SCORPION VENOM AND ITS COMPONENTS AS NEW PHARMACEUTICAL APPROACH TO CANCER TREATMENT, A SYSTEMATIC REVIEWHTML Full Text
SCORPION VENOM AND ITS COMPONENTS AS NEW PHARMACEUTICAL APPROACH TO CANCER TREATMENT, A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Mohammadreza Moradi 1, Reza Solgi 2, Babak Vazirianzadeh 3, Hamid Tanzadehpanah 1 and Massoud Saidijam * 1
Molecular Medicine Research Center 1, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
Legal Medicine Research Center 2, Legal Medicine Organization of Iran, Hamadan, Iran.
Department of Parasitology and Mycology 3, College of Medicine Jundi Shapour University of Medical Sciences Ahwaz, Iran.
ABSTRACT: The use of scorpion venom has a very old history in traditional medicine for thousands years ago in China, India and Africa worldwide. The inhibition of cancer progression and induce apoptosis have shown in an increasing number in-vitro and in-vivo studies. We accomplished this systematic review to evaluate the performance of scorpion venom and its components in the growth inhibition of cancer cell lines. To provide a full data for future researches, the in-vitro and in-vivo studies were adopted in this research. The literature search for the published articles from January 1st, 1968 to January 1th, 2018 was done in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Science Direct. All the articles were independently screened by applying some predefined criteria by two reviewers in three consecutive steps. We identified 53 eligible studies from among 1,209 studies. So far, scorpion venom and its components have been discovered to inhibit the growth of 38 various types of cancer cell lines. This was the first systematic review includes some tables that provided some valuable information to the reader on the therapeutic properties of scorpion venom and its components in the sphere of cancer treatment. We found some studies showing that these agents have been able to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, while having no effects on the normal cells using the same doses. The findings of this research strongly reinforced the hypothesis that these agents provide a new efficient approach to cancer treatment.
Antineoplastic Agents, Apoptosis, Cancer, Cell Proliferation, Neoplasms, Scorpion Venoms
INTRODUCTION: Scorpions have lived anywhere on the earth since over 400 million years ago. More than 1,500 species have been reported to exist so far 1. Due to developing such symptoms as pain, swelling, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, and other systemic complexities caused by stinging and subsequent envenomation, they have spread a negative reputation among people 2, 3.
Nevertheless, the Chinese, Indian, and African traditional medicines have made a use of scorpions and their venoms for thousands of years 4. The direct and indirect functions of these cytotoxic agents broadly involve the ion channels of cell membranes and activation of cellular metabolic pathways, perhaps with the help of secondary messengers, respectively 5. Yet, besides their neurotoxic activities, some have antitumor properties. Under in-vitro or in-vivo conditions, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, as well as inhibition of cancer proliferation and metastasis have been demonstrated to be caused by some purified peptides and proteins with the help of crude scorpion venom in an increasing number of pre-clinical and experimental researches 3. In this regard, new potent anticancer drugs with fewer side effects have been continuously searched by oncologists since some drugs have been found to leave adverse effects on the non-involved vital organs like nervous system, heart, liver, bladder, kidney, and lungs 6. This approach has led to choosing scorpion venom and its components as good candidates for cancer treatment.
Although there were some review articles collecting some studies about the anti-cancer properties of scorpion venom, there was no study, in which the data had been fully extracted. Thus, we performed a systematic review includes some tables that provide valuable information to the reader.
1.1. The Criteria for Including Studies: Since the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate a natural venom performance in the treatment of cancer cell lines, we designed some criteria for the selection of studies to help us answer our study question. We selected the studies, in which cancer cell lines had been exclusively used for showing the modulatory effects of scorpion venom on the mentioned cell growth. There were many studies using cell lines because of their immortalities and highly growth rate properties. In such studies, the main objective had been to study the mechanisms of scorpion venom effects, especially on ion channel blockers. Therefore, we excluded these studies regarding the titles and abstracts.
1.2. Study Selection: This systematic review was performed following the recommendations outlined in the PRISMA guidelines. Here include at least the web address (www.prisma-statement.org). After searching in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct online databases, we manually searched for the reference lists of all the relevant articles for additional studies. The duplicated studies were removed and the first reviewer (M.R) excluded those articles that did not meet the eligibility criteria with regard to the titles and abstracts. The full texts were read when necessary. If the first reviewer could not decide on excluding the article, the second reviewer (M.S) was asked for consultation until both reached a consensus. Furthermore, a single reviewer collected the relevant data from the included articles for the study.
