CADMIUM BIOREMEDIATION: A REVIEWHTML Full Text
CADMIUM BIOREMEDIATION: A REVIEW
Sneh Lata 1, Hemant Preet Kaur 1 and Tulika Mishra * 2
University Institute of Biotechnology 1, Chandigarh University, Gharuan - 140413, Punjab, India.
Xavier University 2, School of Medicine, Aruba.
ABSTRACT: The Increase in industrialization has raised the levels of heavy metal pollution in the country. Heavy metals are entering through the water supply, which is ultimately reaching into streams, lakes, rivers, and groundwater. So, ultimately, these heavy metals are causing environmental pollution, which is becoming a threat to humans as well as animals as the heavy metal pollution is linked with various life-threatening diseases as discussed below. It is very difficult to remove these potent and hazardous metals from the environment as they cannot be degraded chemically and biologically. Bioremediation offers an economical approach to remove these contaminants. Bioremediation uses both live microorganisms as well as plants (Phytoremediation) for the removal of heavy metals. Among toxic heavy metals, cadmium is one such metal which is harmful to flora and fauna. The study shows the present concrete scenario as well as the previous findings in this field of remediation of potent heavy metals, especially cadmium, which is very hazardous.
Cadmium, Heavy metals, Toxicity, Bioremediation, Microorganisms
INTRODUCTION: Heavy metals are naturally present on earth: Lenntech, 2004 defined heavy metals as an element with high density. Mercury, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, and lead, etc. are few examples of heavy metals which are extremely toxic. Some metals are required for the metabolism of humans like copper etc. but at higher concentrations, they act as a toxin. Heavy metals are highly toxic because they start accumulating, and their breakdown is either slow, or they do not degenerate, resulting in many health problems. Increase in industrialization has raised the levels of heavy metal pollution in the country.
Heavy metals are entering into water supplies through waste material, which is releasing them into streams, lakes, and rivers. So ultimately these heavy metals are causing environmental pollution. It is very difficult to remove these potent and hazardous metals from the environment as they cannot be degraded chemically and biologically. The main metals which are hazardous are cadmium, lead, mercury, Zinc, Chromium, and copper. These heavy metals are extremely toxic and can mainly contaminate soil water etc. 1, 2 The aquatic biota can be badly affected by the presence of heavy metals 3. Nowadays their presence is also visible in the food chain, which is very harmful for mankind.
There are many industries that are releasing heavy metals in their effluent. Among all these potent metals the cadmium is one such non-essential heavy metal having high toxicity at even low dosage to all organisms.
Cadmium can cause reproductive system failure, brain damage, kidney damage to human beings 4, and also it is related to cancer 5. Renal damage was also reported due to cadmium toxicity 6. Cadmium can enter into aquatic life through sewage sludge. Discharges which contain cadmium should strictly control as they are highly toxic and tends to accumulate in tissues of organisms 7. There is a lesser number of reports showing bioremediation of cadmium by microorganisms. Environmental pollution due to cadmium particulate from industries is increasing day by day. It is entering the food chain and ultimately reaching the environment. The purpose of the study is to completely remove the cadmium by using natural process, i.e. with the help of naturally occurring micro-organisms having potential to remove it completely from the environment.
Cadmium and its Utility: Cadmium is a silver-white colored metal and has a solubility in acids. Friedrich Strohmeyer, a German chemist, discovered cadmium in 1817. Cadmium has one interesting feature in it that it is noncorrosive, and that’s why it is used in deposition on other metals as a protective layer. Cadmium belongs to Transition metal family of the periodic table with atomic number 48 and atomic mass 112.4g mol/-1. It is melting point is 321 ºC, and the boiling point is 767 ºC. By nature, Cadmium has high corrosive resistivity that’s why it is used for plating other metals in electronics and aerospace industries 8.
