PREVALENCE OF PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS IN MEAT SAMPLES OF ONGKHARAK NAKHONNAYOK THAILANDHTML Full Text
PREVALENCE OF PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS IN MEAT SAMPLES OF ONGKHARAK NAKHONNAYOK THAILAND
M. Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy * and Jitrapun Pusapukdepob
Faculty of Public Health, St. Theresa International College, 1Moo 6, Rangsit, Nakhonnayok Road, Klong 14, Bungsan, Ongkharak, Nakhonnayok - 26120, Thailand.
ABSTRACT: Globally, foodborne pathogens are the origin of diseases and deaths. To prevent the foodborne pathogens billions of dollars spending. Coliforms level, psychrotrophs mesophiles, E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, are routinely assessed to determine microbial safety, sanitation conditions, improper hygiene in poultry carcasses. Thai-population consumes more broiler meat due to its availability and eases to cook, although it could be potential to contaminate with wide varieties of microorganisms. Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter, and Listeria are the most common food born pathogenic microorganisms. Presence of pathogenic microorganisms in meat could be harmful to human and potential to cause food spoilage. Hence, this can be used as indicator organisms to detect the pathogenicity of food, especially in meat and meat products. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms, which causes food poisoning in broiler meat as well as discusses concerning public health importance. The findings of this study suggest that the consumption of cross-contaminated meat with pathogenic organisms may pose a serious threat to local consumers. E. coli and Salmonella was observed at higher prevalences in chicken meat samples collected from raw meat sellers of the study area. The results of the study provided concrete evidence on zoonotic transmission of the pathogenic organisms to human.
Prevalence, Meat, Pathogenic organisms, E. Coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus
INTRODUCTION: Majority of Thai-population consumes broiler meat due to its availability and ease to cook, although it could be potential to contaminate with wide varieties of microorganisms. Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter, and Listeria are the most common food born pathogenic microorganisms 1. In general, pathogens tend to be disseminated during the different stages of slaughtering processing 2.
According to global epidemiological studies indicates that broiler meat and poultry products play an essential role in food poisoning 3. Prevalence of spoilage and pathogenic organisms in poultry meat and its products remain a remarkable concern for suppliers, retailers, consumers 4, 5 as well as poultry producers and global public health professionals.
Poultry meat and its products are often infected with different pathogenic organisms such as E. coli, Salmonella and can be transmitted to mammals either handling of carcasses or consumption of uncooked meat 6. Salmonella typically occurs in poultry, and its products, especially meat products, are concerned as a vector for foodborne diseases. Worldwide, salmonellosis is one of the most frequently reported foodborne diseases 7.
Campylobacteriosis, mainly occurs due to animal origins especially meat and its products play a key role in the dissemination of campylobacteriosis in humans. In the United States of America, C. jejuni reported as common causative of foodborne infections and has been emerged as the most common cause for bacterial gastroenteritis in humans 8. Coliforms level, psychrotrophs mesophiles, E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, are routinely assessed to determine microbial safety, sanitation conditions, improper hygiene in poultry carcasses.
Globally, foodborne pathogens are the origin of diseases and deaths. To prevent the foodborne pathogens billions of dollars spending 9. E. coli is one of the common origins of foodborne diseases in mammals. Resistant strains of E. coli infect at all the age groups, and acid resistance, a wide range of infections are the severe consequences 10. The severity of the infections depends on the host susceptibility, virulence of the E. coli, and dose. Prevalence of resistant strains of E. coli results in mild and severe bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and or hemolytic uremic syndrome, which lead to kidney failure 10, 11. Livestock animals are the primary reservoirs of E. coli, and meat products are determined ass major root cause of foodborne transmission 10, 12. Carcass contamination occurs through skin-to-carcass or fecal-to-carcass transfer of the pathogen during the slaughter process at processing plants 13, 14, 15. These are the major concerns for human infection. However, during the processing of meat direct, indirect and or cross-contamination may occur. Antimicrobials are using mainly reduce pathogen shedding 16, 17 and washing of skin and carcass 18.
