia Indica Wight & Arn:
Cephalandra, Physedra, Staphylosyce
Sub family: Cucurbitoideae
Sub tribe: Benincasinae
Genus: Coccinia Wight & Arn.
Species: Coccinia indica
1.2 Morphological Profile: 5
Leaves: Leaves are 5-10 cm, long and broad, bright green above, paler beneath, studded and sometimes rough with papillae, palmately 5-nerved from a cordate base, often with circular glands between the nerves, obtusely 5-angled or sometimes deeply 5-lobed, the lobes broad, obtuse or acute, apiculate, more or less sinuate toothed, petioles 2 - 3.2 cm. long.
Flowers: Male flowers: Peduncles are 2 - 3.8cm. long and subfiliform. Calyx-tube is glabrous, broadly campanulate 4 -5 mm. long. Corolla is 2.5 cm. long, veined, pubescent inside and glabrous outside. Female flowers: Peduncles are 1.3 - 2.5cm. long. Ovary is fusiform, glabrous and slightly ribbed.
Fruits: Fruits are fusiform-ellipsoid, slightly beaked, 2.5-5by 1.3-2.5 cm. sized, marked when immature with white streaks, bright scarlet when fully ripe.
Seeds: Seeds are obovoid and rounded at the apex, slightly papillose, much compressed and yellowish grey.
Roots: The fresh root is thick, tuberous, long tapering, more or less tortuous with a few fibrous rootlets attached to it. Roots are flexible, soft and break with a fibrous fracture. A transaction of root shows circular outline and is characteristic of storage type. Parenchyma is full of starch grains and thorough permeation of parenchyma with vascular elements is observed. The cork is composed of rows of cells.
Cultivation: Coccinia indica is a well-known vegetable grown in the coastal which is high in nutritive value. The ripe fruit which is red in color is a well-known anti diabetic & is being exported to many countries for this purpose.
Vegetable farming method is widely used for its cultivation. Both physical and chemical recommended for weed control. Hand-harvesting normally does not kill the plant but rather breaks the vine blankets into smaller pieces and the plant is able to re-establish when it touches the ground. These methods can make the infestation worse and further the need for more rigorous control methods. Picking the fruit and placing them in plastic bags can help decrease the seed back that is present with the soil. When utilizing chemical controls, that ivy gourd responded well to a thin-lined bark application of 100% Garlon 4 (triclopyr), leaving plants in place so as not to translocate the herbicide or spread the pest 6, 7.
Chemical Constituents: Plant contains resins, alkaloids, fatty acids, flavonoids and proteins as chief chemical constituents. Aspartic acid, Glutamic Acid, Asparagine, Tyrosine, Histidine, Phenylalanine and Threonine, Valine, Arginine are also found. The methenolic extract of fruit contains alkaloids, steroids, tannins, saponins, ellagic acid, phenols, glycosides, lignans and triterpenoids 8.
Roots containes Triterpenoid, saponincoccinioside, Flavonoid glycoside ombuin 3-o- arabino furanoside, Lupeol, β-amyrin and β- sitosterol and Stigmast -7- en-3-one 9 - 11. (Table 1)
TABLE 1: PHYTOCHEMICAL REVIEW OF PLANT COCCINIA INDICA
|Plant part||Constituent reported|
|Roots 21 - 25||Triterpenoid, saponin coccinioside – k(i). C41H66O12|
|Flavonoid glycoside ombuin 3-o- arabinofuranoside|
|3- o- β- (α-l- arabinopyranosyl)-(1→2) –β-d-glucopyranosyl- (1→3)- β- hydroxylup – 20(29)- en-28- oic acid.|
|Lupeol, β-amyrin and β- sitosterol|
|Stigmast -7- en-3-one|
|Fruits 26 - 29||Taraxerone, taraxerol, and (24R)-24- ethylcholest- 5- en- 3β- ol glucoside|
|Β- carotene, lycopene, cryptoxanthin, and apo- 6’- lycopenal|
|Β- sitosterol and taraxerol|
|Aerial parts 30 - 31||Heptacosane, Cephalandrol, C29H58O tritriacontane C33H68|
|Β- sitosterol alkaloids Cephalandrine a and Cephalandrine b|
|Whole plant 32||Aspartic acid, Glutamic Acid, Asparagine, Tyrosine, Histidine, Phenylalanine and Threonine Valine Arginine|
Medicinal Uses: The plant has wide spread medicinal uses as shown in Fig. 2. Many clinical trial studies has proven effectiveness and safety of this plant parts and derived formulations for antidiabetic effect. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of fruit and leaves were also found to be significant.