A very large amount of cadmium is released into the environment 9. Cadmium is released into rivers through weathering of rocks, forest fires, etc. and also through human activities like electroplating, manufacturing, etc. Cadmium can cause many health problems like damage to the nervous system, immune system, psychological problems as well as reproductive failure and even infertility. So, it is essential to remove it to avoid human health problems and environmental deterioration. A most economical and eco-friendly way to treat this pollution is bioremediation.
Health Effects: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified cadmium and cadmium compounds as carcinogenic to humans (IARC 1993 and 2009). According to IPCS 1992 and WHO 2010 in humans, exposed to cadmium mainly occurs by consuming contaminated food and through inhalation by workers in the metal industries. Cadmium can easily bind to respiratory enzymes 10 and can cause cancer 11.
Plants act as a carrier of various cadmium salts (Especially those having great solubility in water) into the food chain 12. Plants which are growing in polluted soil can easily take up heavy metals that may then enter the food chain 13. In selected vegetables, Cd concentration in soils and food crops was above permissible limits 14. So from their report, it can be concluded that consuming such vegetables may lead to cadmium toxicity in humans as well as animals. People who are living near the industrial area are more prone to toxicity, which can severely damage their lungs. People who like fishes such as shellfish in their diet regularly are at more risk of cadmium exposure (ATSDR 2008) Table 1.
TABLE 1: SHOWING HEALTH EFFECTS OF CADMIUM
|2||Reproductive failure and possibly even infertility||16|
|4||Shortness of breath, lung edema||18|
|7||Hypertension, renal damage, testicular atrophy||6|
Environmental Effects: cadmium exposure to the environment is a threat now a day’s. This exposure is mainly from the mining industries Table 2.
TABLE 2: SHOWING EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON GROWTH OF PLANTS
|1||Effects tissues of aerial parts of plants||21|
|3||Inhibits cell division in leaf||22|
|4||Causes abnormal mitosis division in plant||23|
Bioremediation: Bioremediation is an act of removing pollutants from a contaminated site with the help of microorganisms as well as plants. Using microorganisms for the treatment of polluted soils is a more eco-friendly and economical approach in the field of bioremediation.
According to the EPA, bioremediation is a “technique which uses naturally occurring microorganisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or non-toxic substances.” There are two techniques of bioremediation in situ and ex-situ Fig. 1.
FIG. 1: TECHNIQUES OF BIOREMEDIATION
In-situ Bioremediation: Involves the onsite treatment of the contaminated effluent. We need not remove soil or water samples from the site. The pollution by heavy metal on the site can be directly removed. In this type of remediation naturally occurring microorganisms are stimulated to show their activity against the heavy metals 24, 25. Since it uses naturally occurring microorganisms so it is not cheaper as well as harmless nor it produces harmful byproducts in the environment. It mainly involves the onsite treatment of polluted substances. These techniques are very cheap than ex-situ bioremediation techniques, as no disturbance to its structure. Dyes, heavy metals, chlorinated solvents can be treated with the help of this technique 26, 27. The suitable conditions required for successful in-situ bioremediation are moisture content, pH, temperature, nutrient availability, the status of electron acceptor, etc. 28 The advantages of in-situ bioremediation involves minimal exposure of public and site personnel, minimal site disruption, low cost, simultaneous treatment of contaminated water in soil Fig. 2.
FIG. 2: TYPES OF IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION
Intrinsic bioremediation is simply enhancing microflora on the site of remediation where pollution of heavy metals occurred.
Engineered in-situ is introduced the systems have to be incorporated to enhance the microflora on the site.
Ex-situ Bioremediation: As the name suggests, ex-situ means outside, so it involves the removal of the contaminated effluent to be treated elsewhere. The technique of land farming was demonstrated by the US Army Corps of Engineers, which showed the enhanced remediation of petroleum contaminated soils. Microorganisms which are used to perform the function of bioremediation are well known as bioremediation.