For the first time, by using genetic fingerprinting techniques, Kudva et al.,19 found multiple strains of E. coli O157: H7 in a single flock of sheep and showed that a single animal shed multiple strains simultaneously and that strains shed by individuals changed over time. Escherichia coli O157: H7 has been isolated from animal drinking water, animal feed, flies, and a pigeon at dairy farms in Wisconsin 20. The majority of isolates collected at these farms had the same genetic fingerprint. Although various methods are available for genetic characterization of bacterial isolates, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) has been used successfully in the past for E. coli O157: H7 21, 22, 23 and is less costly and time-consuming than other methods. As a source of animal protein, goat meat has for long occupied a special place in the diet for a variety of reasons including taste preference, prestige, religion, tradition, and availability, in almost all the communities of the country with the nutritional aspects being included more recently. The meat was the first important food that met up the hunger of ancient people living in cave 24. It plays a very vital role in keeping the human body strong to provide energy and health 25. But, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in meat could be harmful to human and potential to cause food spoilage.
Hence, this can be used as indicator organisms to detect the pathogenicity of food, especially in meat and meat products. Many researchers have isolated and identified heterogeneous types of microflora from fresh meat, recently reported in Ongkharak, Nakhonnayok, Thailand 26. Plasmid analysis has also proved a useful method for differentiating bacterial isolates 27, 28. The number and size of the plasmids present are used as the basis for strain identification. This strain typing technique has been used successfully for the analysis of outbreaks of nosocomial infections 29 and community-acquired infections 30 caused by a variety of species of gram-negative rods. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pathogenic micro-organisms, which causes food poisoning in broiler meat as well as discusses concerning public health importance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Samples Collection: A total of 1105 samples were collected from chicken broiler from processing plants and retail shops in Ongkharak Nakhonnayok, Thailand. Samples were wrapped in a sterile polyethylene bag and identified. The collected carcase samples were transported immediately to the laboratory under controlled conditions.
Sample Preparation: Skin and muscle samples of neck, breast and thigh skin and muscle samples include breast and thigh muscle. 10 g samples were collected aseptically from each category followed by ICMSF 31. The bacterial count was carried out according to APHA 32. Coliforms most probable number (MPN) was conducted by three tubes protocol, fecal coliforms most probable number (MPN), E. coli most probable number (MPN) and S. aureus count.
Bacterial Isolation: Salmonella isolation according to ISO 6579:2002 33, E. coli isolation according to APHA, Staphylococcus aureus isolation according to APHA 32, & Campylobacter isolation according to ISO 10272-1: 2006 34.
RESULTS: Out of 1105 samples 416(75.6%) of E. coli isolated from chicken meat processing plant and retail shops and 51.11%, 30.37%, 48.88%, 48.14% of E. coli isolated from faecal, skin swabs, intestinal mucosa, and environmental samples collected from processing plant with an overall prevalence of 44.63%. Whereas samples from retail shops such as carcass (50.83%), hands (24.16%), knife (30%), cutting board (37.50%), and health centers (4.70%) with 30.97% of overall prevalence of E. coli in samples collected from retail shops Table 1. The highest prevalence of E. coli strains in the study area suggests that the high concern for the community health.
Environmental sampling attributed as a useful method to check whether it has any impact on the persistence and dissemination of E. coli strains. Prevalence of E. coli in meat and environmental samples reveals the detrimental effects of E. coli and the importance of hygiene of food products.
TABLE 1: PREVALENCE OF E. COLI FROM DIFFERENT SAMPLES OF PROCESSING PLANTS, RETAIL MARKETS AND HEALTH CENTERS IN ONGKHARAK, THAILAND
|Source of the sample||Type of sample||Samples examined (n)||Positives (n)||Frequency (%)|
|Intestinal mucosal swab||135||66||48.88|
|The overall prevalence in processing plants||540||241||44.63|
|The overall prevalence in retail shops||565||175||30.97|
TABLE 2: PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA FROM DIFFERENT SAMPLES OF PROCESSING PLANTS, RETAIL MARKETS AND HEALTH CENTERS IN ONGKHARAK, THAILAND
|Source of the sample||Type of sample||Samples examined (n)||Positives (n)||Frequency (%)|
|Intestinal mucosal swab||135||29||21.48|
|The overall prevalence in processing plants||540||216||40.0|
|The overall prevalence in retail shops||565||203||35.92|
Out of 1105 samples 419(75.92%) of Salmonella isolated from chicken meat processing plant, retail shops, and 41.48%, 31.11%, 21.48%, 65.92% of Salmonella isolated from fecal, skin swabs, intestinal mucosa, and environmental samples collected from processing plant with an overall prevalence of 40%. Whereas samples from retail shops such as carcass (40.83%), hands (54.16%), knife (32.50%), cutting board (36.66%), and health centers (7.06%) with 35.92% of overall prevalence in samples collected from retail shops Table 2.
