FUTURE PROSPECTS OF COUGH TREATMENT; HERBAL MEDICINES v/s MODERN DRUGSHTML Full Text
FUTURE PROSPECTS OF COUGH TREATMENT; HERBAL MEDICINES v/s MODERN DRUGS
Yasmeen Jahan, Tarique Mahmood*, Paramdeep Bagga, Arun Kumar, Kuldeep Singh and Mohd Mujahid
Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Kursi Road, Lucknow-226026, Uttar Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT: Drugs currently used to treat cough are among the most widely used over-the-counter drugs in the world, despite a recent analysis suggesting that there is a little evidence to such drugs produce any meaningful efficacy. The primary action of currently available cough suppressants (opiates, dextromethorphan etc.) is on the central cough pathway. The significant side effects of these agents such as constipation, respiratory depression, dependence, drowsiness and death from this action limit their use in human and thus highly unsatisfactory. There is a current huge unmet need for the development of safe, effective antitussive therapeutic options in the treatment of persistent cough as alternative to existing medications. Medicinal plants are an important source for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds, which have served and continue to serve as lead molecules for the development of new drugs. Thus this review may provide an insight into herbs possessing antitussive and expectorant activity individually or in combination. These findings will be useful towards establishing pharmacopoeial standards for crude drugs as well as for formulations which is gaining relevance in research on traditional medicinal system.
Cough, antitussive herbs,
expectorant herbs, herbal formulations, cough remedies
INTRODUCTION: There are many types of drugs that are used to suppress cough and are often prescribed in combination. Before dealing with the particular type of drug used, it is important to consider briefly the nature of cough production, its role in disease and desirability of suppressing it.1 Since ancient times humanity has depended on the diversity of plant resources for food, clothing, shelter, and traditional medicine to cure myriads of ailments. Early humans recognized their dependence on nature in both health and illness 2.
Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years, and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources, particularly plants and with many based on their use in traditional medicine. By using medicinal chemistry and combinatorial chemical and biosynthetic technology, novel natural product leads will be optimized on the basis of their biological activities to yield effective chemotherapeutic and other bioactive agents3. During the past decades, public interest in natural therapies, namely herbal medicine, has increased dramatically not only in developing countries but mainly in industrialized countries 4.
The treatment of a cough will depend largely on its severity and underlying cause.
Self-Care at Home:
If patient have an acute cough and he/she did not approached to the doctor, he may attempt to use over-the-counter cold remedies to relieve his symptoms. Acute coughs that are caused by allergies are often relieved with allergy medication, and coughs due to environmental irritants will respond to elimination of the agent.
Home care of the chronic cough with a known cause is directed at treating the underlying cause of the cough. This should be done in close consultation with his doctor or with a specialist. Common homely remedies for cough are Turmeric, Ginger, Tulsi, Mulethi, Lemon, Garlic, Onion, and Hot Milk with Honey, Carrot Juice, and Almonds 5
Herbal drugs for cough:
Needs of Plants:
Man has been using herbs and plants products for combating disease since times immemorial. Plants have provided, and continue to provide essential material for treatment of numerous diseases, shelter, food, furniture, clothing, writing, weapons, cosmetics and numerous other purposes. Certainly, the great civilizations of ancient Chinese, Indian, and North African provided written evidence of chronic cough Man’s ingenuity in utilizing plants for treatment of wide variety of diseases 5. Most popular cough medicines throughout the world are based on herbal derivatives. Numerous compounds such as codeine, morphine, noscapine, bromhexine, guaifenesin, ephedrine, cromolyn etc. and their derivatives, isolated from different plant species, are well-established western medicines for treating cough or underlying pathologies 1.