Phytoremediation: It is an emerging technique that mainly depends on the use of physical, chemical, and biochemical interactions of plans in contaminated sites for the treatment/mineralization of pollutants. There are several mechanisms which are involved in phytoremediation. These mechanisms mainly depend upon the type of pollutant as a different process is needed for different contaminants. The pollutants like toxic heavy metals are removed by extraction, while pollutants like hydrocarbons and chlorinated compounds are removed by degradation, rhizoremediation, and volatilization 29, 30. There are many important factors that should be kept in mind while choosing a plant as a phytoremediator like root system – which may be fibrous or tap depending on the toxicity of pollutant, to which extent the pollutant is toxic to plant, what will be plant growth rate in the presence of pollutant, and how much time is required to achieve the desired level of remediation. The use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria was reported, which might play an important role in phytoremediation. Phytoremediation of cadmium was done with the help of three indigenous plants Eleusine indica, L. (KB-1), Ageratum conyzoides, L. (KB-2), and Euphorbia hirta (KB-3) and subsequently, 58.8, 52.2, 51.8% of reduction of cadmium concentration was observed.
Phytoextraction: Phytoextraction involves a different a mechanism of plants which remove toxic elements, i.e. heavy metals from soil or water, metals whose density is very high and may be toxic to organisms when present in low concentrations. The mechanism mainly depends upon the ability of plants to translocate the pollutants from roots to aboveground shoots or leaves. Natural ability and efficiency of a plant is the basis of Phytoextraction 31, 32. Phytoextraction of cadmium was performed with the help of plant Brassica juncea, and 60% reduction was observed in Cd concentration 33.
Microorganisms for Bioremediation: Besides plants, the minute species which cannot be seen by the naked eye (visible in microscopy) can be used as bioremediation to remove toxic pollutants from the environment. The naturally present microorganisms which are indigenous or extraneous, are used as agents for bioremediation. The nature of micro mainly relies on the type of polluting agent. Proper selection criteria of organisms should be selected as different species show different survival rate in different concentrations of pollutants. Bioremediation can be achieved by mainly two processes, i.e. either naturally or through intervention process, as reported by 34.
Classification of Microbes- Microbes involved in bioremediation are –
(1) Aerobic: Aerobic bacteria are those who need oxygen for their growth and survival. The aerobic bacteria which are involved in bioremediation are Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas putida, P. diminuts, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, etc. These microbes decontaminate the sites by using the pollutants like heavy metals, pesticides, and hydrocarbon compounds as their carbon and energy sources.
(2) Anaerobic: Anaerobic bacteria are those who cannot grow in the presence of oxygen and also the use of these bacteria is not as frequent as aerobic ones for bioremediation purpose. The main approach, which is used for anaerobic bioremediation is in-situ 35.
(3) Methylotrophs: These bacteria come under the class of Aerobic bacteria that grow utilize methane as a source of energy and carbon. It has a wide range of substrate and reported against a huge range of pollutants. In Methylotrophs the enzyme methane mono-oxygenase was reported for its activity and stability against a wide range of pollutants
(4) Ligninolytic Fungi: The fungi also can degrade a wide range of toxic pollutants, for example, White rot fungus such as Phanaerochaete chrysosporium. White rot fungi degrade organic pollutants in soil and effluents. Candida degrades formaldehyde. Common substrates which are used are straw, corn cobs, or sawdust.
Mycoremediation (Using Fungi): Myco-remediation is bioremediation in which fungi species are used to decontaminate the pollutant or to target a specific pollutant. Scientists experimented in 1999; a plot of diesel oil contaminated soil was inoculated with mycelia and succeeded in its decontamination. Fungi like white rot fungus can degrade toxic pollutants 36. Fungi of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Rhizopus have been studied as an efficient bioremediator for the removal of heavy metals and. Sometimes microfiltration term is used in this process in the mycelium of fungi is used to filtrate the toxic compounds from water in the soil 37, 38. In Table 3, few of the microorganism has been shown through which bioremediation has been achieved against heavy metal 36. Ligninolytic Fungi such as Phaneraero chaetechrysosprium can degrade a wide range of pollutants 39 Table 3.