FIG. 2: MEDICINAL USE OF COCCINIA INDICA
4.1. Anthelmintic Activity: Methanol extract of Coccinia indica fruits in the concentration of 50 mg/ml showed potent anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma 12.
4.2. Antioxidant activity: Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Coccinia indica (leaf) extract (CLEt) (200 mg/kg body weight) for 45 days resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides in rats 13.
4.3. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic activity: Aqueous extract of Coccinia indica (leaves) produced marked analgesic and antipyretic activity at 300mg/kg dose when compared with standard drugs (Morphine and Paracetamol). The extract also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 14. The activity was measured using tail flick model and yeast induced hyperpyrexia. The effect was equivalent to 25 mg/Kg dose of diaclofenac.
4.4. Antimicrobial Activity: Petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Coccinia indica showed the highest antimicrobial activity against gram positive organisms (Bacillus cereus, S. pyrogens and S. aureus) 15. Ethanol and aqueous extracts of Coccinia indica showed promising antibacterial activity against the E. aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhimurium by agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method.
4.5. Antihyperglycemic Activity: Chronic administration of Coccinia indica (fruits) extract at dose of 200mg/kg for 14 days reduces the blood glucose level of the diabetes induced animals as compared to diabetic control group 16. Dried extract of Whole plant was utilized. Ingredients present in the extract act like insulin, correcting the elevated enzymes G-6-P (ase), LDH in glycolytic pathway and restore the LPL activity in lypolytic pathway with the control of hyperglycemia in diabetes 17, 18.
4.6. Hepatoproetcective Activity: Coccinia indica leave extract at dose 400 mg/kg bodyweight showed potent hepatoproetcective activity in albino rats 19. Sylimarin was utilized as positive control. Reduction in SGPT and SGOT was observed 20. The other updated pharmacological studied done on Coccinia indica are mention Table 2 below:
TABLE 2: PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF COCCINIA INDICA
|S. no.||Activity /Year||Model||Plant Part||Remark|
|1||Antidiabetic activity 34 (1992)||Alloxan diabetic
|95% ethanolic extracts
|Found to be active
|2||Antidiabetic activity 35 (2008)||Streptozotocin included diabetic rats||n-hexane extract||Found to be active|
|3||Antidiabetic activity with testicular disorders 36 (2007)||Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rat For Testicular Dysfunctions||Formulation of Musa paradisiacal, Tamarindus indica, E. jambolana and Coccinia indica||Found to be active|
|4||Antidiabetic activity 37 (2003)
|Normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats.
