A REVIEW ON ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS OF ASSAM (INDIA) USED IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUSHTML Full Text
A REVIEW ON ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS OF ASSAM (INDIA) USED IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Suman Kumar * 1, Dhritimoni Devi 1, Susankar Kushari 1, Sameeran Gam 2 and Himangshu Sarma 3
Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science 1, Guwahati - 781017, Assam, India.
NETES Institute of Pharmaceutical Science 2, Mirza - 781125, Assam, India.
Life Sciences Division 3, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati - 781035, Assam, India.
ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders and has been a leading cause of death in the last few decades. Oral hypoglycaemic agents are mostly used in the treatment of diabetes, but the main drawback of these agents is that they have some unavoidable side effects. Nowadays, researchers are mainly focusing on unexposed medicinal plant species as an alternative source for the treatment of diabetic mellitus. This review article aims to compile all the reported antidiabetic plants used by ethnic people of Assam as a folk remedy to cure diabetes mellitus and help the researcher investigate unexposed antidiabetic medicinal plants. In this concern, an extensive literature survey was carried out through different books and electronic search engines to understand the cause of diabetes mellitus and their traditional herbal remedy. Here listed 92 plant species belong to 45 families that claim ethnomedical indication to treat various diabetes mellitus. The roots, rhizomes, stems, leaves, barks, bulbs, flowers, and even the whole plant are utilized as folk remedies to cure diabetes mellitus in the form of crushed juice, infusion, and decoction. The wide variety of plants that are being utilized to cure diabetes mellitus in this area supports the traditional value in their primary health care system of the various rural communities of Assam. The information will help the researcher find unexplored medicinal plants to develop a new therapeutic approach to develop new chemical entities, which are safe, effective, and inexpensive for isolation and identification of novel bioactive compounds.
Diabetes mellitus, Ethnomedicine, Assam, Traditional knowledge
INTRODUCTION: The history of ethnomedicine is as old as human civilization. It is a component of ethnobotany, which refers to the use of plants by humans as medicine to treat various ailments of humans and animals. India is known for its traditional practices of medicine since the era of vedic.
Medicinal plants based on traditional systems of medicines are playing a vital function in providing health care to a large section of population 1. This indigenous system of medicine has been an integral part of Indian culture and constructed a bridge between herbal biodiversity and cultural bio-diversity. It is exciting that 25% of all prescription drugs are derived from plant sources 2.
People's belief in ethnomedicine has been due to its cost-effectiveness, minimal side effects, and easy accessibility 3. So, investigation of indigenous knowledge on natural resources is essential to resilience activity on various diseases or disorders and conserve our traditional knowledge, which could be a source for the scientists in new drug discovery.
Natural products have been used since ancient times in the traditional medicine system for the treatment, cure, or prevention of various diseases or disorders, including diabetes and inflammatory diseases. Several experimental studies have validated the traditional use of antidiabetic medicinal plants by investigating the biologically active compound in the extracts, which is being able to reduce postprandial blood sugar levels 4, 5. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that results in a defect in secretion and insulin action. It is the most widespread endocrine disease all over the globe. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the global diabetes prevalence in 2014 is 422 million compared to 108 million in 1980 6. Without interventions, the number of people with diabetes is expected to rise to 629 million by 2045 7. It is recognized as a global epidemic by the WHO. For the last few decades, researchers are searching for an antidiabetic drug to tackle this overgrowing disease in combination with proper eating habits and physical exercises 8. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been rising more rapidly in middle and low-income countries like India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, etc. According to the National Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy, the prevalence of diabetes in India has remained at 11.8% in 2019. In India, there are reported 77.2 million people with prediabetes. However, it affects people both in urban and rural, but the impact on the urban population is much higher than the rural one 9.
India is one of the seventeen mega biodiversity hotspots globally and accounts for 7-8% of the recorded species 10, 11. Northeast India is a part of both the Himalayas and Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot 12. Assam is the second largest state of Northeast India, situated in the extreme of the Himalayan, resulting in an abundant source of medicinal plants 13, 14. The people of Assam inhabit a multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic, and multi-religious society along with several tribes with their own traditions and culture. From a very early age, these ethnic people of Assam are dependent on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare problem. According to a survey of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Assam has rapidly increased, and it was revealed that 5.5% of the total population is suffering from diabetes mellitus. The inhabitant of this region uses different plant parts along with available formulations for the treatment of this disease. Nowadays, it is imperative to conserve this precious knowledge of traditional medicine, which has been gradually descending through generation by generation because of the negligence of the younger generation and lack of proper documentation. So, documentation and conservation of such valuable information are essential, which could help the researcher identify, isolate bioactive constituents, and formulated new cost-effective dosage forms.