List of traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of bronchial diseases:
Adhatoda zeylanica, Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., Azima tetracantha Lamk., Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd., Barleria cuspidata, Heyne. ex Nees, Barleria prionitis L., Blumea mollis (D.Don.) Merr., Boerhavia diffusa L., Calotropis procera (Ait.), R.Br., Cassia fistula L., Curculigo orchioides, Gaertn., Datura metal L., Desmodium triflorum (L.)DC., Lepidagathis cristata Willd., Piper longum L., Portulaca quadrifida L,. Solanum surattense Burm., Tragia involucrata L., Tylophora fasciculata Ham., Vicoa indica (L.) DC., Vitex negundo L., Zaleya decandra (L.). 6, 7 There are various herbal cough preparations available in market with various brands. (Table 1)
Table1: Examples of Herbal Cough Preparation
|Joshina (Hamdard)||Glycyrrhiza glabra, Viola odorata, Althaea officinalis, Cordia latifolia, Onosma bracteatum, Malva sylvestris, Zizyphus vulgaris|
|Koflet Cough Syrup (Himalaya)||Vitis vinifera, Ocimum sanctum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Adhatoda vasica, Viola odorata, Onosma bracteatum, Solanum xanthocarpum, Embelia ribes, Cinnamomum cassia.|
|D’cold Natural(Paras Pharmaceuticals Ltd.)||Ocimum sanctum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Adhatoda vasica, Curcuma longa, Alpinia galasya, Piper longum, Zingiber officinalis, Mentha viridis, Honey.|
|Kafbin(East India Pharmaceuticals)||Glycyrrhiza glabra, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis, Solanum xanthocarpum, Terminilia belerica, Clerodendrum indicum.|
|MEDICOF Cough Syrup(Bio Sap)||Ocimum sanctum, Dry ginger, Inula racemosa, Hyssop, Viola odorata, Xanthocarpum indicum, Liquorice, Pepper longum|
|Baidyanath -Kasamrita Herbal Syrup||Somlata, Kantakari, Vasak mool, Mulethi, Tulsi Panchang, Lisora, Gazoban, Kakadsingi, Pipa , Nausada, Pudina Satva|
|Dabur Honitus Herbal Syrup
|Ocimum Sanctum, Glycyrrhiza Glabra, Solanum Xanthocarpum, Viola Odorata, Taxus Baccata, Zingiber Officinal , Piper Longum, Adhatoda Vasica, Hedchium Spicatum, Menthe Piperita Extract.|
|Zeal Cough Syrup(Medi Power Co.,Ltd)||Extract derived from Ocimum sanctum, Adhatoda zeylanica, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Navsagar, Zingiber officinale, Solanum Xanthocarpum, Trikatu, Sat, Pipermint 6mg, Nilgiri Oil.|
Plants reported for antitussives and expectorant activity:
Cough suppressant and expectorant activities have been claimed for many medicinal plants, in the literature. Based on this knowledge, different workers have evaluated botanicals for Antitussives & expectorant activity. (Table 2)
TABLE 2: PLANTS REPORTED FOR ANTITUSSIVE AND EXPECTORANT ACTIVITY
|Botanical Name(Common Name)||Activity Reference|
|Abies webbiana Lindl. (Indian Silver Fir)||Antitussive 8|
|Abrus precatorius L. ( Indian liquorice)||Antitussive 9|
|Acacia concinna wild. DC(Shikakai)||Expectorant10|
|Acorus calamus L. ( Sweet flag)||Antitussive11|
|Adhatoda vasica L. Nees (Vasaka)||Expectorant 12 and Antitussive13|
|Agaricus albus Linn (Purging agaric)||Expectorant 14|
|Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. ( Tree of heaven)||Expectorant 14|
|Alhagi pseudalhai Bieb. Desv (Camel thorn)||Expectorant 14|
|Allium odorum L. ( Sweet leek)||Expectorant 9|
|Allium porrum Linn(Leek)||Expectorant14|
|Althae officinalis Linn (Marshmallow)||Antitussive 15|
|Amomum aromaticm Roxb. (Bengal cardamom)||Antitussive 14|
|Anagallis arvensis Linn.(Chari saben)||Expectorant 15|
|Andrographis paniculata Burm.f.Nees (Kalmegh)||Expectorant 9, 12, 16, 17|
|Artemisia Vulgaris Linn. (Arbaaka)||Expectorant 18|
|Asparagus racemosusWild (Shatavari)||Antitussive 19|
|Azima tetracantha Lam.(Mistletoe)||Expectorant 14|
|Bacopa monnieri L.(Brahmi)||Antitussive 19, 20|
|Balanites aegyptiaca Linn.Delile.(Deseart date)||Expectorant 9|
|Balsamodendron Myrrha Nees.(Surasa, Barbara)||Expectorant 9|
|Belamcana chinensis L. (Leopard lily)||Expectorant 9|
|Bischofia javanica B. (Vinegar wood)||Antitussive 9|
|Blepharis linariaefolia Pers. (Naethira Poondu)||Expectorant 18|
|Bulbus of Fritillaria wabuensis.||Antitussive & Expectorant 21|
|Blumea Balsamifera L. DC (Kukur Sunga)||Antitussive 22|
|C. longa Linn(Turmeric)||Antitussive 23, 24|
|Caesalpina Bonducella F. (Kuberakshi)||Antitussive 25|
|Cassia Tora L.(Cakunda)||Antitussive 26, 27|
|Celosia Cristata Linn. (Cock’s comb)||Antitussive 18|
|Cephaelis ipecacuanha Rich. (Ipecac)||Expectorant 20|
|Chelidonium major L.(Tetter wort)||Antitussive 28, 29|
|Chondrus crispus L.( Pearl Moss)||Expectorant 9|
|Cimicifuga racemosa Nutt. (Black snakeroot)||Expectorant 9|
|Citrus japonica Thunb. (Marumi Kumquat)||Antitussive & Expectorant 9|
|Coleus amboinicus Lour. (Indian borage)||Antitussive 9|
|Cressa cretica Linn(Rudanti)||Antitussive & Expectorant 30|
|Curcuma Zedoaria Berg. Rosc. (Cochin turmeric)||Antitussive 9|
|Eclipta alba L.(Bhangra)||Antitussive 31|
|Eucalyptus globulus Labill (Australian Fever)||Expectorant 31, 32, 33, 34|
|Euphorbia antiquorum Linn. (Indian spurge)||Antitussive 31, 32, 33, 34|
|Euphorbia hirata L.(Snakeweed)||Antitussive 32|
|Euphrasia officinalis Linn. (Eyebright)||Antitussive 20|
|Foeniculum vulgare Meller (Fennel)||Antitussive 30|
|Ginkgo biloba L. (Balkuwari)||Antitussive 35|
|Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (Liquorice)||Antitussive & Expectorant 12, 36, 37|
|Inula helenium L. ( Tu-mu-xing)||Expectorant 38|
|Kaempferia galanga L. (Black thorn)||Antitussive 39|
|Lindera benzoin L. Blume (Spicewood)||Expectorant 40|
|Lobelia inflate Linn.(Indian Tobacco)||Antitussive 41|
|Mucuna pruriens (l) dc||Anti-tussive 42|
|Marsilea minuta l.
