ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. (CUSTARD APPLE): AN AROMATIC MEDICINAL PLANT FRUIT WITH IMMENSE NUTRACEUTICAL AND THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALSAbstract
Alterative medication and natural remedies have been used from ancient time for the treatment and wellbeing of human. Medicinal plants are considered to be effective and for most important for the human health. Some of the natural medicinal plants are so common that we use them in daily life without knowing their medicinal importance. Annona squamosa belonging to the family Annonaceae is the best example of it. It is a multipurpose tree with edible fruits. Its fruits are commonly known as custard apple which is eatable. The pulp can be used as flavouring in ice cream. Between 50-80% of the fruit is edible. The Vitamin C content is appreciable (35-42 mg/100 g) and slightly higher than in grapefruit. The nutrient value of thiamine, potassium and dietary fiber is also significant. It is reported to contain various chemical compounds such as alkaloid, isomeric hydroxyl ketones from leaf, acetogenin, samaquasine, annonacin and annonastatin from seeds, acetogenin, squamone from bark of it. Various studies have been reported as an antibacterial, antidiabetic, antitumor, anti-malarial, anthelmintic, anti-genotoxic potential and hepatoprotective activity. The leaves are used as a vermicide, for treating cancerous tumors, also applied to abscesses, insect bites and other skin complaints. The crushed leaves were sniffed to overcome the hysteria and fainting spells, and they were also applied on the ulcers and wounds. Scrapings of root-bark are used for toothache. Powdered seeds are used to kill head-lice and fleas but care should be taken that the powder does not come in contact with the eyes as this causes great pain. The crude extracts of different parts and pure isolated phytoconstituents of its fruits was reported to acquire anti-diabetic, antiviral, antioxidant activity, respiratory stimulant, during pregnancy and diuretics properties, very useful for the improvement of the immune system, nervous system and also for the development of the brain in the fetus. Sitaphal can be the most effective remedy of choice for various diseases and this new research will definitely help mankind to lead a disease free and healthy life.
M. Zahid *, M. Mujahid, P. K. Singh, S. Farooqui, K. Singh, S. Parveen and M. Arif
Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
18 June, 2017
28 October, 2017
17 January, 2018
01 May, 2018