The higher levels of Salmonella in the study area suggests that the high concern for community health. Prevalence of Salmonella in meat and environmental samples reveals the detrimental effects of food poisoning microorganisms and the importance of hygiene of food products.
TABLE 3: PREVALENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FROM DIFFERENT SAMPLES OF PROCESSING PLANTS, RETAIL MARKETS AND HEALTH CENTERS IN ONGKHARAK, THAILAND
|Source of the sample||Type of sample||Samples examined (n)||Positives (n)||Frequency (%)|
|Intestinal mucosal swab||135||47||34.81|
|The overall prevalence in the processing plant||540||201||37.22|
|The overall prevalence in retail shops||565||132||23.36|
Out of 1105 samples 333(60.58%) of S. aureus from chicken meat processing plant, retail shops, and 28.88%, 40%, 34.81%, 45.18% of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fecal, skin swabs, intestinal mucosa, and environmental samples collected from processing plant with an overall prevalence of 37.77%. Whereas samples from retail shops such as carcass (46.66%), hands (6.66%), knife (23.33%), cutting board (30%), and health centers (4.70%) with 23.36% of overall prevalence in samples collected from retail shops Table 3. The higher levels of Staphylococcus aureus in the study area suggest that the high concerns for the community health and need to take initiatives to prevent the food poisoning pathogens. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in meat and environmental samples shows the importance of hygiene of food products.
TABLE 4: PREVALENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI FROM DIFFERENT SAMPLES OF PROCESSING PLANTS, RETAIL MARKETS AND HEALTH CENTERS IN ONGKHARAK, THAILAND
|Source of the sample||Type of sample||Samples examined (n)||Positives (n)||Frequency (%)|
|Intestinal mucosal swab||135||61||45.18|
|The overall prevalence in processing plants||540||175||32.40|
|The overall prevalence in retail shops||565||103||18.23|
Out of 1105 samples 278(39.718%) of C. jejuni from chicken meat processing plant, retail shops, and 34.81%, 28.14%, 45.18%, 21.48% of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from faecal, skin swabs, intestinal mucosa, and environmental samples collected from processing plant with an overall prevalence of 32.40%. Whereas samples from retail shops such as carcass (32.406%), hands (45.0%), knife (3.33%), cutting board (13.33%), and health centers (2.35%) with 18.23% of overall prevalence in samples collected from retail shops Table 4. The higher levels of Campylobacter jejuni in the study area suggests that the high concerns for the community health and need to take initiatives to prevent the food poisoning pathogens and the importance of hygiene of food products.
DISCUSSION: The results of the study provided concrete evidence in food pathogenic organisms Table 1, 2, 3 and 4 similar result was reported 35, whereas higher prevalence was reported by Bhandari et al., 36. On the other hand, lower levels of coliform counts were reported by Buhr et al., 37 in breast skin, neck skin 38, breast 39 and thigh muscles of chickens 40. Elevated levels of coliforms may be attributed as live birds and animals are hosts to a wide variety of microorganisms residing on their skin, feathers or in the alimentary tract. In generally, the slaughtering process of birds is considered as highly contaminated with bacteria. Most of these pathogenic microorganisms are eliminated during slaughter.
Subsequently, contamination may occur at any of these stages such as production process, feather plucking, evisceration and washing, environment, equipment, freezing, and workers hands can cause contamination of meat and its products. Similar findings have been reported by Kotula and Pandya 41 and Geornaras et al., 42.
Prevalence of coliform bacteria, fecal coliforms is good microbial indicators of the potential presence of disease. Fecal coliforms had been used as an indicator for fecal contamination. Fecal contamination may occur due to the contaminated carcasses from the gut of slaughtered birds and later which passed on as contaminants. Improper evisceration may lead to a significant increase in carcass contamination. The results of this study by the reports of Russell and Walker 43, Adeyanju and Ishola 44, similarly E. coli 45 and Berrang et al., 46, Cohenet 47 in chicken meat, in skin 37, 38, 40, 41, 42. The isolated serotypes were O157 and O18 from chicken.
