ESTIMATION OF OFLOXACIN IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY NANODROP SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODHTML Full Text
ESTIMATION OF OFLOXACIN IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY NANODROP SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD
Rakesh K. Singh*1, Pankaj S. Patel 2, Darshika Awasthi 3 ,Bipin Bihari 4 and Prabodh Shukla 5
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences *1, Mohuda, Berhampur (Orissa), India
Indira Gandhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Science2, Bhubaneswar (Orissa), India
Biotech Park, CIF Lab3, Lucknow (UP), India
Saroj Institute of Technology and Management4, Lucknow (UP), India
Pranveer Singh Institutes of Technology5, Bhaunti, Kanpur (UP), India
Ofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic considered to be a second-generation fluoroquinolone. Ofloxacin is administered by oral, intravenous or topical (eye and ear drop) route. It is used as antibacterial for the treatment of various diseases like chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, urethritis, cervicitis, urinary tract infections, prostatitis, uncomplicated urethral and cervical gonorrhea. Ofloxacin is a pale yellow or bright yellow, crystalline powder. It is slightly soluble in water, soluble in glacial acetic acid, slightly soluble or soluble in methylene chloride, slightly soluble in methanol. A simple Nanodrop spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of Ofloxacin in pure and its pharmaceutical tablet dosage form. Ofloxacin exhibiting λ max at 296 nm in mobile phase (0.05 M Phosphate buffer: Acetonitrile) in ratio of 65:35 and obeyed linearity in the concentration range of 1- 150 ppm. The proposed method was statistically validated.
INTRODUCTION: The scope of developing and validating analytical methods is to ensure a suitable method for a particular analyte more specific, accurate and precise. The main objective for that is to improve the conditions and parameters, which should be followed in the development and validation. Chemically Ofloxacin is fluoroquinolone. It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic drug and is used as antibacterial for treatment of various diseases.
Ofloxacin: (RS) - 9- Fluoro- 3- methyl- 10- (4- methylpiperazin- 1- yl) - 7- oxo 2, 3- dihydro- 7 H- pyrido [1, 2, 3- de]- 1, 4 benzoxazine- 6- carboxylic acid
Tablet formulations containing 100 and 200 mg Ofloxacin in coated and dispersible form are available in the market. Literature survey revealed that various analytical methods such as HPLC, HPTLC and UV Spectrophotometry are used for simultaneous estimation of Ofloxacin with various drugs combination. No Nanodrop spectrophotometric method has been reported for estimation of Ofloxacin in single component formulation. Hence, an attempt has been made to develop new Nanodrop Spectrophotometry method for its estimation in pharmaceutical formulations with good accuracy, simplicity, precision and economy.
The Nanodrop ND-1000 is a full-spectrum spectrophotometer (UV and visible spectrum, 220-750 nm) for measuring the absorbance the sample droplet is held in place by surface tension when it is slightly compressed between the pedestal and the sample arm; this generates the defined pathway of 1 mm. The spectrum measurement is then performed with two optical fibers installed in the pedestal (emitting light of a Xenon lamp) and the sample arm (spectrometer with linear CCD array). Quantification is performed based on the spectrum measurement at the defined pathway of 1 mm. Unlike traditional spectrophotometers, the Nanodrop does not require cuvettes or capillaries. Instead, the sample is pipette directly onto the measurement pedestal.
Instrumentation: Spectral and absorbance measurements were made on Nanodrop spectrophotometer. Denver TB-215D balance was used for weighing the samples. Commercially available tablets of Ofloxacin were procured from the local market and estimated.
Chemicals and Reagents:
|Solvents and reagents||Manufacturers|
|Potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate (AR grade)||Qualigens fine chemicals|
|Acetonitrile||Qualigens fine chemicals|
|Water (Milli Q grade)||Millipore water filter|
|Ofloxacin standard (99.23%)||UPDPL, Lucknow|
|Nanodrop spectrophotometer||ND-1000||Nanodrop technologies Inc. USA|
|pH / ion analyzer||pH 510||Eutech instruments|
|Millipore water purification unit||BM5SN3112A||Millipore (India) Pvt. Ltd|
|Eppendorf and micro-pipette tips||-||From Axygen|
Scanning and determination of maximum wavelength (lmax): In order to ascertain the wavelength of maximum absorption (λ max) of the drug, different solutions of the drug (40 ppm and 60 ppm) in mobile phase (0.05 M Phosphate buffer: ACN) were scanned using Nanodrop spectrophotometer within the wavelength region of 220 – 700 nm against mobile phase as blank. The resulting spectra are shown below (Fig. 1, 2 and 3) and the absorption curve showed characteristic absorption maxima at 296 nm for Ofloxacin.
