NON DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR GENE AND DRUG DELIVERY IN LIVING CELLAbstract
Gene transfer represents a relatively new way for the treatment of rare genetic disorders by changing the expression of a person’s genes. Electroporation is a mechanical method of gene transfer used to introduce polar molecules such as DNA, RNA and Peptides (Heparin, Insulin) into a host cell through the cell membrane. In this procedure, a large electric pulse temporarily disturbs the phospholipid bilayer, allowing molecules like DNA to pass into the cell. With careful control of the strength of the electrical field and the duration of the cell’s exposure to it, the pores will reseal themselves after a short period of time. There are nine ways for gene transfer: 1. Electroporation; 2. Lipid mediated method; 3. Chemical mediated gene transfer; 4. Microinjection; 5. Biolistics; 6. Viral vectors; 7. Transformation; 8. Conjunction; 9. Gene Transfection enhanced by elevated temperature. Among a number of techniques using lipid, viruses or specialty reagents may be cytotoxic, labor intensive and costly while, Electroporation is a simple, inexpensive, safe, non toxic and non viral method. The application of electroporation to enhance transdermal delivery has opened up a new possibility to introduce larger molecules such as peptide hormones and vaccines as well as minigenes and RNAi etc. This review describes the method by which polar molecules are delivered to the cells. Other important issues such as the instrumentation, advantages and application of Electroporation are also addressed. Electroporation is non destructive method of gene and drug delivery.