Adesiji et al., 47 found and reported that E. coli has been isolated worldwide from poultry meat. Elevated level isolates of E. coli were reported 48 and he reported that 90% isolated E. coli from breast and 100% from thigh skin respectively, in another study Saikia and Joshi 49 reported that 98% E. coli was isolated from chicken meat and Odwar et al., 50 who reported that 78% contamination by E. coli in chicken meat. On the contrary lower levels of E. coli, isolates were reported 44, 47. E. coli is a natural inhabitant of the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals and humans. This could be used as an indicator of the presence of the bacterium.
Prevalence of these micro-organisms reflects contamination and indicates possible contamination of the enteric pathogen. Raw or uncooked food stuff get contaminated either production, slaughtering or handling, processing, cross contamination (human-to-food contamination) 44. After, slaughtering poultry carcasses scalded in a common scaling tank in retail poultry meat shops, under poor hygienic conditions such as stagnant water, excreta and or non-bactericidal temperatures, etc., these conditions serve as a transmitter for contamination, and finally, contamination disseminates to all the birds 51.
Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from various samples of chicken meat processing plant, retail shops, and 28.88%, 40%, 34.81%, 45.18% of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fecal, skin swabs, intestinal mucosa, and environmental samples collected from processing plant with an overall prevalence of 37.77%. Whereas, samples from retail shops such as carcass (46.66%), hands (6.66%), knife (23.33%), cutting board (30%), and health centers (4.70%) with 23.36% of overall prevalence in samples collected from retail shops Table 3. Similar results were reported 52, 53, 54, 55. Elevated levels were reported 56, 57, 58, 59.
The higher prevalence rates of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed in this study. The higher prevalence rates of Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli could be attributed to the poor hygienic conditions and improper usage of techniques to open the abdomen of the birds. However, hand evisceration predominantly affects the hygiene of the workers as well as the surrounding environment. The high prevalence rate of specific pathogenic microorganisms interlinked with poor hygiene and human contact. The occurrence of Salmonella indicates the poor hygienic practices during slaughtering and processing of meat 60, 61, 62.
The results of this study revealed and provided concrete evidence on how poor hygienic practices could influence the quality and hygiene of poultry meat. The pathogenic organisms can be disseminated through the work environment, intestinal contents, skin, carcasses, and knives. The results of this study by the previous studies 63, 64, 65, 66. On the contrary, some reported lower levels 67, 68. Poultry meat often infected through poor hygiene of carcasses and undercooked poultry products 69, 70. Presence of pathogenic micro-organisms in meat could be harmful to human and potential to cause food spoilage. Hence, this can be used as indicator organisms to detect the pathogenicity of food especially in meat and meat products 26.
Salmonella, a most inculpated food poisoning pathogen which often found in poultry meat attributed as increasing the public health concerns. Because it can act as a symbiotic organism as well as adisease-producing pathogen. Salmonella can cause a wide range of diseases such as skin, bone and joint infections, food poisoning, bacteraemia, medical implant implications, and act as virulent factor. The salmonellosis is emerging and remerging incidence in human health, due to these reasons poultry infections alarms the public health professionals. The poultry industry and its products are the major reservoirs for salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella in chicken meat may be attributed as an outcome of intestinal cross-contamination, poor hygienic procedures, unorganized retail marketing, and water which used for washing of hands, carcasses, containers as a whole all these could be contaminated through feces or cross contamination. The study revealed that raw chicken meat was often contaminated with salmonella and E. coli in retail markets of Ongkharak, Nakhon Nayok Thailand. Poultry meat often infected with pathogenic microorganisms through poor hygiene of carcasses, production premises, surrounding environment and undercooked poultry products.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that the consumption of cross-contaminated meat with pathogenic organisms may pose a serious threat to local consumers. E. coli and Salmonella was observed at higher prevalences in chicken meat samples collected from raw meat sellers of the study area. It indicates the transmission of the pathogenic organisms by the animal to human. Results suggest that the high prevalence of E. coli and Salmonella in chicken meat may be due to current sanitary systems at processing units and retail shops. Further, epidemiological studies need to be undertaken on production and processing systems in poultry to substantiate the findings of the study.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Reddy MVB and Pusapukdepod J: Prevalence of pathogenic organisms in meat samples of Ongkharak Nakhonnayok Thailand. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2019; 10(5): 2335-42. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(5).2335-42.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
M. V. B. Reddy * and J. Pusapukdepob
Faculty of Public Health, St. Theresa International College, Bungsan, Ongkharak, Nakhonnayok, Thailand.
28 August 2018
13 November 2018
29 November 2018
01 May 2019