1.3. Data Extraction: To prepare a full extraction from the included studies, we divided the data extraction into two separate parts including the in -vitro and in-vivo studies. For the in-vitro studies, we extracted the author(s), year, cell line, organism, disease, scorpion species, crude venom/component, IC50, and the results (positive or negative).
2.1. Search Results: Our search in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Science Direct databases provided a total of 1,209 citations. We manually searched the reference lists of all the related articles for additional studies and found 20 studies. After adjusting for the duplicates, 334 articles were remained. Two hundred and fourteen studies were discarded because after reviewing their titles and abstracts, it appeared that the papers did not clearly meet the criteria. The full texts of the remaining 94 citations were examined in detail. Finally, 53 studies were identified to be included in the study. Fig. 1 exhibits the search and study selection processes provided in a flow chart of this systematic review.
Data Extraction: After including the eligible studies based on the goal of this research, we separately extracted the data from the in-vitro and in vivo studies. The number of in-vivo studies was less than that of the in-vitro studies (13 vs. 40 studies). The results revealed that this natural venom and its components had inhibited the growth of 38 various types of cancer cell lines. The in-vitro and in-vivo successes in the growth inhibition were 92% and 100%, respectively. Also, the cell lines of 28 various types of the disease were found to have been defeated by these agents. The venoms of 18 species had been used in the treatment in the two forms of crude venom and component. Their summaries of numerical information are displayed in Tables 1 and 2, respectively.
FIG. 1: PRISM A DIAGRAM OF SCREENING PROCESS AND STUDY SELECTION
TABLE 1: SUMMARY OF NUMERICAL INFORMATION IN VITRO STUDIES
|Cell lines||Organism||Disease||Scorpion species||Crude venom / component||Result|
TABLE 2: SUMMARY OF NUMERICAL INFORMATION IN VIVO STUDIES
|Cell lines||Organism||Disease||Crude venom / component||Result|
The in-vitro and in-vivo results of the data extraction and some basic pharmacological data are illustrated in Tables 3, 4 and 5 respectively. In some articles, both in vitro and in vivo studies had been simultaneously performed. These studies are separately exhibited in both tables. The values of IC50 and its unit had been mentioned only based on their articles. However, the amounts of venoms in the articles with negative results had not been mentioned in IC50 column.
TABLE 3: SUMMARY OF INCLUDED ARTICLES ON PERFORMANCE OF SCORPION VENOM AND ITS COMPONENTS IN CANCER CELL LINES GROWTH INHIBITION (IN VITRO STUDIES)
|Cell line||Organism||Disease||Scorpion species||Crude venom / component||IC50||Result|
|Hep G2||human||hepatocellular carcinoma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||Anti-cancer peptide fraction III||200 mg/l||Positive 7|
|K562||human||chronic myelogenous leukemia||Heterometrus benga-lensis C.L. Koch, 1841||Crude venom||88.3 µg/ml||Positive 8|
|U937||human||histiocytic lymphoma||Heterometrus benga-lensis C.L. Koch, 1841||Crude venom||41.5 µg/ml||Positive 8|
|SHG-44||human||glioma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||recombinant chlorotoxin-like peptide||0.28 µM||Positive 9|
|U937||human||histiocytic lymphoma||Heterometrus benga-lensis C.L. Koch, 1841||Bengalin||3.7 µg/ml||Positive 10|
|K562||human||chronic myelo-genous leukemia||Heterometrus benga-lensis C.L. Koch, 1841||Bengalin||4.1 µg/ml||Positive 10|
|C6||rat||glioma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||131I-BmK CT||2 μg/ml||Positive 11|
|SKBR3||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Tityus discrepans Karsch, 1879||neopladine 1||1 µg/µl||Positive 12|
|SKBR3||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Tityus discrepans Karsch, 1879||neopladine 2||1 µg/µl||Positive 12|
|C6||rat||glioma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||131I-BmK CT||2 μg/ml||Positive 11|
|U87||human||glioblastoma||Androctonus australis Linnaeus, 1758||sAaCtx||125 µM||Positive 13|
|C6||rat||glioma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||rAGAP||2 μM||Positive 14|