|Leaves||Evaluated for effect on blood glucose, plasma insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids and fatty acid compound. Of total lipids in liver, kidney and brain|
|5||Antidiabetic activity 38 (1953)
|Found to be active
|6||Antidiabetic activity 39 (1998)
|Normal and Streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats
|Leaves||Lowered blood glucose by depressing its synthesis, on the one hand though depression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6- biphosphatase and on the other by enhancing glucose oxidation by the shunt pathway through activation of its principal enzymes G6PDH|
|7||Hypoglycemic activity 40 (1963)
|Normal rats||Pectin isolated
from the fruit
|Glycogen synthetase activity was highly significant significant redn. in phosphorylase activity|
|8||Hypoglycemic activity 41 (1963)||Normal rats
|Found to be active|
|MOA of hypoglycemic
activity 42 (1993)
|Glucose tolerance test
|Alcoholic extarct of Coccinia indica (100mg/kg.),
|May be due to indirect stimulation of insulin secretion or to retardation of glucose absorption. Use of these drugs|
activity 43 (1972)
|Alcoholic and aqueous extract of root powder||Found to be active|
|11||Clinical trial in type 2 diabetic patients 44 (1979)||Double- blind, placebo- controlled, randomized trial||Alcoholic extract
of the herb
|Have potential hypoglycemic action in patients with mild diabetes|
|12||Clinical trial in diabetic
patients 45 (2008)
|Dried extract of
in the extract
|13||Antidiabetic activity 46 (1985)||Dog
|Dried extract of
|Found to be active
|14||Antioxidant activity 47 (2003)||Streptozotocin- diabetic rats||Ethanolic extract
|Found to be active|
activity 48 (2004)
|Carrageenin and histamine induced
|Fruit juice powder||Found to be active
activity 48 (2004)
|Writhing induced by acetic acid in mice||fruit juice powder||Found to be active|
|17||Post- and pre- treatment anti-inflammatory activity 49 (2009)||Carrageenan- induced paw oedema method||Aqueous extract of
|Found to be active
activity 49 (2009)
|Tail flick model
|Aqueous extract of
|Found to be active
|19||Antipyretic activity 49 (2009)||Yeast- induced hyperpyrexia in rats||Aqueous extract of
|Found to be active
|20||Larvicidal activity 50 (2008)
|Early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (say) (Diptera: Culicidae).||Hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of the leaf Citrullus colocynthis, C. indica||Found to be active
|21||Hypolipidemic activity 51 (1997)||Streptozotocin-
|Ethanolic extract of leaves||Found to be active|
|22||Hepatoprotective activity 52 (2003)||CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats||Ethanolic extract of fruits||Found to be active
|23||Antituberculosis activity 53 (1958)||Experimental tuberculosis in Guinea pigs||Extract of fruit
|Found to be active
|24||Sex mechanism 54 (1952)||Critical cytological investigation of different sex types||Flower||Found to be active|
|25||Antigibberellins 55 (1973)||Proliferated tissue||Seed||Found to be active|
|Gall formation due to attack of the larvae||Stem||Found to be active|
specific lectin 57(1994)
|Coccinia indica agglutinin (CIA)||Chitooligo saccharide-specific lectin with
two binding sites
|Found to be active|
|28||Coccinia indica agglutinin(CIA) by thermodynamic
analyses 58 (1998)
|Fruit||Found to be active|
Activity 59 (2001)
|CCl4 Liver function||Light petroleum, alcohol, extracts of the leaves||Found to have
|30||Treatment of diabetes 60 (2003)||Lipid profile of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced albino rats||Leaves water extract||Treatment of Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats, the
fasting blood sugar came down to almost normal value and improvement in glucose tolerance
and serum lipid profile
activity 61 (2004)
|Injecting alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally||Fruit / The dried alcoholic extract were a semisolid mass and were successively extracted with toluene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol.||The results of the present study indicate that the toluene fraction was the only active fraction. The active principles in this fraction were found to be triterpenes which may be responsible for the antidiabetic activity|
|32||The stimulation of glucose transport in L8 myotubes 62 (2006)||Glucose transport induced||Stem||Triterpenoids and carbohydrates were detected in water extract|
mellitus 63 (2008)
|Administering streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally||Leaves||Leaves extract significantly lowered blood glucose level|
|34||Boon to Vegetable 64 (2008)||The quality parameters of DRC-1||Fruit||Investigation, DRC-1 genotype was found|
|35||Antimicrobial activity 65 (2009)||Well diffusion method||Fruit / organic extracts (petroleum ether and methanol) showed the highest activity||Activity was more pronounced on gram-positive organisms with Staphylococcus aureus being more Susceptible and Salmonella paratyphi|
