SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF MEBENDAZOLE THROUGH CHARGE TRANSFER INTERACTIONSHTML Full Text
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF MEBENDAZOLE THROUGH CHARGE TRANSFER INTERACTIONS
Reem M. Alghanmi * and Lamyaa Yousef Alhazmi
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
ABSTRACT: This article presents the development of a direct, simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the quantitative analysis of mebendazole (MBz), an anthelmintic medication in its pure and pharmaceutical forms. The method is based on the charge transfer (CT) interactions between MBz, an electron donor, and chloranilic acid (CA), 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA), and picric acid (PA), (all of which are p-acceptors). The products of the CT reactions exhibit new absorption bands at 409 and 310 nm for CA and DNSA in methanol, respectively, and at 402 nm for PA in dichloroethane. Following the optimization of the experimental conditions, linearity ranges for MBz concentrations of 2.00-120, 1.00-40.0 and 2.00-25.0 µg mL-1 were achieved for CA-MBz, DNSA-MBz, and PA-MBz, respectively. Furthermore, the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were calculated. The method was used to determine the MBz concentrations of tablets with good accuracy and precision and without interference from common tablet excipients.
Mebendazole, Charge transfer, Chloranilic acid, Picric acid, Determination, Pharmaceutical
INTRODUCTION: Mebendazole (MBz), i.e., methyl [5- benzol- 1H- benzoimidazole- 2- yl] carbamate Scheme 1, is a broad spectrum anthelmintic drug widely used against hookworm, pinworm, roundworm, tapeworm, threadworm and mixed infestations. Furthermore, MBz is widely used against gastrointestinal helminths in both humans and animals 1, 2. The most common global diseases are helminthic, and they cause a variety of serious health problems and impact child growth by causing anemia and other nutritional deficiencies 3. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) categorize MBz as an essential medicine in its capacity as a single-dose treatment for helminthic infections 4.
MBz has been shown to exhibit clinical efficiency, minimal side effects, and proven safety. It is available in tablet and syrup form, and its dosage varies for adults and children depending on the worm type being treated 5.
Several analytical methods have been reported for the determination of MBz in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples. These methods include the following: titrimetry 6-9, UV-visible spectrophotometry 8, 10-13, phosphorescence 14, FT-IR spectroscopy 15, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry 16, fluorimetry 17, 18, thermogravimetry 19, membrane-sensor based potentiometry 20, polarography 21-23, voltammetry 24, high-performance liquid chromatography 25-31, and high performance thin layer chromatography 32, 33. However, many of the above methods suffer from disadvantages such as poor sensitivity, the need for high-cost solvents and reagents, elaborate sample extraction and treatment procedures, heating or cooling steps, and complicated instruments or experimental setups.
Many drugs can act as electron donors because they contain atoms such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur that can donate electrons. Thus, charge transfer (CT) interactions have attracted considerable researchers attention as a means to study drug-receptor interactions, investigate drug action mechanisms and analyze and determine drugs in their pure and pharmaceutical forms and biological samples 34.
Accordingly, this study aimed to develop a direct, simple, sensitive and precise spectrophotometric method to detect and quantify MBz in its pure and dosage forms. The method is based on the formation of CT complexes between MBz, an electron donor and chloranilic acid (CA), 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA), and picric acid (PA), all of which are p-acceptors. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first time this methodology has been applied to the determination of MBz.
SCHEME 1: THE MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF MEBENDAZOLE, MBz.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pure analytical grade mebendazole powder, (MBz, purity ³ 98%) was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. The pharmaceutical form of MBz (Vermox tablets, 100 mg MBz per tablet from Johnson & Johnson Consumer NV/SA) was obtained from a local pharmacy. CA, DNSA and PA (purities ³ 98%) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. Standard stock solutions of CA (5 ´ 10-3 mol L-1) and DNSA (5 ´ 10-4 mol L-1) were prepared in methanol and a standard stock solution of PA (1 ´ 10-3 mol L-1) was prepared in dichloroethane. All reagent solutions were stored in the dark and found to be stable for at least one week. The solvents used throughout the study were obtained from Fisher Scientific at spectroscopic grade and used without further purification.