||Antitussive & Expectorant 43|
|Ocimum sanctum Linn.(Tulsi)||Antitussive 44, 45, 46|
|Oldenlandia umbellata||Antitussive 47|
|Papaver rhoes L.(Red poppy)||Antitussive &Expectorant 14|
|Paederia foetida||Antitussive Activity 48|
|Pimpinella anisum L.(Anise)||Expectorant 32, 38|
|Pistacia chinenis Bunge(Kakar singhi)||Antitussive 32|
|Plantago lancolata L.(Snake Weed)||Antitussive 49|
|Platycodon grandiflorum Jacq. A. DC (Chinese bellflower)||Antitussive & Expectorant 14|
|Polemonium reptans L. R(Bluebells)||Expectorant 50|
|Polygala amara L.(Bitter milkworth)||Expectorant & Antitussive 50|
|Polygala senega L.(Sneca Snake root)||Expectorant 50, 51|
|Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb(Japanese Knotweed)||Expectorant 52|
|Prunus armenica Linn(Wild Apricot||Expectorant 38|
|Sanguinaria canadenis Linne. (Bloodroot)||Expectorant 38|
|Scoparia dulcis George A.||Antitussive & Expectorant 53|
|Sida rhombifolla L.(Indian hemp)||Expectorant 38|
|Stemona alkaloids from Stemona tuberosa||Antitussive 54|
|Thymus vulgaris L.(Garden thyme)||Expectorant 38|
|Viola odorata L.(Banafsaj)||Expectorant 38,52|
|Withania Somnifera Dunal. (Ashwagandha)||Antitussive 18|
|Zingiber officinale Rosc.(Ginger)||Antitussive 55,56|
|Ficus racemosa||Antitussive 57|
|Passiflora incarnata||Antitussive 58|
|Ionidium suffruticosam Ging. (Violaceae)||Antitussive 59|
|Trichodesma indicum||Antitussive 60|
|Lagerstroemia parviflora leaf||Antitussive 61|
|Drymaria cordata Willd.J||Antitussive 62|
|Leucas lavandulaefolia||Antitussive 63|
|Jussiaea suffruticosa linn||Antitussive 64|
|Asparagus racemosus root||Antitussive 65|
|L-ephedrine, amygdalin, and makyokansekito||Antitussive 66|
Activities reported on marketed cough preperations used as antitussive & expectorant:
- Narasimha churna: An Ayurvedic formulation prepared from various medicinal plants which are commonly used in Cough, deficiency of semen, pain, wrinkles in the skin, graying of hair, alopecia, diabetes and anemia. The study was consists of preparation and standardization of Narasimha churna for parameters like physicochemical properties, phytochemical screening and physical properties of final formulation as per WHO guideline and the results were compared with the marketed formulation. These findings will be useful towards establishing pharmacopoeial standards for crude drugs as well as for formulation which is gaining relevance in research on traditional medicinal system.
From this investigation various standardization parameters such as physicochemical standards, chemo profiles and safety evaluation were carried out, it can be concluded that the formulation of Narasimha churna was in accordance with the standards laid down for churna. The study showed that the contents of formulation present within the permissible limits as per WHO, all these investigations are not specified in the standard literature such as in pharmacopoeia, which could helpful in authentication of Narasimha churna. The result of this study will may be serve as reference monograph in the preparation of drug formulation 67.