|36||Antibacterial Activity 66 (2010)||Agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method.||The aqueous and organic solvent (Petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) extracts from the leaves
|Ehanol and aqueous
Extracts were found to have a more potent inhibitory effect comparing with the
|37||Mucilage Extract as
coagulant for water
treatment 67 (2010)
|Coagulation-filtration test||Fruit mucilage extract||Mucilage extract was
found to be effective in the treatment of high turbid waters
|38||Antdiabetic effect 68 (2010)||Alloxan induced diabetic rats||Aqueous fruit extract||Found to be active|
|39||Hepatoprotective activity 69 (2010)||Carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in rats||Diethyl ether extract
of the leaves
|Comparable with standard
Treatment 125 mg/kg body weight of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug
|40||Pharmacognostic and antihyperglycemic study 70 (2010)||Post -hoc Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test||Aqueous and ethanolic fruits extracts||Whole fruit extract shows significant anti diabetic activity|
|41||Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity 71(2011)||Paralysis (P) and death (D) for P. posthuma worms||Fruits/petroleum ether, ethyl acetate methanol and water as solvents||Methanolic extract exhibited more anthelmintic activity|
|42||Mucilage as suspending agent in paracetamol suspension 72 (2011)
CI mucilage has the potential as a
suspending agent even at lower concentration
|Fruits||Obtained mucilage is
Partially soluble in water and easily soluble in acetone
|43||Protective effect 73 (2011)
|Alcohol combines with CCl4 and Paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity||Leaf extracts||Leaf extract protected the liver from alcohol-CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatic damage|
activities 74 (2012)
|CCl4 induced hepatotoxic Changes in male albino wistar rats,||Isolated from ethanolic fruits extracts and Leaves||On hepatic liver peroxide, liver weight and antioxidant enzyme activities with reference to the control and standard hepatoprotective agent
|45||Combined effect 75 (2012)||Blood glucose level and certain other biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats.||Leaves
|Intra-peritoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate produced significant increase in serum glucose levels|
|46||Proximate analysis, Phytochemical screening and Anti inflammatory activity 76 (2012)
|Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was used as the animal model of acute inflammation||Whole plant
Investigation, petroleum ether extract, 60% methanolic extract and aqueous extracts
|47||Wound healing activity 77 (2011)||Wound model and wound model||Ethanol and aqueous
|Significant promotion of wound healing activity|
|Studies on anti-stress
and free radical scavenging activity 78 (2010)
|Swimming performance time
test in mice Post Swimming Motor
|Ethanolic extract of
Antistress and Free Radical Scavenging activity
|49||Effect of leaf essential oil on
egg hatchability and different larval 79 (2010)
|Egg hatching inhibition concentration||Leaf essential oil||Possessed excellent larvicidal and egg hatching inhibition activity against A. stephensi|
|50||Antilithiatic activity 80 (2013)||Male albino rats||Fruit||Found to be active|
|51||Ovicidal and Repellent
Properties 81 (2011)
efficacy was determined against three mosquito
species at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 mg/cm
|Leaves extract, Methanol extract have most promising ovicidal
|On repellent effects of
leaf extract was reported in the present study,
confirm their potential for control of the mosquito
Study 82 (2011)
|Swiss albino mice
|Root||This study is not a complete toxicity study. It emphasizes the call for carrying out toxicity studies even in natural plant products and drug of indigenous medicinal
|53||Anticonvulsant activity 83 (2013)||Male albino rats||Fruit||Found to be active|
CONCLUSION: The multiple benefits of Coccinia indica it a true miracle of nature. Numerous studies have been conducted on different parts of Coccinia indica, this plant has yet developed as a drug by pharmaceutical industries. A detailed and systematic study is required for identification, cataloguing and documentation of plants, which may provide a meaningful way for the promotion of the traditional knowledge of the herbal medicinal plant.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors are grateful to Dr. Shashi Alok Assistant Professor in Department of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi, India for providing the his valuable guidance.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
- Herbal medicine. University of Maryland Medical Center 2013; umm. edu/ health/medical/altmed/treatment/herbal-medicine#ixzz2Z7AEwGNW 4.