FIG. 1: GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF ASSAM
Geographical Description: Assam is one of the eight states of northeast India situated between 24º2⸍-28ºN latitude & 89º8⸍-96ºE longitude, covering 78,438 sq. km 15, 16. The state shares an international border with Bangladesh in the west and Bhutan in the north. The national border with Arunachal Pradesh in the north and east, West-Bengal, Meghalaya in the west, and Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura in the south Fig. 1. The state has 33 districts that are distributed in Brahma-putra valley, Barak valley, and the mountainous ranges. The capital of Assam is Dispur. It possesses a unique geomorphic environment with broad plains and hills. The state climate is subtropical with heavy rainfall and humidity, which supports various habitats and the wetland ecosystem 17. As far as the climate is concerned, the state has pleasant weather. During summer, the temperature goes around 35-38 °C, and in winter, the temperature reaches a minimum of 6-8 °C. The climate is characterized by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperatures and foggy nights and mornings during winters 18. Approximately 35.48% of the total area is covered with forest. This area is mainly comprised of five national parks, twenty wildlife sanctuaries, and twenty-three protected areas, respectively 19, 20. The climatic condition and wide varieties of physical features witnessed in Assam have resulted in a diversity of ecological habitats which harbor and sustain a wide range of species. Furthermore, the prevalence of mild and highly humid weather coupled with heterogenic physiography make possible dense growth of several plant species in this part of the country and, therefore, phyto-geographically, imparting Assam a distinct identity in the world.
Ethnic People of Assam: The Assamese is a mixture of Mongolian-Tibetan, Aryan, and Barman ethnic origin. The people of Assam mostly speak Assamese, which is commonly known as ‘Asomiya’. The language is an Indo-Aryan language with Sanskrit roots. The people of Barak Valley speak the Bengali language. The primary official languages of Assam are Assamese, Bangali, and Bodo. Other languages often said in the state include Nepali, Karbi, Mising, Dimasa, etc. 18 The ethnic people of Assam can be divided into two groups, viz. tribal and non-tribal. Most of the tribal communities have their languages 21.
These tribes include Rabha, Bodo, Karbi, Tiwa, Mishing, Dimasa, Garo, Sonowal Kacharis, Deori, Hojai, Mech, etc. All these communities are an integral part of Assam. According to the 2011 census data, the total population is 31,169,272, out of which males comprise 15,954,927 and females comprise 15,954,927. It comprises people from various religions like Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, Jain, and Sikhs. Most of the community lives in rural areas. The total literate population of the state is 73.18%, where the female literacy rate is lower (67.27%) as compared to males (78.81%) 21.
A Brief Description of Diabetes Mellitus: Diabetes mellitus can be classified into two major types, i.e., Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) 22. T2DM is very common and accounts for 90-95% of all diabetic cases, so it is regarded as the most critical health concern worldwide 23. The distinction between the two types has historically been based on age onset, degree of loss of β cell function, degree of insulin resistance, presence of diabetes-associated auto-antibodies etc. The significant symptoms of diabetes mellitus are thirst, polyuria, polyphagia, blurring vision, and weight loss. The most severe clinical manifestation is ketoacidosis or a non-ketotic hyperosmolar state that may lead to dehydration, coma, and death in the absence of effective treatment 7. The long-term specific effects of diabetes mellitus include mainly retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. People with diabetes are also at high risk of other diseases, including heart, cerebrovascular disease, obesity, cataracts, erectile dysfunction, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease 7.
Antidiabetic Drugs and their Side Effects: There are several oral hypoglycemic classes of drugs that show antidiabetic effects by different cellular mechanisms. Among those sulfonylureas, biguanides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, SGLT-2 inhibitors are most commonly used. Oral sulphonylureas reduce the blood sugar level by elevating insulin release from islets of Langerhans. Similarly, biguanides reduce hepatic gluconeogenesis and replenish peripheral tissues' sensitivity to insulin. The α-glucosidase inhibitors such as acarbose, voglibose are responsible for the break-down of carbohydrates. Another essential class thiazolidinedione such as pioglitazone, rosiglitazone primarily improves the muscle and adipose tissue sensitivity to insulin. Although synthetic oral hypoglycemic drugs mainly control diabetes, these drugs often come with prominent side effects 24, 25. The different antidiabetic medicines and their side effects and mechanism of action are summarized in Table 1.