A standard stock solution of MBz (1000 µg mL-1) was prepared by dissolving 100 mg of the pure drug in 15 mL of DMSO and then diluting to 100 mL with methanol. This solution was used for complexation with CA and DNSA. Another standard stock solution of MBz (1000 mg mL-1) was prepared for complexation with PA in the same way but using dichloroethane instead of methanol as a solvent. The MBz stock solutions were stored in a refrigerator and found to be stable for at least one week. Working solutions (200 µg mL-1) were prepared immediately before measurement by further diluting the stock solution with methanol or dichloromethane. All electronic absorption spectra were measured over the wavelength range 200-700 nm using a UV 1800 (Shimadzu, Japan) UV-Vis instrument connected to a TCC-ZUOA (Shimadzu, Japan) temperature controller unit.
General Procedures (Calibration curves):
CA Acceptor: Aliquots of the working MBz solution with volumes calculated to provide final concentrations in the range 2.00-160 mg mL-1 were transferred into a series of 10-mL calibration flasks. Then, 1 mL of 5 × 10-3 mg mL-1 CA solution was added to each flask, and the resultant CA-MBz mixtures were diluted to the flask mark with methanol. The absorbances of all of the solutions were recorded at 530 nm against a CA blank.
DNSA Acceptor: Aliquots of the working MBz solution with volumes calculated to provide final concentrations in the range 1.00-50.0 mg mL-1 were transferred into a series of 10-mL calibration flasks. Then, 0.1 mL of 5 × 10-4 mg mL-1 DNSA solution was added to each flask, and the resultant DNSA-MBz mixtures were diluted to the flask mark with methanol. The absorbances of all of the solutions were recorded at 310 nm against a DNSA blank.
PA Acceptor: Aliquots of the working MBz solution with volumes calculated to provide final concentrations in the range 1.00-30.0 mg mL-1 were transferred into a series of 10-mL calibration flasks. Then, 1 mL of a 1 × 10-3 mg mL-1 PA solution was added to each flask, and the resultant PA-MBz mixtures were diluted to the flask mark with dichloroethane. The absorbances of all of the solutions were recorded at 402 nm against a PA blank.
In each of the above cases, the absorbance values of all of the solutions were plotted as a function of the MBz concentration to construct calibration curves.
Pharmaceutical Samples Preparation: Ten tablets of the pharmaceutical drug were weighed, ground into powder, and thoroughly mixed. An accurately weighed portion of the powder equivalent to 150 mg of MBz was dissolved in 7.5 mL of DMSO and stirred with gentle warming for 10 min. The solution was filtered, and the first 10 mL was discarded. The remainder was diluted to 50-mL with methanol (for CA and DNSA) or dichloroethane (for PA) to obtain a final concentration of 1000 mg mL-1. Aliquots of this solution were used to test the suggested method.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Electronic Spectra: MBz has many electron dense sites and can act as a strong electron donor. Accordingly, the detection of MBz by our spectrophotometric method depends on the reaction expected of MBz with CA, DNSA, or PA to form stable CT complexes.
When using CA as the acceptor, a stable deep purple product is immediately formed upon mixing the MBz and CA solutions in methanol at room temperature. This is accompanied by the appearance of a new absorption band in the electronic spectra at lmax = 530 nm, which is not observed in the spectra of the free reactants Fig. 1.
FIG. 1: ELECTRONIC SPECTRA OF CA, MBz AND [MBz-CA] COMPLEX IN METHANOL
This new band is attributed to the formation of a CT complex between MBz and CA. Furthermore, the purple color of the product is due to the formation of the radical anion of CA, which is a result of p-p* transition from MBz to CA 35, as shown in Scheme 2. Methanol, a polar solvent, promotes the complete transfer of electrons from donors to acceptors, resulting in the complete formation of the CA radical anion 36.
SCHEME 2: REACTION OF MBz WITH CA
In the case of DNSA, a new absorption band is detected in the electronic spectra of the DNSA-MBz mixture in the 250-350 nm region (lmax = 310 nm, Fig. 2). This new band indicates the formation of a CT complex between MBz and DNSA. DNSA has both carboxyl and hydroxyl groups, which make it a good proton donor. Therefore, we can reason that the electron transfer from MBz to DNSA will be accompanied by proton transfer from the DNSA to the MBz either from the carboxyl group 37 or the hydroxyl group 38. The charge and proton transfer interactions enhance the bonding between the MBz and DNSA in the resultant complex.