- Porcher MH: Sorting Coccinia names. University of melborn 2006; 8.
- Wealth of India. A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products. Raw materia, New Delhi 1992; 312.
- Artemis P, Imopoulos S and Gopalan C: Plants in Human Health and Nutrition Policy: Karger Publishers; 2003.
- Kirtikar KR and Basu BD: Indian Medicinal Plant. Bishwas Singh, Nirali prakasan, Dehradun, 2005; 2: 1151 - 4.
- Invasive plant species: Coccinia grandis. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk 2003:
- Wikipedia A. Coccinia grandis. enwikipediaorg/wiki/Coccinia_grandis 2013.
- Tamilselvan N, Thirumalai T, Elumalai EK, Balaji R and David E: Pharmacognosy of Coccinia grandis: a review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2011: S299-S302.
- Vaishnav MM, Jain P, Jogi SR and Gupta KR: Coccinioside-K, triterpenoid saponin from Coccinia indica. Oriental Journal of Chemistry 2001; 17: 465-8.
- Vaishnav MM and Gupta KR: Ombuin 3-O-arabino furanoside from Coccinia indica. Fitoterapia 1996; 67: 80.
- Khastgir HN, Choudhuri S and Sen P: Roots of Coccinia indica. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society 1958; 35: 905-6.
- Shivhare Y, Soni P, Singh P, Dangi S and Baghel S: Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Coccinia indica (fruits). J Chem Pharm Res 2011; 3: 488-91.
- Venkateswaran S and Pari L. Effect of Coccinia indica leaves on antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of ethanopharmacology 2003; 84: 163-8.
- Niazi J, Singh P and Bansal Y: Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic activity of aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Coccinia indica. Inflammopharmacology 2009; 17: 239- 44.
- Syed ZS, Bolla K, Kandukuri V and Singara CMA: Antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts of Coccinia indica. African Journal of Biotechnology 2009; 8: 7073-6.
- Gunjan M, Jana KG, Jha AK and Mishra U: Pharmacognsotic and Antihyperglycemic study of Coccinia indica. International Journal of Phytomedicine 2010; 2: 36-40.
- Kuriyan R, Rajendran R and Bantwal G: Effect of supplementation of Coccinia cordifolia extract on newly detected diabetic patients. Diabetes care 2008; 31: 216-20.
- Singh N, Singh SP, Vrat S, Misra N, Dixit K and Kohli RP: A study on the anti-diabetic activity of Coccinia indica in dogs. Indian journal of medical sciences 1985; 39: 27-9.
- Shyam DBK, Gnanasekaran V and Jaishree KP: Hepatoprotective activity of Coccinia indica leaves Int J Pharm Biomed Res 2010; 1: 154-6.
- Vinothkumar P, Sivaraj A, Elumalai EK and Senthilkumar B: Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats-protective role of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2009; 1: 1612 - 5.
- Vaishnav MM, Jain Praveen Jogi SR and Gupta, KR: Coccinioside-K, triterpenoid saponin from Coccinia indica. Oriental Journal of Chemistry. 2001; 17(3): 465-468.
- Vaishnav MM and Gupta KR: “Ombuin 3-O-arabinofuranoside from Coccinia indica”, Fitoterapia, 1996; 67(1): 80.
- Vaishnav, MM and Gupta KR: A new saponin from Coccinia indica Fitoterapia, 1995; 66(6): 546-7.
- Khastgir HN, Choudhuri SN, Gupta and Pasupati S: Roots of Coccinia indica. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 1958; 35: 905-6.
- Sucrow, Wolfgang and Reimerdes A: 7-Sterols from Cucurbitaceae Biologie. 1968; 23(1): 42-5.
- Kundu S and Ray AB: Chemical examination of Coccinia indica fruits Journal of the Indian Chemical Society.1987; 64(12): 776-7.
- Barua AB and Goswami: “Carotenoids of Cephalandra indica”, Current Science, 1979; 48(14): 630-2.
- Basu K and Ghosh BK: “Chemical investigation of Coccinia indica”, Transactions of the Bose Research Institute (Calcutta), 1972; 35(2): 43-4.
