Volume 13 (2022) - Issue 4, April
NEW INSIGHTS ON IN-VIVO AND IN-VITRO ANIMAL MODELS OF CEREBRAL REPERFUSION INJURY
Re-establishing blood flow in ischemia is essential for rescuing cells from necrosis in any tissue or organ. However, reperfusion post cerebral ischemia may worsen the condition and lead to “cerebral reperfusion injury”. In cerebral reperfusion injury, significant changes observed are infarct size, behavioural deficits, hematoma formation, inflammatory mediators, and oxidative stress markers t...
ETHNO PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTO PHARMACOLOGICAL PERCEPTION ON KALANCHOE (CRASSULACEAE) – A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW
Natural molecules from plants are vital sources to explore potent lead molecules in the drug discovery process. Plants as A source of medicine is an ancient practice in India. The Indian subcontinent is a wide repository of medicinal plants that are being used in the traditional system of medicines. Kalanchoe is one of the medicinal plants; the succulent leaf juice is prepared by grinding the leav...
TOWARDS FURTHER UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISM OF BIOSORPTION THROUGH VARIOUS BIOSORBENTS
Biosorption is a cure to atmosphere containing heavy metals and also an alternative to physical and chemical methods used for heavy metal removal. The main aim of this review is to highlight the various mechanisms of biosorption by using various biosorbent viz. microorganisms, no-living biomass, herbal plants for the removal of heavy metals. Industrialization, globalization has provided an ease to...
A PHYTO PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANT ZIZIPHUS RUGOSA LAM
Ziziphus rugosea member of Rhamnaceae family, is found in the deciduous and semi-evergreen forests of Western Ghats, India. It is commonly known as suran in Hindi. chunukoli in Urdu, badara in Sanskrit, and toran in Marathi. Z. rugosa is traditionally used in the treatment of skin diseases, mouth ulcers, dropsy, boils, diarrhea, tachycardia, syphilis, miscarriage, misconception, flatulence, hyster...
AN UPDATE ON PHYTOCHEMICALS, NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION, AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PRUNUS AMYGDALUS BATSCH: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW
Prunus amygdalus Batsch (family-Rosaceae), popularly known as Badam, Almond, is the most important familiar nuttree for global nut production that includes apples pears, prunes and raspberries. Almond seed skin is a prominent source of polyphenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acids, bioflavonoids, flavanones, isoflavones, flavonol glycosides and lignans that are reported in a ripened nut. Bioflavon...
A REVIEW ON HERBAL DRUGS WITH POTENTIAL ANTI-ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a general inflammatory disorder touching about 1.3% of the grown-up census of the world. Over the last two decades, a significant development has been done in the thoughtfulness of RA pathophysiology, best outcomes, and successful treatment strategy, and the credit of the significance of diagnostic agents and treating RA near the beginning. Earlier than novel treatment...
ROLE OF ROBOTICS IN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC
The essential part of robots in the medical services framework is principal limiting individual to individual contact defilement and guaranteeing cleaning disinfection. Robots can be defined as an artificially intelligent physical systems capable of interrelating with the environment. The term robot was coined from the Czech what "robota" which implies serf/worker. Robots are classified as Recepti...
A REVIEW ON REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY: CURRENT SCENARIO AND FUTURE ASPECTS
In recent times, the use of radiopharmaceuticals in Medical Imaging and Nuclear medicine has increased. They are a special group of pharmaceuticals with short-shelf life in their final state, and their preparation has been done with utmost care. Due to the inherently hazardous nature of radionuclides on the one hand and the associated concern about radiation safety for patients and staff handling ...
BLACK TEA THEAFLAVINS: A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE
Tea brewed from the plant Camellia sinensis is the second most popular beverage consumed worldwide after water. The first two leaves and the leaf bud are mainly used for commercial tea production, and depending on the variation of processing techniques, it is primarily categorized into -white tea, green tea, oolong tea, and black tea. Different varieties of tea are known for their contribution in ...