TABLE 1: SUMMARY OF SOME COMMONLY USED ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS, THEIR MECHANISM OF ACTION AND SIDE EFFECTS 24–26
|Class of drugs||Antidiabetic drugs||Mechanism of action||Side effects and contraindications|
|Biguanides||Metformin||Inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis and increases skeletal muscle uptake of glucose||Lactic acidosis and contraindicated for patients with liver or heart failure|
|Increases insulin secretion by activating β-cells of islets of langerhans||Risk of weight gain|
|Inhibit carbohydrates degradation in intestine||Gastrointestinal side effects. Negligible effects on cholesterol|
|It activates PPAR γ, increases insulin sensitivity in muscle||Risk of weight gain, edema, and heart failure|
|Increases insulin secretion by activating β-cells of islets of langerhans||
Risk of weight gain, risk of hypoglycemia
|Increases incretin concentration||Gastrointestinal side effects|
|SGLT- 2 inhibitors||Dapagliflozin
|Limits renal glucose reabsorption||Risk of urinary tract infections|
DPP-4: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4; GLP-1: Glucagon-like peptide 1; PPARɤ: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; SGLT2: Sodium dependent glucose co-transporter 2
Ethnomedicinal Approaches: Diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle-dependent metabolic disorder in which dieting and controlling the blood sugar level is essential. In the last 40 years, the prevalence of diabetes in India has increased significantly. A large investment is requiring in the development of effective and safe antidiabetic drugs. Researchers are working day and night to fulfill the high demand for new antidiabetic drugs with minimum side effects. In the classical system of medicine, especially in Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani employed many medicinal plants to treat diabetes. Moreover, several natural products have been reported to possess good antidiabetic activity in the ethnomedicinal survey. In this review article, we have collected such information from various ethnomedicinal surveys of Assam and tried to find out the most cited plant species and family and their parts used. All traditional antidiabetic plants used by ethnic people of Assam along with their families are listed in Table 2. All the plants collected were growing either in the homesteads or in the vicinity of the homestead. These are available throughout the year. Table 2 also gives the ethnobotanical information of plant parts utilized and the preparation method of the dosage forms. In the review, 92 plant species belonging to 45 families were recognized for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Among these plant species Adhatoda vasica Nees., Aegle marmelos Correa ex Roxb., Aloe veratourn ex Linn., Allium sativum Linn., Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken, Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Coptisteeta Wall., Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Ocimum sanctum Linn, etc., are frequently utilized folk remedies among the rural communities Fig. 2.
TABLE 2: LIST OF THE ANTIDIABETIC TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS SPECIES ALONG WITH THEIR LOCAL NAME, FAMILY, PARTS OF PLANT AND METHOD OF USES BY VARIOUS RURAL COMMUNITIES ASSAM
|S. no.||Local name||English name||Family||Biological Source||Plant parts used||Method of uses|
|1||Vasakpata||Malabar nut tree||Acanthaceae||Adhatoda vasica Nees.||Roots, leaves & flower||Decoction 27-29|
|2||Bel||Golden apple; Stone apple||Rutaceae||Aegle marmelos Correa ex Roxb.||Leaves, Fruits||Leaves powder is taken with cow’s milk 30-33|
|3||Koroi, Kurha||White siris tree||Mimosaceae||Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.||Leaves, flower, bark||Decoction 27, 28|
|4||Piyaz||Onion||Amaryllidaceae||Allium cepa Linn.||Rhizome||Rhizome paste is taken with honey 32-36|