- Bhakuni DS, Srivastava SN, Sharma VN and Kaul KN: Chemical examination of the fruits of Coccinia indica Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Section B: Physical Sciences, 1962; 21B, 237-8.
- Khaleque A, Miah and MA Wahed: Chemical investi-gations on Cephalandra indica Constituents of dry aerial parts. Sci Res (Dacca, Pakistan), 1968; 5(1): 71-2.
- Qudrat-i-Khuda M, Khaleque KA and Miah MAW: Chemical investigations on Cephalandra indica. I Constituents of dry aerial parts”, Dacca, Sci. Res. (Dacca, Pakistan), 1965; 2(1/2): 27-31.
- Dhargalkar IM and Guha SK: Nutritional values of Indian vegetables. J. Proc. Inst. of Chemists 1959; (31): 109-12.
- Rahman M Mahbubur, Chowdhury, Tofail A and Mosihuzzaman, Mohammed: “Analysis of water- and alkali-soluble polysaccharides of Coccinia indica (Telakucha) plant. Journal of the Bangladesh Chemical Society. 1990; 3(2): 199-204.
- Hossain MZ, Shibib BA and Rahman R: Hypoglycemic effects of Coccinia indica: inhibition of key gluconeogenic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase, Indian journal of experimental biology. 1992; 30(5): 418-20.
- Shakya VK: Antidiabetic activity of Coccinia indica in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2008; 20(8): 6479-6482.
- Mallick C, Mandal S, Barik BB, Atanu and Ghosh D: Protection of testicular dysfunctions by MTEC, a formulated herbal drug, in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2007; 30(1): 84-90.
- Pari L and Venkateswaran S: Protective effect of Coccinia indica on changes in the fatty acid composition in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Pharmazie, 2003; 58(6): 409 - 412.
- Mukerji B: Effect of Coccinia indica on alloxan diabetes in rabbits Journal of Medical Sciences.1953; (7): 665-72.
- Kamble SM, Kamlakar PL, Vaidya S and Bambole VD: Influence of Coccinia indica on certain enzymes in glycolytic and lipolytic pathway in human diabetes, Indian journal of medical sciences. 1998 52(4): 143-6.
- Gupta SS: Pituitary diabetes III. Effect of indigenous antidiabetic drugs against the acute hyperglycemic response of anterior pituitary exatrct in gluose fed albino rats, Indian J. Med. Res.1963; 51(4): 716-24.
- Brahmachari HD and Augusti KT: Orally effective hypoglycemic principles from Coccinia indica, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.1963; 15(6): 411-12.
- Kumar G Presanna Sudheesh S and Vijayalakshmi NR: Hypoglycemic effect of Coccinia indica mechanism of action, Planta Medica. 1993; 59(4): 330-2.
- Mukherjee Kaveri, Ghosh NC and Datta Tapan: Coccinia indica as a potential hypoglycemic agent, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1972; 10(5): 347-9.
- Azad Khan AK, Akhtar S and Mahtab H: Coccinia indica in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus, Bangladesh Medical Research Council bulletin. 1979; 5(2): 60-6.
- Kuriyan Rebecca, Rajendran Ramaswamy, Bantwal Ganapathi, Kurpad and Anura V: Effect of supplementation of Coccinia cordifolia extract on newly detected diabetic patients, Diabetes care. 2008; 31(2): 216-20.
- Singh N, Singh SP, Vrat S, Misra N, Dixit K and Kohli RP: A study on the anti-diabetic activity of Coccinia indica in dogs, Indian journal of medical sciences. 1985; 39(2): 27-9.
- Venkateswaran S and Pari L: Effect of Coccinia indica leaves on antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2003; 84(2-3): 163-8.
- Rao GM, Rao V, Sudhakara M, Pandey MM, Rawat AKS, Sirwaikar A and Joshi, AB: Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Coccinia indica & A. fruit juice powder in animal, Natural Product Sciences. 2004; 10(1): 20-23.