Preparation of 0.05 M Phosphate buffer solution: 680.45 mg of anhydrous Potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate dissolved in 60 ml Millipore distilled water and volume made up to 100 ml by Millipore distilled water in 100 ml volumetric flask and pH of buffer is 4.56.
Preparation of mobile phase (100 ml): Mix 65 ml of 0.05 M Phosphate buffer and 35 ml of Acetonitrile to made mobile phase of Phosphate buffer: ACN in ratio of 65: 35 of pH 5.04.
Preparation of Standard Stock Solutions: Standard stock solution was prepared by dissolving 10 mg of Ofloxacin in 10 ml of mobile phase to get concentration of 1mg/ml (1000 ppm) solutions.
Preparation of working standard solutions and construction of standard graph: The prepared stock solution was further diluted with mobile phase (pH-5.04) to get working standard solutions of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 150 ppm of Ofloxacin to construct Beer’s law plot for pure drug, the absorbance was measured at λ max 296 nm, against mobile phase (pH-5.04) as blank. The results are shown in table (1). The standard graph was plotted by taking concentration of drug on X-axis and absorbance on Y-axis and is shown fig 4. The drug has obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range of 1-150 ppm. The linearity curve data is shown in table (2).
Preparation of sample stock solutions and working sample solutions: Ten tablets were accurately weighed and average was calculated. The tablets were then crushed to obtain fine powder. An accurately weighed quantity of tablet powder equivalent to about 10.0 mg of Ofloxacin was transferred to 10 ml volumetric flask, add 5 ml of mobile phase and shaken for 10 min. The volume was made up to the mark with mobile phase and required dilutions were made from sample stock solution. The recovery study from formation is shown in table (3).
Table 1: Linearity table of Ofloxacin in Working Standard
Fig. 4: Linearity curve of Ofloxacin in Working Standard
Table 2: Linearity curve data
|Beer’s Law limit (ppm)||1-150|
|Correlation coefficient (R2)||0.999|
|Regression equation (y*) y= 0.008x-0.002|
Table 3: Recovery from the formulation
|Formulation||Labeled amount(mg)||Nanodrop Spectrophotometry method*|
|Mean ± s. d(amount mg recovered)||% Drug recovered||% RSD|
* Each value is average of three determinations ± standard deviation.
Accuracy: To determine the accuracy of the proposed method, recovery studies were carried out by adding different amounts (80%, 100%, and 120%) of bulk samples of Ofloxacin within the linearity range were taken and added to the pre-analyzed formulation of concentration 10 ppm. From that percentage recovery values were calculated. The results were shown in Table (4). The response obtained for the various concentrations is plotted and observed to be linear (correlation coefficient – 0.999 for Ofloxacin). The graphical representation of accuracy studies is depicted in Figure 5.
Fig. 5: Accuracy study curve
Table 4: Accuracy Readings
|Sample ID||Concentration (mg/ml)||% Recovery ofPure drug||Statistical Analysis|
|S1 : 80 %||8||10||96.25||Mean=98.96
|S2 : 80 %||8||10||95|
|S3 : 80 %||8||10||105|
|S4 : 80 %||8||10||102.5|
|S5 : 80%||8||10||100|
|S6 : 80%||8||10||95|
|S7 : 100 %||10||10||94||Mean=97.5
|S8 : 100 %||10||10||101|
|S9 : 100 %||10||10||94|
|S10 : 100 %||10||10||101|
|S11 : 100 %||10||10||93|
|S12 : 100 %||10||10||102|
|S13 : 120 %||12||10||95.83||Mean=98.195
|S14 : 120 %||12||10||104.17|
|S15 : 120 %||12||10||95|
|S16 : 120 %||12||10||94.17|
|S17 : 120 %||12||10||102.5|
|S18 : 120 %||12||10||97.50|
% Recovery = amount recovered/amount introduced X 100
Table 5: Accuracy studies
|Concentration (%)||Absorbance (mean)|
|Correlation coefficient (R2)||0.999|
Precision: The precision of the proposed method was ascertained by actual determination of six replicates of fixed concentration of the drug within the Beer’s range and finding out the absorbance by the proposed method. From this absorbance, mean, standard deviation and % RSD was calculated. The readings are shown in table 6.