|5||Naharu||Garlic||Liliaceae||Allium sativum Linn.||Bulb||Bulb is fried with mustard oil and consumed with normal diet 28, 34-36|
|6||Mankach, Mankanda||Giant taro||Araceae||Alocasia indica (Lour.) Spach||Rhizome||Juice, shade dry powder 27|
|7||Salkowari||Indian Aloe||Liliaceae||Aloe vera tourn ex Linn.||Leaves||Decoction, Juice 28, 33-35|
|8||Bogi-tora; Tora-bhaghini||Blue ginger, Siamese ginger||Zingiberaceae||Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd.||Tuber, rhizome||Raw 37|
|9||Karpur||Zingiberaceae||Amomum linguiforme (Roxb.) Baker||Rhizome||Decoction is taken once a day 30, 38|
|10||Nekhontenga; Abu-tenga||Rohitaka||Euphorbiaceae||Antides maacidum Retz.||Leaves||Decoction 39|
|11||Mati kothal||Pineapple||Bromeliaceae||Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.||Whole plant, leaves, Fruits||Fresh juice fruit pulp, decoction of leaves 27, 28|
|12||Kalmegh||Green chiretta||Acanthaceae||Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees||Whole plant||Boiled with water 27, 28, 33|
|Annonaceae||Annona squamosa Linn.||Bark||Bark decoction is taken before meal 28, 30|
|14||Tamol-goch||Betel nut plam||Arecaceae||Areca catechu Linn.||Nuts||Dried and soaked with water 27, 28, 34|
|15||Kothal||Jack-fruit||Moraceae||Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.||Leaves||Juice is used orally 27, 28|
|16||Neem||Mahaneem; Neem||Meliaceae||Azadirachta indicaA. Juss.||Leaves, seed||Decoction of leaves, seed powder 27, 40|
|17||Kausidarya||Linderniaceae||Bonnayareptans (Roxb.) Spreng.||Leaves||Roasted leaves powder 41|
|18||Beet||Beetroot||Chenopodiaceae||Beta vulgaris Linn.||Root||Root juice taken orally 28, 32|
|19||Simolu||Red cotton tree; Red silk cotton tree||Bombacaceae||Bombax ceiba Linn.||Flower, root and bark||Decoction 27, 28|
|20||Dupor-tenga||Air plant||Crassulaceae||Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken||Leaves||Juice of boiled leaves to be taken orally twice a day 30|
|21||Lataguti||Fever nut||Fabaceae||Caesalpinia crista Linn.||Seed||Decoction 28, 39|
|22||Arahar-mah||Pigeon pea; Red gram||Fabaceae||Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.||Leaves||Decoction is taken orally on empty stomach 28, 30|
|23||Akon||Crown flower||Apocynaceae||Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand.||Leaves||Decoction 28, 37|
|Cannabinaceae||Cannabis sativa Linn.||Seed||Smoked seed powder 27, 28|
|25||Amita||Papaya||Cariaceae||Carica papaya Linn.||Seed, fruit||Fruit pulp, shade dried seed powder 27|
|26||Khorpat||Winged Senna;Carrion Crow Bush||Fabaceae||Senna alata (L.) Roxb.||Tender leaves||Leaves powder 28, 42|
|27||Senna||Indian Senna||Fabaceae||Cassia angustifolia Vahl.||Leaves||Extract 28, 39|
|28||Sonaru||Pudding-pipe tree||Fabaceae||Cassia fistula Linn.||Flower, seed, stem bark||Decoction of seed powder, flower & stem bark 27, 28|
|29||Bor-madeluwa||Senna Sophera||Fabaceae||Senna sophera (L.) Roxb.||Seeds & stem bark||Decoction 27, 28|
|30||Noyontora||Periwinkle; Vinca||Apocyanaceae||Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don||Leaves||Juice 27, 33, 34, 42, 43|
|31||Bar manimuni||Indian pennywort||Apiaceae||Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.||Whole plant||Juice of whole plant is taken orally 27, 28, 34|
|32||Poraamlokhi; Dhupuri||Star gooseberry||Phyllanthaceae||Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels||Leaves||Decoction 27|
|33||Holfoli||Euphorbiaceae||Ciceracida Linn.||Leaves||Decoction 39, 44|
|34||Tezpat; Tejiya||Lauraceae||Cinnamomum impressinervium Meisn||leaves||Dry leaves powder 28, 30, 45|
|35||KajiNemu||Key lime||Rutaceae||Citrus aurantifolia Linn.||Fruit||Decoction 28, 39|
|36||JoraNemu||Sweet Orange||Rutaceae||Citrus aurantium Linn.||Fruit||Decoction 39|
|37||Bharangi||Beetle Killer||Verbinaceae||Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon.||Whole plants||Juice, Infusion 46|
|Cucurbitaceae||Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt||Leaves, fruit||Decoction 27, 33|
