POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF METABOLIC CHANGES OF BIOCHEMICAL METABOLISM IN THE CONDITIONS OF EXPERIMENTAL ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS (DM)Abstract
Alloxan diabetes mellitus (DM) simulates acute metabolic stress in a different direction, whose starting point is primary lysis of β-cells in the pancreas. Disorders in the system of the major insulin-induced regulatory mechanism occur, initiating imbalance in the system of a living organism generally. Primary changes occur on the level of metabolic ways of the cells of the pancreas and liver: redistribution of mitochondrial and microsomal processes of oxidation with possible synthesis of new isoenzymatic forms of important metabolic enzymes, disturbance of synthesis of regulatory proteins and, as a result, degenerative changes in the cellular structure (lysis, necrosis and apoptosis). Despite the numerous and even contradictory points of view, the theory of cell lysis with the increase of transaminases activity is still predominant. Cytolytic syndrome leads to the destruction of liver cells, the concentration of serum GOT increases dramatically (probably due to the mitochondrial fraction). Under conditions of alloxan-induced diabetic rat model intensification of oxidative stress processes occur provoking changes, which are typical for chronic hepatitis. Alloxan diabetes serves as a classic example of free radical pathology. The next probable link involved in this pathogenesis will be nervous system and general cerebral dysfunction of the body. Numerous disputable data are the evidence of neuroendocrine regulation of the triple system where enzymatic activity or concentration of metabolic indices is the result of many cascade reactions or associated parallel conductors in the system of involved organs, first of all the pancreas and liver. Alloxan diabetes is an example of prior activation of the enzymatic systems. It serves to ensure metabolic changes under conditions of increased generation of hydroxyl radicals and disorders of transmembrane transport both between organelles inside the cells and in the intercellular space.
O. G. Chernyukh *, M. V. Dikal and V. Gerushi
Department of Bioorganic and Biological Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Bukovinian State Medical University, Ukraine.
13 January 2019
10 October 2019
22 October 2019
01 November 2019