- Sitopaladi Churna: Is a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation used as an antitussive, analgesic and antipyretic. The study was reported on the anti-tussive activity of the macerated extract of Sitopaladi Churna by comparison to other marketed formulations as well as reference drug Codeine phosphate using the acetic acid induced cough models in guinea pigs. The standard drug codeine phosphate brought about a reduction of bouts of cough from 15.62±0.38 to 1.0±0.11 (93.60% inhibition), which was significant (P<0.01). The percentage inhibition of bouts of cough for in-house formulation (94.28%) was very significant compared to the standard as well as other marketed formulations. Thus the study was justifies the traditional claims of Sitopaladi Churna in the treatment of cough 68.
- Joshina: A herbal polypharmaceutical, Unani Syrup given for cough, cold & catarrh. The pharmacological studies were performed on Joshina. The drug has significant antitussive activity against cough induced in guinea pigs by mechanical stimulation which is comparable with codeine (20 mg/kg, p.o.). Joshina is also found to have high potential as an antiinflammatory, decongestant and expectorant in experimental models. These activities are comparable with that of standard drugs such as phenylbutazone (85mg/kg., s.c.) and nor-adrenaling (l ug) 69.
- Vasu Cough Syrup: A Polyherbal formulation was evaluated for acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity in sulphur dioxide (SO2)-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into four groups (n = 6). Group I served as Disease control, Group II received standard drug i.e. Codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg), p.o., group III to IV were given Vasu Cough Syrup 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg body wt. p.o., dose. After 30 minutes, the mice were exposed to Sulphur dioxide for 30 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts for five minutes. Vasu Cough Syrup showed 63.91% and 70.64% inhibition in frequency of cough at 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg dose level respectively. It proved significant anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in Sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, Vasu Cough Syrup can be useful as an alternative medicine for cough 70.
- Zeal Cough Syrup: A Polyherbal formulation was evaluated for safety and antitussive activity in Sulphur dioxide (SO2) induced cough model in mice at different dose level of 0.25ml/kg p.o. and 0.5ml/kg p.o. It was also compared with modern medicine available in the market i.e. Codeine + Chlorpheniramine maleate (10 mg/kg). Both the doses of Polyherbal formulation showed significant antitussive activity (p<0.001) in Sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, this formulation can prove to be useful for alleviating cough. Hence, it was concluded that, Zeal Cough Syrup is having potent antitussive activity yet safe polyherbal formulation for use in respiratory care 71.
Activities reported on polyherbal formulations:
- Ethanolic extracts of fruits of Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae), leaves of Mentha piperita (Labiate), leaves of Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae), leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Labiateae), rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), fruits of Piper longum (Piperaceae), roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae) and roots of Withenia somnifera (Solanaceae) were (Piperaceae), roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae) and roots of Withenia somnifera (Solanaceae) were investigated for their antitussive effect on citric acid induced cough model in guinea pig. The results showed that the formulated cough syrup exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependent manner the activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent diphenhydramine HCl.
It was observed that the extract has produced 54%, 70%, 75% reduction in cough bouts at the dose level of 1, 2, 3 ml respectively after 1hr of drug administration. It is evident from the data the highest dose of 3 ml was found to be more effective. It was found that antitussive activity produced by the herbal formulation in the minimum dose was much better than the standard drug 72.
- The aim of this study was to examine the antitussive activity of the water extract of Adhatoda vasaka (Ardusi), Glycyrrhiza glbra (Jethimadh), Zinziber Officinale (Ginger) & Ocimum santcum (Tulsi) in mice. This plant helpful in pediatric, breastfeeding mother, and pregnant women and also in treating various disease and disorders viz. In this formulation uses four different multi uses plants. They were used in other than cough preparation in combination for the efficacy of Adhatoda vasaka, Glycyrrhiza glbra Zinziber Officinale & Ocimum santcum in reducing cough frequency in mice. In this work performed Sulfur dioxide gas induce model. It stimulated sensory end organs arising in the trachea and bronchi; these fibers are believed to arise from the cough receptors. Thus it produced cough by stimulating sensory end organs in the trachea and bronchi.
At low concentrations it causes broncho-constriction which depends on intact motor parasympathetic pathways. The results showed that the water extract of Adhatoda vasaka, Glycyrrhiza glbra, Zinziber Officinale (ginger) & Ocimum santcum (tulsi) the oral dose of 100 mg/kg b/w had a cough-suppressive effect. It caused a significant (p value) decrease of the number of cough. The antitussive activity of the of Adhatoda vasaka & Glycyrrhiza, glbra Zinziber Officinale (ginger) & Ocimum santcum (tulsi) similar to that of the non-narcotic antitussive agent Codeine 73.
- This study was carried out to evaluate anti-tussive activity of combination of herbal drugs as formulations in sulphur dioxide (SO2)-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into eight groups, (n =6). Group 1 served as normal control, group 2 mice were given distilled water, group 3 was positive control and received codeine sulphate (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and group 4, 5, 6, 7 received coded l formulations 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively at a dose of 0.3 ml/mice, orally, while group VIII was the vehicle control.