|SH-SY5Y||human||neuroblastoma||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||crude venom||207.7µg/ml||Positive 15|
|MCF-7||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||crude venom||269 µg/ml||Positive 15|
|C6||rat||glioma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||Lithium chloride and chlorotoxin||0.56 µM||Positive 16|
|HeLa||human||cervical adenocarcinoma||Leiurus quinquestria-tus hebraeus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1829||Platinum(IV)-chlorotoxin (CTX) conjugates||10.7 μM||Positive 17|
|A549||human||lung carsinoma||Leiurus quinquestria-tus hebraeus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1829||Platinum(IV)-chlorotoxin (CTX) conjugates||12 μM||Positive 17|
|MCF-7||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Leiurus quinquestria-tus hebraeus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1829||Platinum(IV)-chlorotoxin (CTX) conjugates||14 μM||Positive 17|
|HeLa||human||cervical adenocarcinoma||Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861||ICD-85||26.62 μg/ml||Positive 18|
|Jurkat||human||acute T- cell leukemia||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||SVCIII||39.6 µg/ml||Positive 19|
|THP-1||human||acute monocytic leukemia||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||SVCIII||29 µg/ml||Positive 19|
|HeLa||human||cervical adenocarcinoma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||crude venom||34.5 μg/ml||Positive 20|
|DU145||human||prostat carcinoma||Androctonus mauri-tanicus Pocock, 1902||Mauriporin||4.4 µM||Positive 21|
|LNCAP||human||prostat carcinoma||Androctonus mauri-tanicus Pocock, 1902||Mauriporin||7.8 µM||Positive 21|
|PC-3||human||grade iv, prostat adenocarcinoma||Androctonus mauri-tanicus Pocock, 1902||Mauriporin||7.7 µM||Positive 21|
|HeLa||human||cervical adenocarcinoma||Centruroides limpidus limpidus Wood, 1863||crude venom||-||Negative 22|
|K562||human||chronic myelo-genous leukemia||Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||-||Negative 23|
|U937||human||histiocytic lymphoma||Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||-||Negative 23|
|A549||human||lung carsinoma||Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||0.63 mg/ml||Positive 23|
|MDA-MB 468||human||mammary gland adenocarcinoma||Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||0.64 mg/ml||Positive 23|
|NCI-H292||human||mucoepidermoid pulmonary carcinoma||Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||0.68 mg/ml||Positive 23|
|MDA-MB 231||human||mammary gland adenocarcinoma||Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||0.7 mg/ml||Positive 23|
|Hep-2||human||larynx carcinoma||Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||0.79 mg/ml||Positive 23|
|HT-29||human||colorectal adenocarcinoma||Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||0.89 mg/ml||Positive 23|
|Siha||human||squamous cell carcinoma||Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||0.91 mg/ml||Positive 23|
|HeLa||human||cervical adenocarcinoma||Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||1.05 mg/ml||Positive 23|
|Raji||human||burkitt’s lymphoma||Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||-||Negative 23|
|SW480||human||colon carsinoma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||rAGAP||18.4 µM||Positive 24|
|MCF-7||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922||TsAP-S1||2.1 µM||Positive 25|
|U251-MG||human||glioma||Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922||TsAP-S1||1.8 µM||Positive 25|
|PC-3||human||grade iv, prostat adenocarcinoma||Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922||TsAP-S1||2.9 µM||Positive 25|
|H838||human||non-small cell lung cancer||Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922||TsAP-2||11µM||Positive 25|
|PC-3||human||grade iv, prostat adenocarcinoma||Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922||TsAP-2||13.3µM||Positive 25|
|U251-MG||human||glioma||Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922||TsAP-2||15.4µM||Positive 25|
|H157||human||lung adenocarcinoma||Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922||TsAP-2||4.1 µM||Positive 25|
|H838||human||non-small cell lung cancer||Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922||TsAP-1||52.5 µM||Positive 25|
|H157||human||lung adenocarcinoma||Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922||TsAP-1||55.9 µM||Positive 25|