FIG. 2: ELECTRONIC SPECTRA OF DNSA, MBz AND [MBz-DNSA] COMPLEX IN METHANOL
Similarly, a stable intense yellow product is formed when the MBz and PA solutions are mixed in dichloroethane. The electronic absorption spectra of MBz, PA and their mixture are shown in Fig. 3, demonstrating the appearance of a new CT band at lmax = 402 nm. The PA dichloroethane solution is colorless and becomes yellow upon the addition of MBz. The yellow color is due to the formation of picrate ions (phenolate ions) 39, which shows that PA does not dissociate in dichloroethane alone but functions as a proton donor in the presence of MBz.
Additionally, several previous studies have concluded that complexation between electron-rich compounds and PA occurs through intermolecular hydrogen bonding 40-42.
Thus, a possible mechanism for the reaction between MBz and PA, where a proton transfer from the hydroxyl group of PA to the nitrogen atom in the benzimidazole ring of MBz, is shown in Scheme 3. The lmax values of the CT bands, i.e., 530 nm for CA, 310 nm for DNSA, and 402 nm for PA, were used in all further measurements to ensure the highest sensitivity for the proposed method. The spectrum of the CT complex was measured and compared to that of the blank acceptor solution to eliminate any overlap between the complex and acceptor bands.
SCHEME 3: REACTION POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF MBZ WITH PA IN DICHLOROETHANE
FIG. 3: ELECTRONIC SPECTRA OF PA, MBz AND [MBz-PA] COMPLEX IN DICHLOROETHANE
Optimization of the CT Reaction Conditions:
Effect of the Solvent: The formation of a CT complex between an electron donor and p acceptors can be influenced by the nature of the solvent. Thus, the first parameter studied to optimize the reaction conditions were solvent nature. The absorbance characteristics of the CT complexes were examined in various solvents including acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol, dichloroethane, dichloromethane, and chloroform.
The absorbance values of the CT complexes with CA, DNSA and PA acceptors in different solvents are shown in Fig. 4. For CA and DNSA, methanol is the best solvent because stable complexes with the highest absorbances are formed. For PA, the maximum intensity is obtained when dichloro-ethane is used as the solvent.
FIG. 4: EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON THE FORMATION OF MBz CT COMPLEXES WITH A-CA, B-DNSA, C-PA
Effect of Acceptor Concentration: The effect of acceptor concentration on the absorbance intensities at the chosen λmax values was investigated. The absorbances of the CT complexes with different volumes of the acceptor, i.e., CA (5 × 10-3 mol L-1), DNSA (5 × 10-4 mol L-1), and PA (1 × 10-3 mol L-1) were measured. As shown in Fig. 5, the absorbances of the complexes increase as the acceptor volume increases, and the highest absorbances for the complexes are obtained using 1 mL of CA or PA, and 0.1 mL of DNSA in 10 mL calibration flasks.
Effect of the Reaction Time: The effect of the reaction time on the formation of the CT complexes was studied by monitoring the absorbances of the colored products from the reactions between MBz and the acceptors at different times and room temperature.
The CT products exhibit maximum absorbance immediately upon mixing of the MBz and acceptor solutions. Furthermore, the CT products are stable for at least 1 h in the case of CA, and for 2 h in the case of DNSA and PA. Thus, the absorbance values were measured after 1 min in all acceptor-MBz systems to ensure the precision of the measurements.
Effect of Temperature: The effect of temperature on the stability of the formed CT complexes was investigated by measuring the absorbances of mixtures of 5 ´ 10-4 mol L-1 CA, 5 ´ 10-6 mol L-1 DNSA, and 1 ´ 10-4 mol L-1 PA with different concentrations of MBz over the temperature range 20 °C to 40 °C. The experimental results show that the absorbance decreases as the temperature increases and that 20 °C is the optimum temperature for all MBz complexes.
FIG. 5: EFFECT OF ACCEPTOR VOLUME ON THE FORMATION OF MBz CT COMPLEX
Determination of the CT Complex Compositions and the Formation Constants: The molecular composition of the CT complexes that form between MBz and the p acceptors (CA and PA) was estimated using Job’s method of continuous variations 43. For both complexes, the plot reaches a maximum absorbance at a 0.5-mole fraction, indicating the formation of a 1:1 CT complex Fig. 6. However, the composition of the DNSA complex with MBz was estimated using the Benesi-Hildebrand (BH) equation 44 and the straight-line method by measuring the absorbance of the CT complex at different concentrations of MBz. For the BH equation to be applied, one of the two reactants must be present in large excess 45.
