EMERGING FUNGAL PATHOGENS – A MAJOR THREAT TO HUMAN LIFEAbstract
Statistical figures represent that fungal infections are the major cause of thousands of deaths each year. Despite the availability of treatment options invasive and systemic fungal infections have alarmingly higher mortality rates. This current review tabulates such fungal organisms that are pathogenic and fatal to human. This article provides a compilation of all Mycoses in human and also reports about the risk group of each fungus based on which, the level of risk caused by fungi can be determined. Infections caused by Dimorphic fungal pathogens (Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Marneffei) and Dematiaceous hyphomycetes (Cladophialophora, Rhinocladiella) belong to major fatal causing risk group 3 resulting in higher death rates of individuals. It also reports about various types of possible classification of mycoses i.e. based on reaction of human to fungi, host susceptibility, pathogen type, body location and risk group. The article highlights the estimated incidence of fungal diseases due to these pathogens, but these statistical figures are usually underestimated so there is a great need for advancement in understanding of fungus, their resistance along with immunity reports. In order to meet all these disease combating requirements, many high quality research initiatives with proper sources of funding and encouragement have to be provided. Article also reviews the major antifungal drugs available along with their brief pharmacokinetic profile. It also briefs some take home remedies in order to prevent and treat major fungal infection along with the alternative and novel modelling techniques developed recently for drug designing to target various development stages of fungal organism.
M. V. Harsha *, S. Venkatachalam, M. Pooja and Murali Paranjothy
Department of Pharmaceutics , JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Udhagamandalam, Tamil Nadu, India.
16 November, 2016
18 April, 2017
24 April, 2017
01 May, 2017