|MCF-7||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922||TsAP-2||6.4 µM||Positive 25|
|K562||human||chronic myelogenous leukemia||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||BmKKx2||6.7 nM||Positive 26|
|HeLa||human||cervical adenocarcinoma||Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861||ICD-85 NPs||15.5 μg/ml||Positive 27|
|irradiated M-NFS-60||mouse||myelogenous leukemia||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||SVPII||-||Negative 28|
|HSC4||human||oral squamous carcinoma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||BmKn2||17.26 μM||Positive 29|
|SW620||human||colorectal adenocarcinoma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||BmKn2||40 μM||Positive 29|
|MDA-MB-435S||human||previously described as ductal carcinoma||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||AcrAP1||2.9 × 10-6 M||Positive 30|
|NCI-H460||human||large cell lung cancer||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||AcrAP1||2.7 × 10-6 M||Positive 30|
|MDA-MB-435S||human||previously described as ductal carcinoma||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||AcrAP2||2.7 × 10-6 M||Positive 30|
|MCF-7||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||AcrAP1||3.3 × 10-6 M||Positive 30|
|PC-3||human||grade iv, prostat adenocarcinoma||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||AcrAP1||2.06 × 10-6 M||Positive 30|
|MCF-7||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||AcrAP2||3.5 × 10-6 M||Positive 30|
|NCI-H460||human||large cell lung cancer||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||AcrAP2||3.6 × 10-6 M||Positive 30|
|PC-3||human||grade iv, prostat adenocarcinoma||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||AcrAP2||2.9 × 10-6 M||Positive 30|
|C6||rat||glioma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||LiCl and pEGFP-N1-BmK CT||50 mM||Positive 31|
|SMMC 7721||human||hepatocellular carcinoma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||LMWSVP||5.6 μg/ml||Positive 32|
|HeLa||human||cervical adenocarcinoma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||LMWSVP||-||Negative 32|
|MCF-7||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||crude venom||600 μg/ml||Positive 33|
|SMMC7721||human||hepatocellular carcinoma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||crude venom||600 μg/ml||Positive 33|
|U87||human||glioblastoma||Scorpiops jendeki Kovařík, 1994||rSj7170||-||Negative 34|
|C6||rat||glioma||Leiurus quinquestria-tus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1829||CTX-GO/DOX||5 µg/ml||Positive 35|
|KYSE-510||human||esophageal squamous carcinoma||Heterometrus liangi Zhu & Yang, 2007||crude venom||50-100 μg/ml||Positive 36|
|HSC-4||human||oral squamous carcinoma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||BmKn-2 peptide||29 μg/ml||Positive 37|
|SHG-44||human||glioma||Leiurus quinquestria-tus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1829||CTX-Onc conjugate||20 µg/ml||Positive 38|
|U251-MG||human||glioma||Leiurus quinquestria-tus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1829||CTX-Onc conjugate||20 µg/ml||Positive 38|
|MDA‑MB‑231||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Androctonus bicolor Ehrenberg, 1828||crude venom||100 µg/ml||Positive 39|
|HCT‑116||human||colorectal carcinoma||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||crude venom||100 µg/ml||Positive 39|
|HCT‑8||human||ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||crude venom||100 µg/ml||Positive 39|
|MDA‑MB‑231||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Leiurus quinquestria-tus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1829||crude venom||100 µg/ml||Positive 39|
|MCF-7||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Androctonus amoreuxi Audouin, 1826||crude venom||0.61 μg/ml||Positive 40|
|U251||human||glioma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||CA4||6 µM||Positive 41|
|F98||rat||glioma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||CA4||6 µM||Positive 41|
|U251||human||glioma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||CTX-23||6 µM||Positive 41|
|F98||rat||glioma||Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||CTX-23||6 µM||Positive 41|
|MCF-7||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Vaejovis smithi Pocock, 1902||VmCT1||25 μmol/L||Positive 42|