TABLE 3: MICROORGANISMS HAVING the ABILITY TO DEGRADE HEAVY METALS (SOURCE: VIDALI 2001)
|1||Zn, Cu, Cd||Bacillus sp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 40|
|2||CO, Ni, Cd||Citrobacter sp. 40|
|3||Cd, Pb||Phormidium valderium 41, 42|
|4||Pb, Au, Zn, Cd||Chlorella vulgaris 40|
|5||Cd, Zn, Ag||Aspergillus niger 40|
|6||Zn, Cu, Cd||Pleurotus ostreatu sp. 40|
|7||Hg, Ag, Cd||Rhizopus arrhizus 43|
The specific features of microorganisms like survival and growth at extreme environmental conditions like temperature, heat, and desert conditions make them suitable for the removal of toxic pollutants from the environment. Many fungi and bacteria are known to be used for bioremediation of Industrial effluent. Different species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Aspergillus, Sporophyticus have been reported as efficient chromium and nickel reducers. The first patent for the strain Pseudomonas putida for bioremediation was filed in 1974 which was able to degrade petroleum 34. Some microorganisms have resistance against the heavy metals and can grow in the heavy metal-rich environment. A metal tolerant bacterium that has the capability of removing Copper, Chromium, and arsenic from treated wood was isolated 44. These microorganisms have different mechanisms from each other to tolerate the uptake of heavy metals. Studies were conducted on biosorption of cadmium by Pseudomonas and concluded that this species could tolerate up to 50 mg/L of cadmium 45.
Bioremediation in the rice plant by metal resistance Ochrobactrum sp. and Bacillus sp was done recently 46. Ralstonia eutropha has been modified genetically to decrease the toxic effect of the Cd (II) in the contaminated sites 34. For the efficient elimination of Zn(II) and Cd (II, Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts as a bio sorbent 47, 48. Cunninghamella elegans was reported as promising organism against heavy metals released by textile wastewater 49. Recently cadmium and chromium metals are checked for their bioremediation with the help of Earthworm Eisenia fetida who showed the tolerance up to 0.06 and 0.14 mg/l respectively 50. Among the wide range of microorganisms used for bioremediation, there are many fungal strains that are used for the purpose. A. niger is used for the bioremediation of chromium from the tannery industry 51. Aspergillus fumigates has excellent efficiency in removing heavy metals 52.
Different groups all over the world are involved in search of microbial strains that can be helpful for bioremediation. In Brazil, China and other countries where Industrialization is increasing with the higher pace the hazardous contaminants are also increasing at a similar pace. In addition to the development of various biosensors, the work has also been started where the organism’s resistant to specific metal is checked to show resistant against other heavy metals also. Cadmium resistant Stenotrophomonas sp. showed resistant to Selenium and Copper 53.
Recently Heavy metal resistant bacterial strain from Industrial and Agricultural areas in Mauritius was isolated, which are helpful in bioremediation 54. A wide range of accumulation of cadmium was regulated by Escherichia coli 55. Pseudomonas strain was modified with the pMR68 plasmid with novel genes (mer) made that strain resistant to mercury 56. Klebsiella pneumonia M426 was modified to precipitate the mercury 57.
Many laboratories throughout the nation are involved in isolation and identification of heavy metal resistant bacteria. Physiochemical methods were reported to be used as an approach to reduce the heavy metals from contaminated site 58. The strain has successfully reduced Cr and Ni. Bacterial strains of Pseudomonaputida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus sp. were found to reduce Chromium (VI) content of the textile Industry effluent 59.
In addition to bacterial strains, many fungal strains have also been reported showing heavy metal absorption efficiency. Fungal strains from Sugar mill of Cheyyiar Cooperative Sugar Mill, Thiruvannamalai district were isolated and utilized them for the bioremediation of sugar mill effluent 60.