|39||Narikol||Coconut||Arecaceae||Cocos nucifera Linn.||Fruit||Juice, fresh fruit pulp 27, 28|
|40||Kolakachu||Taro||Araceae||Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott||Rhizome||Decoction, Infusion 30|
|41||Dhonia||Coriander||Apiaceae||Coriandrum sativum Linn.||Leaves||Decoction 28, 30|
|42||Mishmi tita||Canker root||Rununculacaeae||Coptis teeta Wall.||Root, leaves||Decoction 47|
|43||Katri||Wild turmeric||Zingibenaceae||Curcuma aromatica Salisb.||Rhizome||Decoction 28, 39|
|44||Halodhi||Turmeric||Zingiberaceae||Curcuma longa L.||Leaves, rhizome||Decoction 28, 39|
|45||Dubori-bon||Bermuda grass||Poaceae||Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.||Whole plant||Fresh juice 27, 28|
|46||Ou-tenga||Elephant apple||Dilleniaceae||Dillenia indica Linn.||Fruit, Flower||Fruit infusion, Flower extract 30, 48|
|47||Okshi||Nepali elephant apple||Dilleniaceae||Dillenia pentagyna Roxb.||Ripe fruit||Juice 49|
|48||Kath-aalu||Dioscoreaalata||Dioscoreaceae||Dioscorea alata Linn.||Rhizome||Decoction 27, 28|
|49||Elaichi||Cardamomum||Zingiberaceae||Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton||Fruit, seed & leaf||Fruit & decoction, seed powder 27|
|50||Amlokhi||Indian gooseberry; Amla||Euphorbiaceae||Emblica officinalis Gaertn.||Fruits, Whole plant||Decoction 28, 34, 40|
|51||Modar||Indian Coral tree||Fabaceae||Erythrina variegata L.||Root||Decoction 28, 34|
|52||Bot gos||Banyan||Moraceae||Ficus benghalensis Linn.||Stem, bark||Decoction 28, 36, 42|
|53||Dimoru||Bonsai tree||Moraceae||Ficus glomerata Roxb.||Leaf, fruit, Root||Leaf extract & fruit juice 39, 50|
|54||Ahot||Peepal tree||Moraceae||Ficus religiosa Linn.||Root and bark||Decoction 28, 39|
|55||Dimoru||White fig or Pilkhan||Moraceae||Ficusvirens||leaf||Cold or hot infusion 51|
|56||Borthekera||Mangosteen||Clusiaceae||Garcinia pedanculata||Fruit pulp||Fleshy fruit pulp is soaked overnight 28, 30|
|57||Soyabean||Soyabean||Fabaceae||Glycine max Merr.||Seed||Decoction 28, 39|
|58||Gomari||Beechwood||Lamiaceae||Gmelina arborea Roxb.||Leaf, fruit||Decoction 28, 39|
|59||Anantamul||Indian Sarsaparilla||Apocynaceae||Hemidesmus indicus L.||root||Decoction 27|
|60||Kurchi||Tellicherry bark||Apocynaceae||Holarrhena antidysenterica||Seed, bark||Seed powder, bark decoction 27|
|61||Lamkandol||Black creeper||Apocynaceae||Ichnocarpus frutescens R. Bn.||root||Root extract 39|
|62||Kahuwa bon||Cotton grass||Poaceae||Imperata cylindrical Beauv.||Root||Decoction 39|
|63||Kalmou||Waterspinach||Convulaceae||Ipomoea aquantica Forssk.||leaves||Dried leaf powder taken orally with Piper nigerium 28, 32|
|64||Doportenga||Air plant/ miracle leaf/ cathedral bells||Crassulaceae||Kalanchoe piñata Pers.||Whole plant||Fresh juice 34|
|65||Aam||Mango||Anacardiaceae||Mangifera indica L.||Leaves and fruits||Decoction prepared from leaves is taken orally 28, 35|
|66||Nilazibon||Touch-me-not/shameplant||Mimosaceae||Mimosa pudica Linn.||Whole plant||Decoction 28, 39|
|67||Titakerela||Bitter gourd||Cucurbitaceae||Momordica charantia||Fruit juice||Decoction 28, 40, 52|
|68||Nuni||Mulberry||Moraceae||Morusindica Linn.||Tender leaf||Decoction 28, 39|
|69||Norosingha||Curry tree||Rutaceae||Murraya koenigii||Leaf extract||Decoction 28, 52|
|70||Athiakol||Wild banana||Musaceae||Musa balbisiana Colla.||Aerial stem||Decoction 37|
|71||Kashkol||Plantain||Musaceae||Musa paradisiaca L.||mucha||Juice, decoction 27, 28|
|72||Sewali||Night jasmine||Oleaceae||Nyctanthes arbor tristis L.||Leaves, flower||Leaf juice, flower paste 28|
|73||Vet phul||Water lily||Nymphacaceae||Nymphaea rubra L.||Leaf, stem & flower||Flower extract, stem, & decoction 27|
|74||Tulsi||Holy Basil||Lamiaceae||Ocimum sanctum L.||Leaf, stem, flower twing & root||Decoction 27, 28, 34, 36|
|75||Koya bon||Panama crown grass||Poaceae||Paspalum fimbriatum kunth||Whole plant||Decoction 37, 42|
|76||Titaphul||Nongmankha||Acanthaceae||Phlogacanthus thrysiflorus Nees.||Flower, leaf||Fresh juice 27|