|PC-3||human||grade iv, prostat adenocarcinoma||Androctonus amore-uxi Audouin, 1826||crude venom||3.04 μ g/mL||Positive 43|
|HCT-8||human||Ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma||Androctonus bicolor Ehrenberg, 1828||liposomes and encapsulation of venom||200 μg/mL||Positive 44|
|MDA-MB-231||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||0.75 mg/ml||Positive 45|
|HCT-8||human||ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||crude venom||80 μg/mL||Positive 46|
|MDA-MB-231||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Androctonus crassi-cauda Olivier 1809||crude venom||80 μg/mL||Positive 46|
TABLE 4: SUMMARY OF INCLUDED ARTICLES ON PERFORMANCE OF SCORPION VENOM AND ITS COMPONENTS IN CANCER CELL LINES GROWTH INHIBITION (IN-VIVO STUDIES)
|Cell line||Organism||Disease||Crude venom/component||Result|
|C6||rat||glioma||BmKCT||Reduction in tumor size 47|
|H22||mouse||hepatoma||PESV during 5-Fu chemotherapy||Reduction in tumor volume 48|
|LLC||mouse||lewis lung carcinoma||PESV during Cyclophosphamide chemotherapy||Reduction in tumor volume 49|
|H22||mouse||hepatoma||PESV during chemotherapy||Reduction in some angiogenesis factor 50|
|LLC||mouse||lewis lung carcinoma||CTX + PESV||Reduction in tumor volume 51|
|C6||rat||glioma||Ad-BmK CT||Reduction in tumor volume 52|
|H22||mouse||hepatoma||PESV combined 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)||Reduction in tumor volume 53|
|Sarcoma 180||mouse||sarcoma||BmK AGAP-SYPU2||Increased survival of mice 54|
|H22||mouse||hepatoma||PSV combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)||Reduction in tumor volume 55|
|SKOV3||human||ovarian adenocarcinoma||PESV||Reduction in tumor growth 56|
|SHG-44||human||glioma||Chlorotoxin CTX-conjugated Onc||Reduction in tumor volume 57|
|U251||human||glioma||CTX-Onc conjugate||Reduction in tumor volume 38|
|MCF-7||human||breast adenocarcinoma||Crude venom||Reduction in tumor volume 40|
TABLE 5: SOME BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL DATA ABOUT THE SCORPION VENOM AND ITS COMPONENT HAVE BEEN USED IN IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDIES
|Scorpion species||Crude venom/component||Venom/ isolated venom component/ re-combinant||Dose range||Minimal active concentration||Model|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||anti-cancer peptide fraction III||isolated venom component||0 - 200 mg/l||5 mg/l||in vitro 7|
|Heterometrus bengalensis C.L. Koch, 1841||crude venom||venom||0 – 200 µg/ml||10 µg/ml||in vitro 8|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||recombinant chlorotoxin-like peptide||re-combinant||0 - 0.14 µM||0.07 µM||in vitro 9|
|Tityus discrepans Karsch, 1879||neopladine 1||isolated venom component||0-30 µg/ml||1 µg/ml||in vitro 12|
|Tityus discrepans Karsch, 1879||neopladine 2||isolated venom component||0-30 µg/ml||1 µg/ml||in vitro 12|
|Heterometrus bengalensis C.L. Koch, 1841||Bengalin||isolated venom component||0 - 20 µg/ml||1 µg/ml||in vitro 10|
|Androctonus australis Linnaeus, 1758||sAaCtx||isolated venom component||0-200 µM||5 µM||in vitro 13|
|Androctonus crassicauda Olivier 1809||crude venom||venom||0 -200 µg/ml||10 µg/ml||in vitro 15|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||rAGAP||re-combinant||0-40 µM||5 µM||in vitro 14|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||Lithium chloride and chlorotoxin||isolated venom component||0- 2.24 µM||0.56 µM||in vitro 16|
|Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1829||Platinum(IV)-chloro-toxin (CTX) conjugates||isolated venom component||0–16 μM||1 μM||in vitro 17|
|Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861||ICD-85||isolated venom component||8 × 10 -4 - 60 µg/ml||2 µg/ml||in vitro 18|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||SVCIII||isolated venom component||0 - 50 µg/ml||1 µg/ml||in vitro 19|
|Androctonus mauritanicus Pocock, 1902||Mauriporin||isolated venom component||0- 60 µM||5 µM||in vitro 21|
|Centruroides limpidus limpidus Wood, 1863||crude venom||venom||0-400 µg/100 µl||50 µg/100 µl||in vitro 22|
|Rhopalurus junceus Herbst, 1800||crude venom||venom||0 - 1 mg/ml||0.1 mg/ml||in vitro 23|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||rAGAP||re-combinant||0 - 80 µM||5 µM||in vitro 24|
|Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922||TsAP-S1||isolated venom component||0- 160 µM||5 µM||in vitro 25|
|Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922||TsAP-2||isolated venom component||0- 160 µM||5 µM||in vitro 25|
|Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861||ICD-85 NPs||isolated venom component||8 × 10 -4 - 56 µg/ml||8 × 10 -4 µg/ml||in vitro 27|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||SVPII||isolated venom component||0-3 mg/l||1 mg/l||in vitro 28|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||BmKn2||isolated venom component||0-24.28 µM||2.97 µM||in vitro 29|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||LiCl and pEGFP-N1-BmK CT||isolated venom component||0-50 mM||10 mM||in vitro 31|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||LMWSVP||isolated venom component||0- 800 μg/ml||100 μg/ml||in vitro 32|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||crude venom||venom||0-800 μg/ml||100 μg/ml||in vitro 33|
|Mesobuthus martensii (Karsch, 1879)||BmK AGAP-SYPU2||isolated venom component||0.5- 4 mg/kg||-||in vivo 34|
|Scorpiops jendeki Kovařík, 1994||rSj7170||re-combinant||0 - 10 µM||2 µM||in vitro 34|
|Leiurus quinquestriatus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1829||CTX-GO/DOX||isolated venom component||0- 5 μg/ml||1 μg/ml||in vitro 35|
|Heterometrus liangi Zhu & Yang, 2007||crude venom||venom||0-100 μg/ml||50 μg/ml||in vitro 36|
|Leiurus quinquestriatus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1829||CTX-Onc conjugate||isolated venom component||0-100 μg/ml||2 μg/ml||in vitro 38|
|Leiurus quinquestriatus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1829||crude venom||venom||0-100 μg/ml||20 μg/ml||in vitro 39|
|Androctonus amoreuxi Audouin, 1826||crude venom||venom||0 -100 μg/ml||0.01 μg/ml||in vitro 40|
|Androctonus amoreuxi Audouin, 1826||Crude venom||venom||100 μg/ml||-||in vivo 40|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||CA4||isolated venom component||0-6 µM||0.5 µM||in vitro 41|
|Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, 1879||CTX-23||isolated venom component||0-6 µM||0.5 µM||in vitro 41|
DISCUSSION: Severe deaths occur worldwide due to cancer as a most life-threatening disease. There is still a high rate of mortality related to cancer despite many therapeutic advances. Nowadays, four standard methods are adopted for cancer treatment: surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy 58. To reduce and inhibit cell growth, specific chemical compounds are used through a chemoprevention study. More than 1,000 agents and agent combinations have been selected and accessed via preclinical chemopreventive testing programs since 1987. These activities have included in vitro mechanistic and cell-based transformation assays, as well as carcinogen-induced and transgenic animal models. New agents selected based on their preliminary efficacy, mechanisms, and potentia-lities for improving chemopreventive indices have been continuously regarded to be used in chemopreventive drugs 59. Still, more potent anticancer drugs with fewer side effects are being continuously searched by oncologists since some can have adverse effects on other organs, such as nervous system, heart, liver, bladder, lungs, and kidney.
Cancer cell migration and proliferation may be affected by the specific binding of some isolated peptides or proteins to the cancer cell membrane 6. Historically, scorpion venoms have been biochemically studied for a long time. Nevertheless, the great improvements in the technology of peptide / protein isolation and characterization over the past two decades have specifically coincided with the mentioned studies 25. It is nearly a decade that the inhibitive properties of scorpion venom and its components have been specially focused on.
In this research, we collected the results of the anti-proliferation effects of scorpion venom and its components in the form of a systematic review for the first time. As the collected studies were divided into the two parts of in-vitro and in-vivo studies, the discussion was divided into two parts: 1) in-vitro studies; 2) in-vivo studies.
In-vitro Studies: The findings of this study demonstrated that the studies on the anti-cancer effects of scorpion venom have been started since 2006. Before this, many articles were found with the key words of "cancer", "cell line", and "scorpion", but the researches had been focused on the venom cytotoxicity effects on cells to study its toxicity mechanism.