Differnt formulations was formulated by using Justicia adhatoda (Vasaka),Curcuma longa (Haridra), Curcuma Zeodaria (Shati), Ocimum sanctum (tulsi), Piper longum (pippali), Solanum surratense (Kantakari), Voila odorata (Banafsha), Vitis vinifera (Draksha), Alpinia galangal (Kulinjan), Mentha arvensis (Sat pudina), Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ammonium chloride (Navsadar) in different concentrations. Thirty minutes later, the mice were exposed to sulphur dioxide again for 45 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts, by two independent observers, for five minutes. All the formulations used showed significant antitussive activity in sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, these formulations can prove to be useful for alleviating cough 74.
- This Study Shows Antitussive Efficacy for Diphenhydramine, less for DXM. Diphenhydramine, a common antihistamine in cough/cold OTCs, proves more effective in suppressing cough than the common antitussive dextromethorphan, researchers say. Diphenhydramine is in FDA’s antitussive OTC monograph, but marketers are criticized for not demonstrating its and other cough/cold ingredients’ efficacy in trials 75.
- This study was done on the title of “Antitussive Effect of a Naturally Flavored Syrup Containing Diphenhydramine, Compared with Dextromethorphan and Placebo” on june 2014. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antitussive (cough-suppressing) effects of two liquid medications: a combination of diphenhydramine and phenylephrine in a naturally cocoa flavoring, and, dextromethorphan syrup, compared with placebo76.
The treatment of an acute cough is directed primarily at decreasing the cough in addition to treating the underlying cause. Symptomatic relief of cough can be provided by over-the-counter or prescription cough remedies. The treatment of a chronic cough will also be directed at treating the underlying condition. It is important to recognize that treatment may be difficult, may employ multiple approaches, and may not completely eliminate the cough. The treatment of a cough will depend largely on its severity and underlying cause.
A trial of antibiotics or inhaled corticosteroids may be tried in children with a chronic cough in an attempt to treat protracted bacterial bronchitis or asthma respectively. Cough medicines may be given if the patient cannot rest because of the cough or if the cough is not productive, as is the case with most coughs associated with colds or flu77. (Table 3, 4)
TABLE 3: CLASSIFICATION OF MODERN DRUGS USED TO TREAT COUGH 78
|Pharyngeal Demulcents||Lozenges, Cough Drops, Linctuses Containing Syrup, Glycerine, Liquorice|
|Expectorants (Mucokinetics)||Directly acting- Sodium Potassium Citrate, Guaicol, Balsum of Tolu, Vasaka,Reflex acting- Ammonium Chloride, Potassium, Iodide, Carbonate.Mucolytics- Bromhexin, Acetyl Cycteine, Carbocisteine, Ambroxol.|
|Antitussives (Cough Centre Suppressants)||Opioids- Codeine, Pholocodiene, Morhine, Ethylomorphine.Non Opioids- Chlophedianol, Dextromethorphan, Noscapine,Antihistamines- Chlorpheniramine, Diphenhydramine, Promethazine|
TABLE 4: SOME MARKETED ANTITUSSIVE-EXPECTORANT COMBINATIONS 79, 80
|Benadryl Cough Formula||Diphenhydramine , Ammonium chloride , Sodium Citrate , Menthol|
|Glycodin Cough Syrup||Terpin Hydrate, Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide , Menthol .|
|Cadicoff||Dextromethorphan , Chlorpheniramine , Guaiphenesin , Ammonium chloride|
|Cindexa Cough Syrups||Dextromethorphan, Phenyl Propanolamine Hcl , Chlorpheniramine Maleate|
|Cinkof Cough Syrups||Bromhexine Hydrochloride, Terbutaline Sulphate , Guaiphenesin|
|Torex Cough Syrup||Chlorpheniramine Maleate, Ammonium Chloride, Sodium Citrate, Menthol.|
CONCLUSION: Cough suppressant and expectorant activities have been claimed for many medicinal plants, in the literature. Based on this knowledge, different workers have evaluated many herbs for Antitussives & expectorant activities which have been compiled and reported in this study. This study also reveals the activities reported on marketed cough preparations used as antitussive & expectorant viz Narasimha churna an Ayurvedic formulation, Sitopaladi Churna is a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation, Joshina, a herbal polyherbal Unani Syrup and Vasu Cough Syrup, a polyherbal formulation. Many workers reported antitussive & expectorant activities of self formulated cough preparations consisting of different combinations of plants extract. This study also concentrates on modern drugs used in clinical practice for the treatment of cough.
Finally present study concludes by giving a comprehensive view of herbal drugs for the treatment of cough as crude drug as well as polyherbal formulations are good alternatives of modern cough drugs which are having a lot of side effects. This study also suggest the future prospects of conducting clinical research on these polyherbal formulations as well as individual crude drug to give the clinical evidence based strength for using these drugs in the treatment of cough.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors are thankful to Prof. S.W. Akhtar, Hon’ble V.C. of Integral University to give me a chance for being part of this university and for providing facilities to carry out this work.