Where, [CA] and [CD] are the initial concentrations of DNSA and MBz respectively, and A is the absorbance of the CT complex at lmax. By plotting the values of [CA]/A against 1/[CD], a straight line is obtained (r ³ 0.9992), indicating the formation of a 1:1 CT complex [MBz: DNSA], as shown in Fig. 7. The 1:1 ratio for all studied complexes is an agreement with the appearance of only one new absorption band in all spectra Fig. 1-3. This ratio could be related to the stric hindrance effect of the MBz molecule 46. The formation constants, Kf (L mol-1) and extinction coefficients, e (L mol-1 cm-1), of the CT complexes, were calculated using the absorbance values obtained by adding different MBz concentrations to a certain concentration of CA or PA, and by applying the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation 44 for a 1:1 molar ratio Eq. 2:
Where, CºD and CºA are the concentrations of MBz and the acceptor, respectively, and A is the absorbance of the CT-bands. By plotting the values of CºD CºA/A against the CºD + CºA values from Eq. 2, linear plots are obtained, confirming the formation of 1:1 complex Fig. 8 and 9. The Kf and e values were calculated from the plots, where the slope and intercept are equal to 1/e and 1/Kf e, respectively. Conversely, the Kf, and e values of the DNSA-MBz complex were calculated using the BH equation in the form of Eq. 1. The Kf, e, and lmax values for all of the complexes are compiled in Table 1. The Kf values are 2.60 × 103, 3.33 × 102 and 40.0 × 103 for the [CA-MBz], [DNSA-MBz] and [PA-MBz] CT complexes, respectively.
These high Kf values confirm the high stability of the CT complexes formed. The Kf values reveal that [PA-MBz] complex has the highest value of the formation constant Kf which confirms the high stability of this complex as a result of the expected high accepting natural of PA compared with both CA and DNSA. PA has three strong withdrawing nitro groups in conjugation with an aromatic ring which causes high delocalization leads to a great increase in the acidity of PA 47.
Determination of Some Spectroscopic Physical Data: The experimental oscillator strengths (f) 48 and transition dipole moments (µ) 49 of the MBz CT complexes were determined by applying the following equations 50:
Where ∆v1/2 is the half bandwidth of the absorbance in cm-1, and εmax and v̄max are the molar extinction coefficient and wavenumber for the maximum absorption of the CT complexes, respectively.
Table 1 shows that both the oscillator strength and transition dipole moment values for all complexes are relatively high, which confirms the strong interactions between MBz and the p acceptors. These results are consistent with the lower CT energy values, ECT, which were calculated from Eq. 5 51, and are listed in Table 1:
Moreover, the ionization potential (IP) value of the donor, i.e., MBz, was calculated using the following equation 52:
Where, v̄max is the wavenumber of the CT band in cm-1. Table 1 shows the value of IP. The dissociation energy (W) of the three CT complexes was calculated using the following relationship 53:
Where, EA is the electron affinity of the values acceptors, which are 1.1 53, 0.59 and 0.72 eV 54 for CA, DNSA, and PA, respectively. The resonance energy (RN) values of the CT complexes in the ground state are determined using the Briegleb and Czekalla equation 55:
Where, eCT is the molar extinction coefficient of the complexes at the maximum absorbance value of the CT band, νCT is the frequency of the CT band, and RN is the resonance energy of the complex, which is a parameter of the ground state property. The W and RN values are given in Table 1.
Finally, the standard free energy changes for complexation, ΔG° (kJ mol−1) were estimated from the Kf values at 20 °C using the equation 56:
Where, R is the gas constant (8.314 J mol−1 K). The negative values of ΔG° listed in Table 1 indicate that the complexation processes between MBz and CA, DNSA or PA are exothermic and simultaneous.
TABLE 1: THE SPECTROSCOPIC DATA OF THE CT COMPLEXES
|e × 10-3
L mol-1 cm-1
Validation of the Proposed Method: The proposed spectrophotometric method for the determination of MBz is based on the formation of stable CT complexes between MBz and CA or DNSA in methanol, or PA in dichloroethane with a simple 1:1 molecular composition.
The linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, robustness, and ruggedness of the methods were assessed to validate the proposed method according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines 57.