The first available comprehensive study had been done by Das Gupta et al., in 2007. They had made an effort to assess the anti-proliferative and apoptotic efficacy of crude venom extracted from Heterometrus bengalensis C. L. Koch, 1841, against the two human leukemic cell lines of U937 and K562. They had used some experimental methods, such as comet assay, flow cytometry, and scanning electron microscopy.
The mentioned venom had induced cell growth inhibition in U937 and K562 cell lines and their IC50 values had been reported to be 41.5 µg/ml and 88.3 µg/ml, respectively 8. In 35 studies, cell lines were found to have been treated with crude venom and 29 various types of components had been applied for inducing apoptosis in them. The variable amount of crude venom ranges between 0.63 mg/ml 23 and 600 mg/ml 33.
In some studies, an astonishing subject was observed to strengthen the use of scorpion venom for cancer treatment hypothesis. The scorpion venom and its components had been shown to be able to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, while having no effects on the normal cells when using the same doses. For example in 2007, Fu and Yin et al., had produced a recombinant chlorotoxin-like peptide from scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch Karsch, 1879, to treat human glioma (SHG-44) cells with this recombinant peptide. They had shown that rBmK CTa inhibits the growth of glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value equal to 0.28 µM.
Under the same conditions, the IC50 value for normal astrocytes had increased to 8 µM 9. In 2013, Almaaytah and Tarazi et al., had found a synthetic replicate (Mauriporin) to exert potent selective cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities against prostate cancer cell lines (IC50 4.4 - 7.8 µM) as compared to non-tumorigenic cells (IC50 = 59.7 - 62.5 µM) 21. Also, in 2013, Diaz-Garcia et al., had shown a significant reduction of cancer cell viability to be between a panel of cancer cell lines and normal cells treated with Rhopalurus junceus (Herbst, 1800, venom. This venom had not affected the viability neither in the normal nor in the hematopoietic cell lines at the same concentrations 23.
Besides the inhibitive effects of scorpion venom on many cancer cell lines, there are some cells that are resistant to scorpion venom 22, 23, 25, 28, 32, 34. The share of such cell lines in this study was 12% out of the total share mainly belonging to HeLa cell 22, 32.
An overview on articles showed that the most of studies have focused on only inhibitory effects of this venom and it’s components on cancer cells lines. It seems that the studies will be more valuable, if the inhibitory effects be assessed simultaneously in cancer cell line and normal cells. Still, there were some scorpions, on which no in vivo studies had been done, for example Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861, as one of the most dangerous scorpion species.
On the other hand, as it can be seen in the most of articles, their concentration has been on the related apoptotic genes. It seems that the using of some methods such as Western blot in order to detecting of apoptotic genes products is essential.
In-vivo Studies: All the 16 in-vivo treatments were found to be successful leading to reduced tumor size, weight, and volume. In some other researches, some angiogenesis factors were seen to have been reduced 50.
In 2010, the first available in vivo study had been accomplished by Fan et al., who had reported that proliferation and metastasis of glioma cells had been effectively inhibited by BmKCT due to having a selective affinity to glioma cells. It had been also suggested to be exploited as a potential therapeutic agent for glioma diagnosis 47. In that same year, the mechanism and inhibitive effect of a scorpion venom polypeptide (PESV) on H22 tumor cell repopulation during 5-fluorouracil chemo-therapy had been studied by Wang et al., Thus, the inhibition of H22 tumor cell repopulation by PESV, probably through an anti-angiogenesis mechanism, was proved by them during 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy 48. In 2011, cyclophosphamide as a tumor growth inhibitor had been used by Sun et al., to establish a cancer model. The polypeptide extracted from scorpion venom (PESV) had been applied to Lewis Lung Carcinomas (LLCs).
In 2013, a replication - defective adenovirus recombinant had been selected by Du et al., to deliver BmK CT gene to the C6 glioma cells. MMP-2 upregulation, which is partially responsible for the enhanced ability of glioma cell migration, can be specifically inhibited by BmKCT enzymatic activity when binding to it. Targeting BmK CT to C6 glioma cells specifically through this delivery system had been developed by them. Thus, the replication-defective recombinant adenovirus Ad-BmK CT could provide a powerful delivery system to treat glioblastoma 52. In 2014, Shao et al., had undertaken isolating peptides with analgesic and antitumor activities from scorpion venom. BmK AGAP-SYPU2 as a new analgesic-antitumor peptide had been purified and characterized with bioassay-guided chromatography protocols. It had exhibited analgesic effects and antitumor activities during all the animal tests. The homology model of BmK AGAP-SYPU2 had represented the conservative structures of most scorpion venoms. The variant sites had been considered to be important for the specific pharmaceutical activities of this peptide. This kind of dual-function peptide with pain-relieving and antitumor effects was clinically valuable for improving patient survival without compromising his/her quality of life 54.