- Niazi Junaid, Singh Parabhdeep, Bansal, Yogita and Goel RK: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Coccinia indica, Inflammopharmacology. 2009; 17(4): 239-44.
- Rahuman AA and Venkatesan P: Larvicidal efficacy of five cucurbitaceous plant leaf extracts against mosquito species. Parasitology research. 2008; 103(1): 133-9.
- Kumar G, Presanna, Sudheesh S, Ushakumari B, Valsa AK, Vijayakumar S, Sandhya C and Vijayalakshmi NR: A comparative study on the hypolipidemic activity of eleven different pectins, Journal of Food Science and Technology.1997; 34(2): 103-107.
- Rao GM Mohana, Vijayakumar M, RaoCh V, Rawat AKS and Mehrotra S: “Hepatoprotective effect of coccinia indica against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity”, Natural Product Sciences. 2003; 9(1): 13-17.
- Mukerji B and Gupta SK: Indigenous drugs in experimental tuberculosis Chemotherapy Proc Symposiusm Lucknow. 1958; 90-101.
- Kumar LSS and Viseveshwaraiah S: Sex mechanism in Coccinia indica Wight and Arn. 1952; 170 (4321): 330-33.
- Guha J and Sen SP: Antigibberellins of the Cucurbitaceae. Nature new biology. 1973;244: 223-224.
- Unni PN, Raghavan P and Philip VJ: A Histopathological Study of Anomalous Growth in the Stem of Coccinia indica & A. Infested with Neolasioptera cephalandrae Mani, Ann Bot 1976; 40 (3): 493-497.
- Sanadi AR and Surolia A: Studies on a chitooligo-saccharide-specific lectin from Coccinia indica. Thermo-dynamics and kinetics of umbelliferyl glycoside binding. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1994; 269: 5072-5077.
- Ashok R Sanadi, Vellareddy and Avadhesha S: Elucidation of the combining site of Coccinia indica agglutinin (CIA) by thermodynamic analyses of its ligand binding Pure & Chem.1998; 70(3): 677-686.
- Gopal Krishnan V, Rao KNV, Devi M, Paadmaha N, Manjuakshmi LP, Srividya T and Vadivukarasi G: Antihepatotoxic activity of Coccinia indica. Ancient Science of Life. 2001; 21(1): 1- 4.
- Halim M E: Effect of Coccinia indica (L.) and Abroma augusta (L) on glycemia, lipid Profile and on indicators of ends-organ damage in streptozotocin indused diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 2003; 18 (2): 54-63.
- Dhanabal SP, Koate CK, Ramanathan M, Elango K and Suresh B: The hypoglycemic activity of Coccinia indicaWight & Arn. and its influence on certain biochemical parameters. Indian J Pharmacol 2004; 36: 249-50.
- Purintrapiban J, Niwat K and Chaweewan J: Role of the water extract from Coccinia indica stem on the stimulation of glucose transport in L8 myotubes. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 2006; 28(6): 1199-1208.
- Amanullah A, Mostofa M, Ahmed BS and Das AR Comparative efficacy of Coccinia indica leaves and Amaryl(R) Tablet (Glimepiride) in induced diabetes mellitus in rat Bangladesh Agril. Univ. 2008; 6(2): 335-339.
- Dharmatti PR, Patil RV, Patil SS and Athani S: A new Coccinia (Coccinia indica) Variety DRC-1, a Boon to Vegetable Growers. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 2008; 21(1):99-103.
- Syed SZ, Krishna B, Kandukuri, V and Singara CMA: Antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts of Coccinia indica. African Journal of Biotechnology 2009; 8 (24): 7073-7076.
- Arshad H, Shadma W, Iffat Z and Sarfaraj HMD: Antibacterial Activity of the Leaves of Coccinia indica (W. and A) W of India. Advances in Biological Research 2010; 4 (5): 241-248.
- Punita P and Varsha P: A preliminary study on Coccinia indica fruit mucilage extract as coagulant-flocculant for turbid water treatment. Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 2010; 18: 27- 30.