Linearity and Sensitivity: Under the optimized experimental reaction conditions, MBz concentration calibration curves were constructed for all acceptors (CA, DNSA, and PA). The curves are linear over the concentration ranges 2.00-120, 1.00-40.0, and 1.00-25.0 μg mL-1 for CA, DNSA, and PA, respectively. The regression equations of the lines were derived using the least square method 58. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated using the following equations according to the IUPAC definition 59:
LOD = 3.3Sa/b……(10)
LOQ = 10Sa/b……(11)
Where Sa is the standard deviation of the intercept and b is the slope of the calibration curve. The linear range, LOD, LOQ, intercept a slope b, Sa, the standard deviation of the slope (Sb), the standard deviation of residuals (Sy/x), and correlation coefficient (R) values are shown in Table 2.
The small Sy/x values indicate that the points are close to a straight line. Additionally, the small intercept values of the regression equation and the excellent correlation coefficient values (R>0.9986) confirm the classic linear relationship between the MBz concentration and the absorbance values in the proposed methods. Moreover, the LOD and LOQ values in Table 2 indicate that the method utilizing complexation with DNSA is more sensitive for MBz determination than that with the other acceptors (CA or PA).
TABLE 2: LINEARITY, REGRESSION EQUATION AND SENSITIVITY PARAMETERS OF THE PROPOSED METHODS (N = 7)
|Wavelength (lmax), nm||530||310||402|
|Linear range, µg mL-1||2.00-120.0||1.00-40.0||2.00-25.00|
|Molar absorptivity (e), L mol-1 cm-1||770||17200||12500|
|Limit of detection (LOD), µg mL-1||3.129||0.931||1.307|
|Limit of quantification (LOQ), µg mL-1||9.483||3.104||3.959|
|Intercept, a ± Sa||0.0068 ± 1.00 × 10-3||0.0081 ± 5.4 × 10-3||0.021 ± 8.721× 10-3|
|Slope, b ± Sb||0.0011 ± 1.48 × 10-5||0.0494 ± 0.3 × 10-3||0.022 ± 0.576 × 10-3|
|Sy/x||1.70 × 10-3||1.53 × 10-2||1.17 ×10-2|
|Correlation coefficient, R||0.9994||0.9996||0.9986|
|Stability of colored products (h)||1||2||2|
aA= a + bC, where A is the absorbance, C is the MBz concentration in (µg mL-1), a is the intercept and b is the slope
Accuracy and Precision: The accuracy and precision of the MBz determination method were established by analyzing solutions of four or five different pure MBz concentrations (within the linear range). The measurements were replicated five times during the day (intra-day) and over three consecutive days (inter-day) using the proposed method. The relative standard deviation, (% RSD), relative error (% RE) and percent recovery were calculated, and the results are summarized in Table 3. The relative standard deviation values for CA (% RSD £ 1.67% for intra-day; % RSD £ 2.00% for inter-day), DNSA (% RSD £ 0.47% for intra-day; % RSD £ 0.54% for inter-day), and PA (% RSD £ 0.95% for intra-day; % RSD £ 1.18% for inter-day) are low, confirming the high precision of the proposed method. Also, the small % RE values shown in Table 3 indicate the good accuracy of the method for the determination of MBz with all three acceptors. Moreover, the intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results indicate the excellent repeatability and reproducibility of the proposed method.
TABLE 3: EVALUATION OF INTRA-DAY AND INTER-DAY ACCURACY AND PRECISION
|Intra-day (n = 5)||Inter-day (n = 3)|
|Found, µg mL-1
|Found, µg mL-1
|30||29.82 ± 0.62||99.39||1.67||0.61||29.45 ± 0.78||98.18||1.07||1.82|
|50||49.64 ± 0.62||99.27||1.00||0.73||49.27 ± 2.26||98.55||1.85||1.45|
|70||69.64 ± 0.62||99.48||0.72||0.52||69.58 ± 3.45||99.39||2.00||1.61|
|90||89.10 ± 1.24||98.99||1.12||1.01||89.58 ± 3.45||99.53||1.55||0.47|
|110||108.9 ± 1.89||99.01||1.40||0.99||109.15 ± 2.32||99.23||0.85||0.77|
|8||7.982 ± 0.03||99.77||0.34||0.22||8.060 ± 0.07||100.8||0.34||0.79|
|15||15.05 ± 0.05||100.3||0.24||0.31||15.09 ± 0.10||100.6||0.26||0.62|
|18||17.97 ± 0.11||99.85||0.48||0.15||18.20 ± 0.21||101.1||0.47||1.10|
|25||25.08 ± 0.06||100.3||0.20||0.32||25.09 ± 0.10||100.4||0.16||0.37|
|6||5.95 ± 0.02||99.17||0.34||0.83||5.94 ± 0.12||99.02||0.77||0.98|
|8||7.97 ± 0.04||99.61||0.52||0.87||7.91 ± 0.24||99.64||1.18||0.36|
|12||11.88 ± 0.08||98.98||0.64||1.02||11.93 ± 0.24||99.38||0.79||0.62|
|17||16.82 ± 0.17||98.95||0.95||1.04||16.96 ± 0.28||99.74||0.67||0.26|
|23||22.80 ± 0.13||99.15||0.55||0.85||22.87 ± 0.40||99.41||0.70||0.59|
Robustness: The robustness of the method was investigated by making minor changes to two experimental variables, i.e., the acceptor volume (± 0.1 mL) and reaction time (± 0.5 min), for three different concentrations of pure MBz. The recovery percentage and % RSD values were calculated, and the results are given in Table 4. The recovery percentage and % RSD values indicate that small variations in the variables do not significantly affect the results of the proposed method, confirming the robustness of the proposed method for the determination of MBz.