- Kumar D, Bhat ZA, Chashoo IA, Deoda R Sand Kumar V: Bronchodilator Activity in Traditional Medicines: Gift of God Kingdom. In Tech 2011:171-190.
- Gairola S, Gupta V, Bansal P, Singh R, Maithani M: Herbal Antitussives And Expectorants – A Review. 2010;5(2):5-9
- Cragg GM, Newman DJ: International collaboration in drug discovery and development from natural sources. Pure Appl. Chem 2005; 77:1923-1942.
- Calixto JB: Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents). Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 2000; 33: 179–190.
- http://www.emedicinehealth.com/coughs/page6 em.htm
- Saraswathy GR, Sathiya R, Maheswari E: Medicinal Herbs - An Update Review. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res.2014; 6( 1) :12-19
- Madhu V, Chinnaiah B, Swamy TN.: Traditional herbal remedies to cure asthma in Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Pharmacy and Life Sciences 2011; (4): 217-221
- Ghosh AK, Bhattacharya S: Planar Chromatographic Studies on Abies Webbiana Leaves, International Journal of chem. tech research 2009; 1(4):807-814.
- Gairola S, Gupta V, Bansal P, Singh R and Maithani M: Herbal Antitussives and Expectorants-A Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review And Research 2010;5(2):5-9
- Tripathi G, Kumar A: Potential of living resources, Discovery publishing house, New Delhi, Edition 1, 2003: 344-347
- Ahmed A, Shashidhara S , Rajasekharan PE, Hareesh K, Honnesh NH : In vitro regeneration of Acorus calamus – an important medicinal plant, Journal of current pharmaceutical research 2010; 2(1): 36-39.
- Kokate CK, Gokhale AS, Gokhale SB: Cultivation of medicinal plant, Edition 5, Nirali prakashan, Pune, 2006: 11-79.
- Jahan Y, Siddiqui HH. Study of Antitussive Potential of Glycyrrhiza Glabra and Adhatoda Vasica Using A Cough Model Induced By Sulphur Dioxide Gas In Mice. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research 2012; Vol. 3(6):780–782.
- Khare CP: Indian medicinal plant, Springer publication, New Delhi, Edition 2, 2007: 24-40.
- Mclntyre A: Herbal treatment of children, Western and Ayurvedic Perspectives, Elesevier publication, Toronto, Edition 1, 2005:58.
- Coon JT, Ernst E: Andrographis paniculata in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Planta Med 2004; 70(4): 293–298.
- Jarukamjorn K, Nemoto N: Pharmacological Aspects of Andrographis paniculata on health and its major diterprnoid constituent andrographoloide. Journal of health sciences 2008; 54(4):270-381.
- Soudahmini E, Senthil GM, Panayappam L, Divakar MC: Herbal remedies of Madugga tribes of Siruvani forest, south India, Natural Product Radiance 2005; 4(6): 492-501.
- Goyal RK, Singh J, Lal H, and Sharma BD: Asparagus racemosus--an update, Indian Journal of medical science 2003; 57(9):408-414.
- Goyal KJ: Bacopa monniera Monograph, Alternative Medicine Safety, and Uses, Journal of Food Science, 2004; 9(1): 79-85.
- Wang D, Wang S, Chen X, Xu X, Zhu J, Nie L, Long X:Antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory activities of four alkaloids isolated from Bulbus of Fritillaria wabuensis J. Ethanophormocoloical 2012; 139(1):189-93
- Bhuiyan MNI, Chowdhury JU, Begum J, Chemical 43. Murray WJ, Millar LG: “Herbal Medications for Components in Volatile Oil from Blumea Balsamifera th (L.) Dc., Bangladesh J. Bot 2009; 38(1): 107-109.
- Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC:Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, CSIR, New Delhi, Edition 1,1980: 232.
- Krishnamurthy N, Nambudiri ES, Mathew AG, Lewis 45. Linda P: How to be your own herbal pharmacist: YS, Essential oil of ginger, Indian Perfumer 1970; 14(1): 1-3.
- Moon K, Khadabadi SS, Deokate UA, Deore SL: Caesalpinia bonducella F - An Overview, Report and Opinion, Scientific publication Journal 2010; 2(3): 83-90.
- Jaiwal PK, Singh RP: Improvement Strategies of Leguminosae Biotechnology, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Netherland, 2003:391.
- Longman O: Indian Medicinal plants, Orient Longman pvt ltd., Anna Salai, Chennai, Edition 1, 1996, 1: 488.
- Khan MTH, Ather A: Advances in phytomedicine , Lead molecule from natural product discovery and new trends, Elsevier Science, Netherland, Edition 1,2000, 2: 63-129.