THE CHALLENGING ISSUES, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF MUCORMYCOSIS-A NARRATIVE REVIEW
Mucormycosis is a new fungal disease that increased the morbidity and mortality rate in this present scenario. It's difficult to diagnose and cure due to proper scientific evidence is not yet being designed. The disease's prevalence appears to be rising. In high-income nations, hematological malignancies are the most prevalent underlying illness, while uncontrolled diabetes is usually linked to pu...
COMPLEX DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS
The majority of current drug delivery systems are existed as water-insoluble drug delivery systems but rarely water-soluble drug delivery systems. Low aqueous solubility is a common problem in pharmaceutical development. About 40% of commercialized drugs and as many as 90% of drugs in the discovery are low aqueous soluble. When given through traditional dosage forms, such drugs fail to be soluble ...
FILM FORMER IN FILM COATING
The presentation of this work aims to update professionals on issues associated with selecting the film former in the film coating process. Film coating finds applicability in a diverse field that may be for conventional (immediate) release and modified-release intended for enteric/ delayed-release or barrier membrane controlled release (extended-release). In the pharmaceutical field, film coating...
COSTUS IGNUS: INSULIN PLANT AND IT’S PREPARATIONS AS REMEDIAL APPROACH FOR DIABETES MELLITUS
Costus igneus, commonly known as insulin plant, has been traditionally reported for its anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-urolithiasis, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective and anti-microbial activity. This review is all about anatomical and morphological investigations of Costus igneus, including its medicinal use. Secondary metabolites of this plant such as b-sit...
AN OVERVIEW ON PARKINSON’S DISEASE ANIMAL MODELS: FROM CLASSIC TO EVOLVING
A progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder with motor & non-motor are signs of Parkinson's disease or idiopathic parkinsonism. Parkinsonism is characterized in striatal region by the deterioration of Substantia nigra pars compacta & dopamine depletion in Dopaminergic neurons. In Parkinsonism research, the prime purpose is to recognize the pathogenesis, strategies & implementation o...
EVALUATION OF ANTI-ALZHEIMER’S ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS FRUITS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS
Alzheimer's is a degenerative brain disease associated with memory depletion and mild cognitive dysfunction, leading to dementia. Today's world attempts to treat various ailments have increased with medical advancements. There is still considerable research into medications capable of preventing or at least effectively altering the trajectory of AD. Medicinal plants play a major role in Alzheimer'...
ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF MANILKARA ZAPOTA
Aim: The present investigation deals with the preliminary phytochemical screening, in vitro antioxidant, and in vivo antidepressant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manilkara zapota. Materials and Methods: In-vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using AS free radical scavenging parameters using Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, phosphor molybdenum antioxidant assay and NO scavenging acti...
DESIGN AND IN-VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE EFFERVESCENT FLOATING TABLETS
Chlordiazepoxide is a sedative and hypnotic medication which is used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and withdrawal symptoms from alcohol and/or drug abuse. Chlordiazepoxide has a medium to the long half-life, but its metabolite is pharmacologically active and has a very long half-life. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop effervescent floating tablets of Chlordiazepoxide. Methocel...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE
Ondansetron hydrochloride (ONH) is an exceptionally harsh, powerful antiemetic drug utilized for the treatment and prophylaxis of chemotherapy or radiotherapy or postoperative prompted emesis. This investigation aims to detail and assesses taste-covered quick-dissolving tablets (FDTs) of ONH to expand patient consistence. ONH taste veiled granules were set up by a strong scattering procedure. Diss...
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF SILVER SULPHADIAZINE LOADED NANOFIBROUS SCAFFOLD FOR WOUND DRESSING APPLICATIONS
Electrospinning is the fiber-forming process using an electric field where electrostatic forces are employed. By this process, continuous nanofibers range from 0.01 to 10 micrometers can be obtained. Nanofibers produced by the electrospinning technique has application in various fields such as tissue engineering, wound dressing, filtration, protective clothing, drug delivery, and sensor applicatio...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL LOADED SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES WITH IMPROVED BIOAVAILABILITY
In this present work, BCS class II Candesartan celexitil, as an angiotensin receptor blocker used mainly for the treatment of high blood pressure and congestive heart failure, was successfully loaded in the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) by using hot high-speed homogenization method. The SLN formulations were prepared and optimized by Box Benhken design study. The SLN was characterized by Nanoph...