TABLE 4: ROBUSTNESS OF THE PROPOSED METHODS
µg mL-1 ± SD
(n = 5)
|Volume of 5×10-4 mol L-1 CA
(1.00 ± 0.10 mL)
|50||49.73 ± 0.45||99.45||0.91|
|70||69.82 ± 0.81||99.74||1.16|
|90||89.09 ± 0.76||98.99||0.85|
|Reaction time (1.00 ± 0.30 min)||50||50.09 ± 0.67||100.2||0.91|
|70||70.09 ± 0.67||100.1||1.16|
|90||89.45 ± 0.76||99.39||0.85|
(n = 5)
|Volume of 5×10-4 mol L-1 DNSA
(0.1 ± 0.02 mL)
|8.0||7.997 ± 0.03||99.96||0.32|
|15||15.01 ± 0.05||100.1||0.32|
|25||24.97 ± 0.08||99.87||0.35|
|Reaction time (1.00 ± 0.30 min)||8.0||8.051 ± 0.03||100.9||0.41|
|15||15.15 ± 0.09||101.0||0.62|
|25||25.25 ± 0.11||101.0||0.44|
(n = 7)
|Volume of 1×10-4 mol L-1 PA
(1.00 ± 0.10 mL)
|10||9.91 ± 0.04||99.08||0.44|
|15||14.85 ± 0.16||99.00||1.10|
|20||20.06 ± 0.13||100.3||0.64|
|Reaction time (1.00 ± 0.30 min)||10||9.950 ± 0.08||99.54||0.78|
|15||15.03 ± 0.09||100.2||0.60|
|20||20.11 ± 0.19||100.5||0.96|
Ruggedness: The ruggedness of the method was evaluated using the proposed method to determine the MBz concentration under the same experimental conditions on two different instruments and with two different analysts. The results are shown in Table 5 and indicate the reproducibility of the proposed method as the % RSD does not exceed 2%.
TABLE 5: RUGGEDNESS OF THE PROPOSED METHODS
|Acceptor||Parameter||MBz taken, µg mL-1||Found, µg mL-1 ± SD||% Recovery||% RSD|
(n = 5)
|Analyst I||50||49.64 ± 0.50||99.27||1.00|
|70||69.82 ± 0.50||99.74||0.71|
|Analyst II||50||50.36 ± 0.76||100.7||1.51|
|70||70.18 ± 0.26||100.3||0.91|
|Instrument I||50||49.64 ± 0.50||99.27||1.00|
|70||69.82 ± 0.50||99.74||0.71|
|Instrument II||50||50.18 ± 1.11||100.3||2.22|
|70||70.36 ± 0.76||100.3||1.08|
(n = 5)
|Analyst I||15||15.03 ± 0.09||100.2||0.59|
|25||25.02 ± 0.33||100.1||1.35|
|Analyst II||15||15.39 ± 0.11||102.6||0.73|
|25||25.05 ± 0.33||100.2||0.34|
|Instrument I||15||15.03 ± 0.09||100.2||0.59|
|25||25.02 ± 0.33||100.1||1.35|
|Instrument II||15||14.79 ± 0.09||98.64||0.63|
|25||25.05 ± 0.06||100.2||0.22|
(n = 5)
|Analyst I||10||10.05 ± 0.09||100.5||0.88|
|15||15.00 ± 0.10||100.0||0.70|
|Analyst II||10||9.98 ± 0.12||99.77||1.18|
|15||14.72 ± 0.21||98.15||1.42|
|Instrument I||10||10.05 ± 0.09||100.5||0.88|
|15||15.00 ± 0.10||100.0||0.70|
|Instrument II||10||9.99 ± 0.10||99.95||0.98|
|15||15.02 ± 0.06||100.1||0.39|
Recovery Study: Method validity was confirmed through a recovery study. The recovery was estimated using a standard addition method by adding three different concentration levels of pure MBz to the commercial form of the drug (VermoxÒ tablets). The total MBz concentration was determined using the proposed method using the different acceptors (CA, DNSA, and PA). The recovery percentage values in Table 6 show that all three acceptors afford good accuracies, and the recovery percentage values range from 99.19% to 99.54%, 99.09% to 100.2%, and 98.77% to 100.1% for CA, DNSA, and PA, respectively. Furthermore, the % RSD values range from 0.76% to 1.02%, 0.13% to 0.34%, and 0.47% to 1.15% for CA, DNSA, and PA, respectively. Also, these results indicate that the co-formulated substances and common excipients do not interfere with the determination of MBz concentration.