Table 6: Precision readings
|10||0.102||Mean = 0.10033
SD = 0.00002134
%RSD = 0.02127
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: From the optical characteristics of the proposed method, it was found that Ofloxacin obeys linearity within the concentration range of 1-150 ppm. From the results shown in Table (6) it was found that the % RSD is less than 2, which indicates that the method has good reproducibility. From the results shown in accuracy Table (4), it was found that the percentage recovery values of pure drug from the pre-analyzed solution of formulation were in between 97.5 – 98.96, which indicates that the proposed method is accurate and also reveals that the commonly used excipients and additives in the pharmaceutical formulations were not interfering in the proposed method.
CONCLUSION: The proposed method was simple, sensitive and reliable with good precision and accuracy. The proposed method is specific while estimating the commercial formulations without interference of excipients and other additives. Hence, this method can be used for the routine determination of Ofloxacin in pure samples and pharmaceutical formulations.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The authors thank UPDPL, Lucknow for providing the gift sample of Ofloxacin. Authors also thankful to Dr. P.K. Seth, CEO, Biotech Park, Lucknow for providing necessary facilities for the work.
- British Pharmacopoeia, vol.1 & 2, The British Pharmacopoeia Commission, London, 2009; 4317-4321.
- United State Pharmacopoeia 30- NF 25, 2007; 2793.
- Mathur SC, Kumar Y, Murugesan N, Rathode YKS and Sethi PD: Spectrophotometric determination of Ofloxacin in Pharmaceutical formulations. Indian Drug 1992; 29: 376-377.
- Panzade PD and Mahadik KR: Simultaneous estimation of Ofloxacin and Tinidazole in tablet dosage form. Indian Drugs 2001; 38: 368-370.
- Kasture VS, Bhagat AD and Puro NC: Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Ofloxacin and Ornidazole in tablet dosage form. Indian Drugs. 2004; 41: 51-53.
- Nagori BP, Shrivastava B, Sharma V and Rajput AS : Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Ofloxacin and Ornidazole in tablet dosage form. Indian Drugs. 2006; 43: 676-678.
- Halkar UP and Ankalkope PB: Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic determination of Ofloxacin and Tinidazole in tablets. Indian Drugs. 2000; 37: 585-588.
- Kamble NS and Venkatachalam A : High performance liquid chromatographic determination of Ornidazole and Ofloxacin in solid dosage form. Indian Drugs. 2005; 42: 723-725.
- Wankhede SB, Nanda RK, Prakash A and Chitlange SS : Simultaneous Spectrophotometric estimation of Ofloxacin and Satranidazole in tablet dosage form. J Pharm Res. 2008; 7: 92-94.
- Priyabrata Pattanayak, Yogendra Prasad Chaudury, Rajesh Sharma, Prithwiraj Mohapatra and Dillip Kumar Setty : Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Estimation of Nitazoxanide and Ofloxacin in Combined Tablet Dosage Form. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2(2): April.-June. 2009 ;291-293.
- Bhusari KP and Chaple DR: Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Estimation of Ofloxacin and Ornidazole in Tablet Dosage Form. Asian J. Research Chem. 2(1): Jan.-Mar. 2009; 60-62.
- Jitendra D. Fegade, Harshal P. Mehta, Rajesh Y. Chaudhari, Vijay R.Patil: Simultanious Spectrophotometric Estimation of Ofloxacin and Ketorolac Tromethamine in Ophthalmic Dosage Form. International Journal of ChemTech Research, April-June 2009, Vol.1, No.2, 189-194.
Rakesh K. Singh*, Pankaj S. Patel, Darshika Awasthi ,Bipin Bihari and Prabodh Shukla
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences *, Mohuda, Berhampur (Orissa), India
29 January, 2010
15 March, 2010
25 March, 2010
01 April, 2010