The use of potent microorganisms that are resistant to activities of heavy metal is very important 61. During past years strains have been isolated like Staphylococcus aureus especially for cadmium62, 63. Cadmium resistant bacteria, i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa from waste processing plant sludge effluent was isolated and was subjected to induction of mutation by acridine orange and acriflavine and 94.7% of cadmium removal was achieved 64. The strains E. coli and P. syringae were studied for the removal of cadmium by respectively 65, 66.
Many studies have been carried out in the past for the isolation and identification of bacterial strains that are resistant to cadmium. Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluoroscenes, E. coli, Comamonas testosterone, Klebsiella planticola, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarium, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Ralstonia metallidurans, Alcaligenes eutrophus, Serratialique faciens, and Bacillus thuringensis were the common species of bacteria that have been studied most regarding their cadmium accumulation ability 67.
Pseudomonas putida degrades about more than 80% of cadmium in less than 5 min at pH from 5.0 - 7.5 68. Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 bacterial strain was grown on a pilot - plant. It degrades up to 90% of the cadmium 69. The bacterial strains were able to degrade cadmium, but their efficiency depends upon the induced proteins that are produced in the cells 70. Streptomyces rimosus has a cell wall which contains anionic groups such as phosphate amino, carboxyl, etc. whose ability to adsorb cadmium is very high 71.
Microorganisms used biosorption method to remove the toxic metals which are present in water and streams. Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus laterosporus were two bacterial strains that remove cadmium from water. The temperature of 60 ºC did not affect the ability of these strains to degrade cadmium. The maximum capacities of non- living cells of these strains to remove cadmium were 142.7 and 159.5 mg/g respectively 72. Bacterial strain Rhodotorula sp. Y11 was able to degrade cadmium. Its capacity was about 11.38 mg/g 73.
Recent studies revealed that Staphylococcus xylosus and Pseudomonas sp. were the bacterial strains whose ability to degrade cadmium was 278 and 250 mg/g respectively 74. A bacterial strain KUCd1 was isolated, which closely resembled with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KUCd1 showed its ability to remove about 75% and 89% of cadmium 75. Spirogyra and Oscillatoria sp. were studied for sequestration of cadmium from industrial wastewater 76.
Phytoremediation: Besides of microorganisms plants can also be used to clean the residues of toxic heavy metals 77 Table 4.
TABLE 4: LIST OF PLANTS USED FOR REMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS
|S. no.||Name of Plants||Heavy metals|
|1||Brassica juncea||Lead and cadmium 78|
|2||Claytonia perfoliata||Cadmium 79|
|5||Lupinus Albus||Arsenic and Cadmium 80|
|6||Allium schoenoprasum||Cadmium 81|
|7||Digitalis purpurea||Cadmium 82|
|8||Pterisvittata||Arsenic and cadmium 83|
|10||Populustermula||Lead and cadmium 82|
CONCLUSION: The presence of heavy metals in the food chain has become a threat to human and wildlife as it can cause many severe diseases as discussed above. The heavy metals as fumes are also degrading the environment. So to remove all these threats, there is a need for the implication of proper treatment processes which can minimize the health and environmental impacts of toxic heavy metals.
There are many other physical processes by which above said a goal could be achieved, but they are expensive and have low efficiency for the removal of compounds. The eco-friendly techniques such as bioremediation, phytoremediation, Phytoextraction, and Mycoremediation, etc. offer a great choice to eliminate these contaminates permanently from the environment and clean it.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The author(s) would like to acknowledge, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Punjab, India, for providing a research platform and necessary facilities.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: All authors have none to declare.
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How to cite this article:
Lata S, Kaur HP and Mishra T: Cadmium bioremediation: a review. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2019; 10(9): 4120-28. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR. 0975-8232.10(9).4120-28.
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