SCREENING OF ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA (LINN.) PERS. LEAVESHTML Full Text
SCREENING OF ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA (LINN.) PERS. LEAVES
Rajya Lakshmi Koduru* and Vikram I. Varma
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur - 522213, Andhra Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn. Plant extract was tested in fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat models. Methanolic extracts of leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn. were administered in doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg/day for one week. The obtained results reveal that methanolic leaf extract (LMLS & HMLS) of Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn. showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity.
Hypolipidemic activity, Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn., Methanolic extract
INTRODUCTION: Hyperlipidemia 1 is a major risk factor for the atherosclerosis and other complications like obesity, coronary heart disease, ischemic cerebro vascular disease, and hypertension. In addition hyperlipidemia is induced by secondary effect of diabetes. Although many of the synthetic drugs are available, but, none is effective for all lipoprotein disorders and are associated with some adverse effects. Natural products are the best agents used for centuries to cure various ailments and are less toxic, low cost and which can provide better safety and efficacy on long term usage. Lagerstroemia Speciosa Linn. belongs to the Lythraceae 2 - 5 family. It is a medicinal tree traditionally used to lower high blood sugar 3, 5.
Commonly called as Sogasula chettu in Telugu. Lagerstroemia Speciosa has been evaluated for anti-diabetic 3, antibacterial, antiviral 2, 4, anti-inflammatory 2, 4, antinociceptive, anti-diarrhoea, cytotoxic 2, 4, anti-obesity 2, 4, 6, anti- fibrotic 4 and Xanthine oxidase inhibition activities 2, 4. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic activity of the methanolic leaf extract of the Lagerstroemia Speciosa Linn.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Plant Materials and Chemicals: The fresh leaves of the Lagerstroemia Speciosa Linn. collected at our college premises, Vadlamudi, Guntur and was authentified by botanist of Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur. Atorvastatin was obtained as gift sample from Cipla Kurkumbh, Pune. Diagnostic kits for estimation of cholesterol (Excel Diagnostics) and triglycerides (Excel Diagnostics) were used. High cholesterol diet 7, 9, 10 was prepared in the college laboratory.
Preparation of Extracts: The leaves of the plant were dried in shade at room temperature and then coarse powder was prepared. Methanolic extract prepared by hot continuous extraction method. The powdered material of plant of Lagerstroemia Speciosa was evenly packed in Soxhlet extractor for extraction for 6 hours with methanol and the temperature was maintained on the electric heating mantle with thermostat control. The extract was concentrated by distillation and percentage yield was calculated.
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening: The conventional chemical tests were carried for the methanolic extract of Lagerstroemia Speciosa to identify the presence of various phyto-constituents.
In vivo Studies:
Experimental of Animals: Either sex of the Wistar Albino rats weighing between 150- 200gm was procured from the Mahaveer Enterprises, Hyderabad, India. The animals were kept under standard environmental conditions of room temperature and 12 h light and dark cycles. The animals were housed in the colony cages (three rats per cage) and provided feed and water ad libitum. Research study was carried out in accordance with the guidelines of Institutional Animal Committee. The study was conducted after obtaining Ethical committee clearance from the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee. The protocol number is 005/IAEC/VPC/2017.
Preparation of Doses: In the present study, two doses of the Lagerstroemia Speciosa leaf extract was prepared as 250 mg (LMLS) and 500 mg/kg (HMLS) suspended in 1% CMC and given by oral gavage.
Preparation of High Fat Diet: Animal food pellets were crushed with the help of motor and pestle and grinded into fine powder in mixer grinder. To the fine powder 3% of cholesterol, 1% of cholic acid, 30% of sucrose and 10% of coconut oil were added and mixed well.
Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity: The animals were fed with a high fat diet for 30 days 10. After inducing the hyperlipidemia, then the rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 animals and are treated with different doses of plant extract orally for one week. Group-1 was administered with LMLS (250mg/kg) and fed with high fat diet, group-2 was administered with HMLS (500mg/kg) and high fat diet, group-3 received the Atorvastatin (10mg/kg) and high fat diet, group-4 was administered with vehicle and fed with normal diet, served as normal control and group-5 was fed with fat diet and kept as hyperlipidemic control.
Biochemical Assay: Under mild ether anaesthesia, blood samples were collected by retro-orbital puncture at the end of the experiment. The collected samples were centrifuged for 15 minutes at 2000rpm to get the serum. Then the serum samples were analysed by using diagnostic kits for serum Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL- C and VLDL-C.
Statistical Analysis: Results were analysed by one way ANOVA, followed by Dunnets’s t-test and ‘P’ value less than 0.05 were taken as significant.
RESULTS: Dried and powdered leaves of Lagerstroemia Speciosa was subjected to soxhlet extraction with 95% methanol and yielded 8% w/w. Terpenoids, tannins and saponins were identified in preliminary phytochemical tests (Table 1).
TABLE 1: PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF THE METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA
|S. no||Name of the constituent||Methanolic extract|
Note: Absence (-), Presence: Mild (+), Moderate (++), Potent (+++)
TABLE 2: EFFECT OF LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA LEAF EXTRACT ON LIPID PARAMETER LEVELS IN FAT DIET INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS
|Serum lipid Parameter (%)|
|Total Cholesterol||Total Triglycerides||HDL-C||LDL-C||VLDL-C|
Values are statistically significant at *P < 0.05 using one way ANOVA by t-test
Treatment with LMLS (250mg/kg) and HMLS (500mg/kg) for one week successfully reduced the animal body weights and also prevented the elevated serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C in fat diet model (Table 2) and (Graph 1).
GRAPH 1: LIPID PROFILE RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
DISCUSSION: Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. It has been well established that nutrition plays an important role in aetiology of hyperlipidemias. High fat diet has been often used to elevate serum cholesterol to assess hypercholesterolemia in various animals. Based on this information, the present study was done on animal models fed with high fat diet to screen the antihyperlipidemic activity. From the obtained results (Table 2), it was observed that maximum activity was reported by the HMLS (500mg/kg) and considerable activity was found with the LMLS (250mg/kg) when compared with that of the standard drug (Atorvastatin). Animals treated with Atorvastatin (10mg/kg) showed marked reduction in all serum lipoproteins.
CONCLUSION: Present study reveals that methanolic leaf extract of Lagerstroemia Speciosa (HMLS) effectively reduced the serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C and VLDL-C than that of the standard drug Atorvastatin.
Whereas, LMLS showed the similar or equal antihyperlipidemic activity to that of the standard drug. These results proving the antihyperlipidemic activity of the methanolic extract of the Lagerstroemia Speciosa leaves.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: I express my sincere gratitude to the management of the Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, for providing laboratory facilities to carry out the research work.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Koduru RL and Varma VI: Screening of anti-hyperlipidemic activity of methanolic extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa (linn.) Pers. Leaves. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2018; 9(1): 214-17.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.9(1).214-17.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
R. L. Koduru* and V. I. Varma
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
24 April, 2017
06 July, 2017
25 July, 2017
01 January, 2018