- Rajesh P, Manish K, Dharmendra K S, Mahesh C and Deepmala V: Antidiabetic effect of Morinda citrifolia and Coccinia indica in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Advances in Bioresearch 2010; 1(1): 75-77.
- Shyam BK, Gnanasekaran D, Jaishree V and Channabasavaraj KP: Hepatoprotective activity of Coccinia indica leaves extract. Int J Pharm Biomed Res. 2010; 1(4): 154-156.
- Manish G, Goutam KJ, Jha AK and Umashanker M: Pharmacognostic antihyperglycemic study of Coccinia indica. International Journal of Phytomedicine 2010; 2: 36-40.
- Yogesh S, Prashant S, PriyaS, Sonal D and Sourabh SB: Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Coccinia indica (fruits). Chem. Pharm. Res. 2011; 3(1): 488- 491.
- Ushasri B, Kiranmai M and Ibrahim M: Evaluation of Coccinia indica Mucilage as suspending agent in paracetamol. International Journal of Drug Formulation and Research 2011; 2(6): 237-247.
- Maheswari C, Babu P and Meenakshi: Protective effect of Coccinia indica leaf extract against alcohol combined with carbon tetra chloride and paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2011; 2(10): 2660-2664.
- Shivaji PG and Chandrashekar Rao MV: Antihepatotoxic Activities of Ci Compound β Sitosterol Isolated from Fruits and Leaves of Coccinia indica. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research 2012; 46(1): 4 - 8.
- Versha P, Akanksha S, Ishan D and Deepak K: Combined effect of Coccinia indica (Wight &Arn) and Salvadora oleoides (Decne) on blood glucose level and other risk factors associated with Type-2 diabetes mellitus in alloxan induced diabetic. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 4(4): 79-84.
- Sumana C and Aritra C: Proximate analysis, phytochemical screening and anti inflammatory activity of Coccinia indica. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences 2012; 2(3): 299-304.
- Bambal VC, Wyawahare NS, Turaska AO and Deshmukh TA: Evaluation of wound healing activity of herbal gel containing the fruit extract of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2011; 3(4): 319-324.
- Margret C, Vankateswarlu BS, Gangwar RK, Sampath kumar KP: Studies on anti-stress and free radical scavenging activity of whole plant of Coccinia indica Int R J Pharm Sci. 2010; 1(1): 50-54.
- Sankaran RK, Arulsamy J and Rajarathinavelu N: Effect of leaf essential oil of Coccinia indica on egg hatchability and different larval instars of malarial mosquito Anopheles stephensi, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2011; 4(12): 948–
- Kumar M, Alok S, Jain SK and Verma A: In-vivo study of antilithiatic activity on the fruits extracts of Coccinia indica (Wight & Arn.) Ethylene glycol induced lithiatic in rats. Int J Pharmacognosy, 2014; 1(1): 51-58.
- Yogesh S , Sourabh SB, Sonal D, Prashant S and Priya S: Acute Toxicity Study of Aqueous Extract of Coccinia indica (Roots). Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2011; 1(1): 23-25.
- Govindranjan M: Ovicidal and repellent properties of Coccinia indica Wight and Arn. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) against three important vector mosquitoes. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2011; 15: 1010-1019.
- Kumar M, Alok S, Jain SK and Verma A: In-vitro study of anticonvulsant activity on the fruits extracts of Coccinia indica (Wight & Arn.) induced maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model in rats. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013; 4(11): 4319-24.
How to cite this article:
Kumar M, Alok S, Chanchal DK, Bijauliya RK, Yadav RD and Sabharwal M: An updated pharmacological activity of Coccinia indica (Wight & Arn.). Int J Pharm Sci Res 2018; 9(2): 456-65.doi:10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.9(2).456-65.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
M. Kumar*, S. Alok, D. K. Chanchal, R. K. Bijauliya, R. D. Yadav and M. Sabharwal
Department of Pharmacognosy , Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
04 April, 2017
21 January, 2018
01 February, 2018