TABLE 6: RESULTS OF RECOVERY STUDY FOR TABLETS
|Acceptor||MBz in tablet, µg mL-1||Pure MBz added, µg mL-1||Total found, µg mL-1 ± SD||% Recovery||% RSD|
(n = 5)
|60.00||20.00||79.64 ± 0.81||99.54||1.02|
|60.00||30.00||89.27 ± 0.91||99.19||1.01|
|60.00||40.00||99.45 ± 0.76||99.45||0.76|
(n = 5)
|15.00||5.000||19.98 ± 0.04||99.89||0.19|
|15.00||10.00||25.05 ± 0.03||100.2||0.13|
|15.00||15.00||29.73 ± 0.10||99.09||0.34|
(n = 5)
|5.00||5.00||9.88 ± 0.11||98.77||1.15|
|5.00||10.00||14.99 ± 0.10||99.97||0.69|
|5.00||15.00||20.01 ± 0.09||100.1||0.47|
Analysis of the Pharmaceutical Forms: The proposed method was applied to determine the MBz concentration in VermoxÒ tablets. The analysis results are reported as the recovery percentage ± standard deviation Table 7. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained using the reference method 6 by the Student’s t-test and F-test for accuracy and precision, respectively, at a 95% confidence level. The t-test and F-test values in Table 7 show that there are no significant differences between the proposed method and the reference method.
TABLE 7: DETERMINATION OF MBz IN VERMOXÒ TABLETS USING CA, DNSA, AND PA ACCEPTORS
|Found*, µg mL-1 ± SD||% Recovery||F-test||t-test|
|Proposed method||Reference method|
|CA||40||39.78 ± 0.47||39.33 ± 0.30||99.45||98.32||2.486||0.751|
|DNSA||15||15.05 ± 0.10||14.78 ± 0.16||100.3||98.53||2.620||1.820|
|PA||20||20.05 ± 0.20||19.73 ± 0.37||100.2||98.63||3.467||1.087|
*Average value of five determinations. The value of t (tabulated) at 95% confidence level is 2.306. The value of F (tabulated) at 95% confidence level and is 6.388.
CONCLUSION: A direct, simple and accurate method for the determination of pure and pharmaceutical formulations of MBz has been developed. This method is based on monitoring the CT interactions between MBz and CA, DNSA or PA reagents, using a spectrophotometric technique. The formed complexes have stoichiometries of 1:1 in all cases. The excellent correlation coefficient values and small intercept values confirm the good linearity of the MBz calibration curves.
Moreover, the calculated LOD and LOQ values indicate that complexation with DNSA is more sensitive for MBz determination than that with the other acceptors. We can conclude from the obtained validation results that the proposed method has high accuracy, good repeatability, and excellent reproducibility. Additionally, this method is simple, rapid, and inexpensive and does not require critical reactions or complicated treatments, which are attractive features for analytical pharmaceutical studies.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Alghanmi RM and Alhazmi LY: Spectrophotometric determination of mebendazole through charge transfer interactions. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2019; 10(5): 2504-15. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(5).2504-15.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
R. M. Alghanmi * and L. Y. Alhazmi
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
08 September 2018
16 November 2018
20 November 2018
01 May 2019