|77||Amlokhi||Indian gooseberry||Euphorbiaceae||Phyllanthus emblica L.||seeds||Roasted seed powder 27|
|78||Champa||Temple tree||Apocyanaceae||Plumeria acuminata||bark||Bark extract 28, 39|
|79||Madhuri aam||Guava||Myrtaceae||Psidium guajava Linn.||Fruit, leaf||Decoction 28, 36, 39|
|80||Helash||Devil-pepper||Apocynaceae||Rauwolfia tetraphylla L.||root||Decoction 37|
|81||Golapphul||Rose||Rosaceae||Rosa alba L.||Flower||Infusion 37|
|82||Ashok||Sorrowless tree||Caesalpiniaceae||Saracaindica Linn.||Fruit||Decoction 39|
|83||Jayanti||Sesban||Fabaceae||Sesbania sesban||leaf||Decoction 27|
|84||Vekuritita||Yellow-berried nightshade||Solanaceae||Solanum xanthocarpum||Juice extract||Decoction 28, 52|
|85||Chirata||Bitter Stick||Gentianaceae||Swertica chirata L.||Whole plant||Whole plant extract is consumed 28|
|86||long||Clove||Myrtaceae||Syzygium aromaticum||Flower bud||Decoction 37|
|87||Kola jamu||Java plum||Myrtaceae||Syzygium cumini L.||Bark||Bark powder taken with cow’s milk 14, 40, 42, 53-55|
|88||Kothonda-phool||Pinwheel flower/crape jasmine||Apocynaceae||Tabernaemontana divaricata L.||leaf||Decoction 30|
|89||Arjun||Rangoon creeper||Combretaceae||Terminalia arjuna Linn.||Bark||Infusion 37|
|90||Badam(desi)||Indian almond||Combretaceae||Terminalia catapa Kinn.||Fruit, seed||Decoction 39|
|91||Silikha||Myrobalan||Combretaceae||Terminalia chebula Retz.||Fruits||Decoction & powder 42, 54|
|92||Korobi||Mexican oleander||Apocyanaceae||Theventia peruviana (pers) Meril||bark||Bark extract 39|
FIG. 2: SOME FREQUENTLY UTILIZED MEDICINAL PLANTS BY RURAL COMMUNITIES OF ASSAM
CONCLUSION: Current scenarios of the management of diabetics, for the most part, focus on the potentiation of the of β-cell function, minimize insulin resistance. Phytoconstituents extracted from plants have been utilized to treat human sicknesses since the beginning of medication. The plant drugs and herbal formulations are considered less toxic and free from side effects compared with synthetic medications. In the last few years, researchers are mainly focusing on unexposed medicinal plants that are used by traditional healers in the treatment of diabetes. The indigenous population still relies greatly on traditional medicinal plants to meet their healthcare needs because of the perceived effectiveness, presumed safety with minimal side effects, and affordability.
However, such ethnobotanical information and local plant traditional knowledge need to be substantiated by pharmacological experiments for scientific validation.
In this way, Ayurveda's information upheld by present-day science is essential to separate, portray, and institutionalize the active constituents from natural sources for antidiabetic activity. Combining traditional folk remedies and modern health care therapy can create better medications to prevent and treat people with diabetes with fewer post diabetic complications. Thus, pharmacologists need to take progressively dynamic enthusiasm for assessing traditional folk medications for potential antidiabetic movement and institutionalizing such natural medications as clinically successful and universally focused.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: We would like to acknowledge the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India, New Delhi, India (No.-DST/IF190138) for providing the necessary support.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Kumar S, Devi D, Kushari S, Gam S and Sarma H: A review on ethnomedicinal plants of Assam (India) used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2021; 12(6): 3042-50. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.12(6).3042-50.
All © 2013 are reserved by the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
S. Kumar *, D. Devi, S. Kushari, S. Gam and H. Sarma
Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Guwahati, Assam, India.
03 May 2020
07 December 2020
05 May 2021
01 June 2021