- Brown OP: Complete Herbalist, Logos press, New Delhi, 2009, 1:120.
- Sunita P, Jha S, Pattanayak SP: In-vivo Antitussive Activity of Cressa cretica Linn. Using Cough Model in Rodents. A rapid publication Journal 2009; 1(3): 157-161.
- Williamson EM: Major herbs of Ayurvedha, Published by Dabur Research Foundation and Dabur Ayurved Limited, Ghaziabad, India, Edition 1,2002 :47-55.
- Yadav CS:Indian medicinal plant in children disease, Jaikrishna Ayurvedha Series 101, Chaukhambha orientalia, Varanasi, Edition 1,2000:17-53.
- Robbers JE, Tyler VE, Tyler’s Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicines, Haworth herbal Press, New York, 1999:123.
- Welstead WJ, Robins AH: Expectorants, Antitussives, and Related Agents in ECT, Edition 3, Vol. 9,2011: 542–560
- Mahadevan S, Park Y:Multifaceted Therapeutic Benefits of Ginkgo biloba L Chemistry, Efficacy, Safety, and Uses, Journal of Food Science 2008; 73( 1):14-19.
- Murray WJ, Millar LG: “Herbal Medications for the Gastrointestinal Problems”, A Clinician’s Guide, Pharmaceutical Products Press, New York, Edition 5, 1998:79-93.
- Nadkarni AK: Materia Medica, Popular prakashan pvt. Ltd., Bombay, 1976:561-611
- Linda P: How to be your own herbal pharmacist herbal traditions, Expert formulation, Elsevier Science, Netherland, Edition 3 ,1998:185.
- Wong KC, Ong KS, and Lim CL: Composition of the essential oil of rhizomes of Kaempferia galanga L. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 1992; 7(5): 263.
- Winston D: Herbalist, The American Extra Pharmacopoeia,1, 2005:1-6
- Kaul MK: Medicinal plants of Kashmir and Ladhak, Indus publishing company, New Delhi, 1997: 93.
- Sultana N, Khan RA, Azhar I: Anti-Tussive Effect And Gross Toxicities Of Methanol Extract Of Mucuna Pruriens (L) Dc In Comparison Of Codeine Phosphate. International Research Journal Of Pharmacy 2013;4 (6): 62-65
- Chakraborty BD, Devanna N: Antitussive, expectorant activity of Marsilea minuta, an Indian vegetable.J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2013; 4(1): 61–64.
- Warrier PK, Nambiar VPK, Ramankutty C: Indian Medicinal Plants, Orient Longman Ltd, Madras, Edition 3, 1993, 5: 102.
- Pattanayak P, Behera P, Das D, Panda SK, Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications An overview, Pharmacognosy Review, 2010, 4(7), 95-105
- Nadig PD, Laxmi S: Study of antitussive activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn in guinea pigs. Ind JPhysiol Pharmacol 2005; 49 (2): 243–245.
- Saraswathy GR, Maheswari E, Saravanan KS, Raju A: Anti-Tussive Activity Of Oldenlandia Umbellata On Cough Reflex Induced By Sulfur Dioxide In Mice. Pharmacologyonline 2008; 3: 257-262
- Nosaova G, Mokr J, Atherb A, Khan MTH: Antitussive Activity Of The Ethanolic Extract of Paederia Foetida In Non-Anaesthetized Cats.Acta Vet Brno 2007; 76: 27–33
- Batanoun KH: A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa Plantago Lancelota L., Haworth herbal Press, New York, 1753:211-213.
- Pulliah T: Encyclopedia of world medicinal plant, Regency publication, New Delhi, 1999, 4:36.
- Mors WB, Nascimento CL, Bettina M, Ruppelt P, Pereira NA: Plant natural products active against snakebite, the molecular approach, Phytochemistry, 2000; 55: 627-642.
- Kaul MK: Medicinal plants of Kashmir and Ladhak, Indus publishing company, New Delhi, Edition 1,1997; 93
- George A. Koffuor, Jones O, Samuel K, Antwi S, Abokyi S:Anti-tussive, muco-suppressant and expectorant properties, and the safety profile of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2014; 3(3):457-453
- Chung HS, Hon PM, Lin G, But PPH, Dong H: Antitussive activity of Stemona alkaloids from Stemona tuberosa. Planta Medica. 2003. 69:914–920.
- Aiyer KN, Kolammal M: Pharmacgnosy of Auyrvedic drugs, Trivandrum Nos, 4, 1960: 122.
- Akhila A, Tewari R, Chemistry of ginger: A review. Curr. Research. Med. Arom. Plants, 1984; 6(3):143-156
- Bhaskara RR, Murugesan T, Pal M, saha BP, Mandal SC: Antitussive potential of methanol extract of stem bark of Ficus racemosa Linn. Phytother Res 2003; 17(9): 1117–1118.