ADVANCEMENT OF GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASE PRODUCTION FROM BACILLUS CEREUS KKSJ 1981 BY STATISTICAL METHOD OF OPTIMIZATION
Pullulanase (Pullulanase-α-glucanohydrolase EC 184.108.40.206) is a glucanohydrolase enzyme that can break down the pullulan and allied oligosaccharides into glucose. Promising of starch-based industries are biofuels, starch syrup, nutraceuticals, etc., increase the glucanohydrolases demand. Present investigation revealing that the Bacillus cereus KKSJ 1981 is enhanced the production of pullulanase thr...
DRUG UTILISATION PATTERNS, PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS, OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG HIV PATIENTS IN A GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL IN BHIMAVARAM
Objectives: To assess the risk factors, opportunistic infections (OI’s), prescribing patterns along with ADRs, medication adherence, and quality of life (QoL) among HIV patients. Methods: This is an Ambi-directional cohort study conducted at the Government hospital, Bhimavaram, for 6 months from July 2019 to December 2019, including 201 HIV patients’ data. The data were analyzed using GraphPad...
EVALUATION OF ANTI-DEPRESSANT EFFECT OF ACACIA NILOTICA LINN LEAVES EXTRACT IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
A chronic illness that affects a person's mood, thoughts, physical health, and behavior patterns is considered depression. Currently used anti-depressant drugs such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and tricyclic anti-depressants (TCA) are showing various side effects and thus, the search for a new anti-depressant herb without side effects is important. The intend of the present st...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY-INDICATING HPTLC ASSAY METHOD OF REMOGLIFLOZIN ETABONATE IN BULK AND MARKETED FORMULATION
Remogliflozin Etabonate (RE) is the latest addition to the sodium-glucose transport proteins 2 inhibitor class of drugs recently approved in India to manage type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Literature survey revealed that no high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method had been reported to date for this drug. The present work describes the development and validation of an HPTLC method for R...
EVALUATION OF ANTI-ALZHEIMER’S ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS STEMS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS
Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent cause of dementia worldwide and its incidence is increasing due to the world's aging population. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the greatest medical care challenges of our century and is the main cause of dementia and neurodegenerative diseases. Dementia is defined as an acquired loss of cognition in many cognitive domains. Herbal medicine has evolved a...
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN SOME GENERIC AND BRANDED DRUGS
Pain is the most common symptom of disease, which accompanies us from an early age. It is a safeguarding mechanism of the body from harmful stimuli. The definition of pain states that it is a subjective sensory and emotional experience. This study compared generic and brand drugs' analgesics and anti-inflammatory activity using eddy’s hot plate method and plethysmometer models. Two studies were ...
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN COCONUT OIL EXTRACTED BY PROBE SONICATION TECHNIQUE
Coconut oil is an edible vegetable oil used in the food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics industries. Fatty acids are the major constituents of Coconut oil. Various methods were reported for the extraction of oil from coconut seed kernels. Extraction of coconut oil from its seed kernel using the probe sonication method is not reported in the literature. Hence, in the present study, oil was extracted...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES OF CIMETIDINE FOR ITS GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY EFFICACY
The Aim and objective of this work were to build up a gastro retentive drug delivery system. Cimetidine is used as a model drug for making mucoadhesive dosage forms. The formulation can be achieved by using the ionic gelation method. The model drug used in this work plan is categorized in antiulcer treatment. The extended-release mucoadhesive microspheres of the drug provide constant plasma concen...
EFFECT OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS A SOURCE OF CARBON FOR ɑ-AMYLASE ENZYME AND ANTIBACTERIAL COMPOUND PRODUCING DIFFERENT TYPES OF WILD FILAMENTOUS FUNGI
The present investigation screening and characterization of α-amylase and antimicrobial compound producing filamentous fungi is used for extensive commercial applications in various sectors and is highly demanded in the Biotech industry. The results reveal that out of the carbon substrates alone, sugarcane bagasse with a combination of Tween-80 was found to yield maximum α-amylase (151.76 IU) un...
