NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION: SOURCE AND PREVENTIONAbstract
Nowadays, Hospital-acquired infection is one of the significant issues, as the mortality rate is frequently increasing. This may be due to the unhygienic environment of various medical clinics and hospitals, a wide range of antibiotic uses. Nosocomial infections are those which are acquired by the patient within 48-72 h or 3 days of admission in the hospital or medical care unit. The microbes cause nosocomial infections originated in hospitals, clinics, and medical care center. The mode of transfer of hospital-acquired infection can be either by direct or by indirect contact. Vectors involve the organisms that act as a carrier for the spread of disease by dispersion of causative pathogens. Cockroaches, ants, and flies come in direct contact with faces of the patient, and contaminated objects can cause disease by cross-contamination of other objects which can lead to infection. Nosocomial infection can be prevented by minimizing the spread of causative agents, isolation for the patient suffering from infectious disease and maintaining well sanitary conditions in hospitals and medical care unit. A medical device or surgical instrument which comes in contact with the patient during treatment or operation procedure has an associated risk of disease transmission which is due to failure of sterilization or disinfection. Microbial air contamination is monitored by colony forming unit per cubic meter (CFU/m3) count. This can be done either by passive or active sampling methods. Nosocomial infection can be prevented by minimizing the spread of causative agents, isolation for the patient suffering from infectious disease and maintaining well sanitary conditions in hospitals and medical care unit.
M. Joshi, S. Kaur, H. P. Kaur and T. Mishra *
Department of Biotechnology, UIBT, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Mohali, Punjab, India.
22 July 2018
28 November 2018
19 January 2019
01 April 2019