- Dhawan K, Sharma A: Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves. Fitoterapia 2002; 73(5): 397–399.
- Boominathan R, Devi BP, Mandal SC: Evaluation of antitussive potential of Ionidium suffruticosam Ging. (Violaceae) extract in albino mice. Phytother Res 2003; 17(7): 838–839.
- Srinath K, Murugesan T, Kumar ChA, Suba V, Das AK, Sinha S, Arunachalam G, ManikandanL. Effect of Trichodesma indicum extract on cough reflex induced by sulphur dioxide in mice. Phytomedicine 2002; 9(1): 75–77.
- Mazumdar A, Saha BP, Basu SP, Mazumdar R, Boominathan R, Devi BP, Mandal SC: Evaluation of antitussive activity of Lagerstroemia parviflora leaf extract. Phytother Res 2004; 18(9): 780–782
- Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Bhatacharya S, Giri SN, Pal M, Saha BP:Studies on antitussive activity of Drymaria cordata Willd.J Ethnopharmacol 1997; 56(1): 77–80.
- Saha K, Mukherjee PK, Murugesan T, Saha BP, Pal M: Studies on in vivo antitussive activity of Leucas lavandulaefolia using a cough model induced by sulfur dioxide gas in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 1997; 57(2): 89–92.
- Murugesan T, Ghos L, Mukherjee PK, Pal M, Saha BP: Evaluation of antitussive potential of Jussiaea suffruticosa linn. extract in albino mice. Phytother Res 2000; 14(7): 541–542.
- Mandal SC, Kumar CKA, Mohana LS, Sinha S, Murugesan T, Saha BP, Pal M: Antitussive effect of Asparagus racemosus root against sulfur dioxide-induced cough in mice. Fitoterapia 2000; 71(6): 686–689.
- Miyagoshi M, Amagaya S, Ogihara Y: Antitussive effect s of L-ephedrine, amygdalin, and makyokansekito using a cough model induced by sulfur dioxide gas in mice. Plant Med 1986; (4): 275–278.
- Shivatare RS, Pande AS, Bhusnar HU, Kadam PV, Yadav KN, and Patil MJ: Standardization of Narasimha Churna: A Poly-Herbal Formulation. Asian journal of biomedical sciences and research 2013; e-ISSN: 2249-622X: 23-27.
- Pattanayak P, Panda SK, Dash S, Behera M, Mishra SK: Study Of Anti-Tussive Activity of Sitopaladi Churna: A Poly-Herbal Formulation. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 2010; 4(2): 65-67
- Kheterpal K , Khanna T, Arora RB And Siddiqui HH: Study Of A Unani, Polypharmaceutical Preparation Joshina As Antitussive And Expectorant In Experimental Models; Indian J. Pharmac 1987; I(9): 200-204
- Patel H, Upadhyay U, Upadhyay S, Soni H, Patel P:Evaluation Of Antitussive Activity Of Vasu Cough Syrup In Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)Induced Cough Model In Mice. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation 2013; 2 (3):13-15
- Shah BN: Evaluation of Polyherbal Formulation Zeal Cough Syrup for Antitussive Activity in Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Induced Cough Model. International journal of advances in pharmaceutical research 2013;4(5):20-23
- Meher A , Mohapatra TK, Nayak RR, Pradhan AR, Agrahari AK, Mohapatra TR, Ghosh M K: Antitussive Evaluation Of Formulated Polyherbal Cough Syrup. Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics 2012; 2(5): 61-64
- Harsoliya MS, Patel VM, Singh S, Pathan JK: Anti tussive effect of multi uses medicinal plants on sulfur dioxide gas induced cough reflex in mice. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2011;4(11): 4123-4125
- Gupta YK, Katyal J, Kumar G, Mehla J, Katiyar CK, Sharma N And Yadav S: Evaluation of Antitussive Activity Of Formulations With Herbal Extracts In Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Induced Cough Model In Mice. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2009; 53 (1) : 61–66
- Francis E: Study Shows Antitussive Efficacy for Diphenhydramine, Less for DXM. The Tan Sheet published by Pharma and med Tech Business intelligence, april 2015: Article # 05150413004.
- https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02062710, (June 2014 Final data collection date for primary outcome measure) gov processed this record on April 21, 2015
- Tripathi KD: Essentials Of Medical Pharmacology, Jaypee Publishers, New Delhi, Edition 5:195-198
How to cite this article:
Jahan Y, Mahmood T, Bagga P, Kumar A, Singh K and Md. Mujahid: Future Prospects of Cough Treatment; Herbal Medicines v/s Modern Drugs. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2015; 6(9): 3689-97.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6(9).3689-97.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Y. Jahan, T. Mahmood*, P. Bagga, A. Kumar, K. Singh and Md. Mujahid
Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Kursi Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
05 February, 2015
25 April, 2015
29 May, 2015
01 September, 2015