EVALUATION OF ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF UNDEREXPLOITED LEAFY VEGETABLES
The adverse environmental impact of fungicides used in plant disease control is escalating day by day. Generally, plant diseases are controlled by synthetic fungicides, chemical methods, and bio-control agents. Chemical methods lead to deterioration of soil fertility and cause pollution. Being highly stable and resistant to biodegradation, chemical fungicides also enter the food chain and are resp...
WOUND HEALING EFFICACY OF A POLYHERBAL TOPICAL GELIN RAT MODELS OF EXCISION WOUND, INCISION WOUND, AND THERMAL BURN INJURY
Background: In Ayurvedic literature, Aloe vera, turmeric, honey, karanj oil, and cow ghee are documented for medicinal properties like anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-coagulant and wound recovery. Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a topical gel containing Aloe vera extract, turmeric, honey, karanj oil, and cow ghee for wound healing. Methods: Topi...
PREPARATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF 0.05% 5-FLUOROURACIL SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLE GEL IN THE TREATMENT OF ACTINIC KERATOSIS
The present study focused on the formulation and in-vitro evaluation of 0.05% 5-fluorouracil solid lipid nanoparticle gel in treating actinic keratosis. The in-vitro release profile of solid lipid nanoparticle gel is higher than the marketed cream formulation; thus, we can reduce the dose of formulation by this method. This is prepared using tween 80, tween 20, glycerol monostearate, glycerol, and...
FORMULATION OF NANOSTRUCTURED BASED DELIVERY SYSTEM OF FISET IN FOR SKIN CANCER
The research work is focused on the formulation of dermal drug delivery system of Fisetin. The formulation based on the principal to causes deeper skin penetration and minimal systemic delivery for the management of skin cancer by enhancing the dermal bioavailability of formulation with reducing dosage requirement in sustained delivery mode by direct targeting of formulations to the skin. Two form...
GLUTATHIONE AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDY IN TESTES OF WISTAR RATS AFTER DIETARY COPPER DEFICIENCY
Copper is an essential trace element involved in a plethora of functions being a component of several enzymes. Copper deficiency affects people of all age groups, including infants, children, pregnant women, and men. Deficiency occurs due to numerous factors hindering the absorption/uptake of copper. Male Wistar rats (35-50 gm) were divided into four groups: Group 1: Negative control – fed with ...
KNOWLEDGE OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PRESCRIPTION AMONG DENTAL PRACTITIONERS IN CHENNAI CITY- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Introduction: Most human oro-facial infections originate from odontogenic infections, and prescribing antimicrobial has become a ubiquitous phenomenon. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized the inappropriate, indiscriminate and irrational use of antimicrobials leading to antimicrobial resistance. Aim & Objective: To assess the knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobia...
IN-VITRO ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF VITIS VINIFERA SEEDS
In the present study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Vitis vinifera seeds were studied for alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibition using an in-vitro model. The plant extracts were also examined for their antioxidant activities by using the free radical 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrozyl (DPPH) scavenging method under in-vitro. The study revealed that the different concentrations of the ...
ANTI-CANCER EFFECT OF PANCHAGAVYA ON HUMAN COLON ADENOCARCINOMA (HCT-116) CELL LINE
The objective of the study was to investigate the in-vitro anti-cancer effect of Panchagavya on the Human Colon Adencarcinoma (HCT-116) cell line. Panchayavya was formulated using five products from Cows, namely; Cow dung, Cow urine, Cow milk, Cow curd and Cow ghee. The whole mixture was further freeze-dried and stored until further assay conduction. The growth inhibitory activity of the raw Panch...
SYNTHESIS AND ANTI-CONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF NOVEL BENZHYDRYL PIPERAZINE DERIVATIVES
A series of 1 - (4 -Benzhydryl piperazin-1-yl) -3-(mono -substituted) propan-1-one (7c-i) and N - (substituted) - 2 - (4 –benz-hydrylpiperazin – 1 - yl) acetamide (7a, 7d) were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant and neurotoxicity activity. The chemical structure of the synthesized compounds was elucidated by spectral and elemental analysis. Compounds like 7d, 7c, and ...