By conjugating scorpion venom and its components with other agents in some studies, their antitumor effects could be intensified. For example, in 1988, the northern leopard frog Rana Lithobates pipiens Schreber, 1782, oocytes had been first used to isolate Onconase (Onc) as a small RNase 60. In 2015, Wang et al. and Guo had prepared Onc conjugated with CTX as a potential anti-glioma drug, in which the recombinant CTX covalently bonded with recombinant Onc via a reversible disulfide linkage. Thus, much higher cytotoxicity to the cultured U251 and SHG-44 glioma cells was obtained by chemically conjugating CTX and Onc compared to their physical mixture (CTX+Onc). Moreover, improved antitumor effects on the subcutaneous U251 or SHG-44 tumors of the nude mouse models had been achieved by the CTX-Onc conjugate compared to the CTX+Onc control. These results were indicative of the promotion of the tumor targeting of Onc through the chemically reversible conjugated CTX. Also, the present CTX-Onc conjugate as a potential drug targeting anti-glioma could be further developed 38.
The in-vivo investigations had not been limited to the evaluation of the antitumor effects of venom components. In a recent study published in 2016, Salem et al. had shown the cytotoxic effects of crude venom extracted from Androctonus amoreuxi Audouin, 1826, as an Egyptian scorpion on the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells. Interestingly, venom had been shown to restore the altered biochemical and hematological parameters of animals bearing tumors and significantly prolong their lifespan. Consequently, the potential cytotoxic effects of Androctonus amoreuxi Audouin, 1826, on tumor cells through apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic activities had been evidenced by them so as to open a new path towards future studies on the anti-cancer effects of the mentioned agent 40.
On the whole, scorpion venom and its components were found to have a high rate of success in inducing apoptosis in various types of cancer cell lines. Also scorpion venom and derived molecules have shown their potential as tools for the fight on cancer in directly-acting therapeutic, diagnostic tags, adjuvants or just carriers for other relevant moieties 61. Interestingly, no effects on the normal cells had been seen when the cancer cell lines and normal cells had been treated at the same time with the same doses. The mentioned agents had represented a novel potentially clinical therapeutic approach for cancer treatment.
CONCLUSION: This was the first systematic review includes some tables that provide valuable information to the reader on the therapeutic anti-cancer properties of scorpion venom and its components. The results demonstrated that this natural venom can induce apoptosis in various types of cancer cell lines.
Some studies were found to show that these agents are able to inhibit the growth of cancer cells, while having no effects on the normal cells with the same doses. Considering the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs on other vital organs, we need to focus on the development of new drugs with potent anti-cancer and lower side effects. The findings of this research strongly reinforced this hypothesis that these agents provide a new efficient approach to cancer treatment.
AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTION: MS and MM conception, design, collecting data, statistical analysis, writing the article, critical revision of the article and final approval of the article. RS provided information of the scorpion’s venom and re-read articles. HT re-read articles and double-checked the data. BV re-read the articles and provided information of scorpion’s species. All authors approved the final manuscript.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study is a part of Ph.D thesis of M. R. Moradi and was supported by deputy of research and technology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors declared no conflicts of interest.
FUNDING: The study was funded by deputy of research and technology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (Grant No. 9412257461).
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How to cite this article:
Moradi M, Solgi R, Vazirianzadeh B, Tanzadehpanah H and Saidijam M: Scorpion venom and its components as new pharmaceutical approach to cancer treatment, a systematic review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2018; 9(7): 2604-15. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.9(7).2604-15.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
M. Moradi, R. Solgi, B. Vazirianzadeh, H. Tanzadehpanah and M. Saidijam *
Molecular Medicine Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
21 October, 2017
13 January, 2018
27 January, 2018
01 July, 2018