A REVIEW ON NATURAL GUMS AND THEIR USE AS PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENTSHTML Full Text
A REVIEW ON NATURAL GUMS AND THEIR USE AS PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENTS
Srinivas Lankalapalli * and Deepthi Sandhala
GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM Deemed to be University, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam - 530045, Andhra Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: Recent past has witnessed the promising roles of natural gums as pharmaceutical ingredients. Gums became important excipients in many pharmaceutical preparations owing to their abundance, biodegradability, non-toxicity and comparatively low cost. They have notable applications in pharmaceutical preparation as binders, disintegrants, suspending agents, emulsifiers. The use of these gums as gelling or matrix-forming agents to suit the requirement as excipient in novel drug delivery systems is one of the interesting fields of emerging research. The present article is focused on reviewing some important features of gums, their economic importance uses and pharmaceutical applications.
Natural gum, Pharmaceutical excipients, Controlled release, Nanoparticles
INTRODUCTION: Natural excipients are preferred over the synthetic as they are inert, safe, non-toxic, biocompatible, biodegradable, low cost, eco-friendly and abundantly available in nature 1, 2, 3. Gums are usually pathological products and are produced when the plant is growing under unfavorable conditions or is injured 4. Thus, they are the abnormal products of plant metabolism. The process is known as “gummosis”. The term gum was probably applied to natural plant exudates that had oozed from tree barks. Gums are translucent and amorphous substances, produced by plants. Gums are soluble or partly soluble in water. They are insoluble in alcohol and most of the organic solvent. They form viscous adhesive solutions with water either by swelling or due to absorption. An aqueous solution of gum is usually levorotary, they
are plant hydrocolloids and may be anionic or non- ionic polysaccharides. Pharmaceutically, important gums are gum acacia, tragacanth, gum karaya, gum ghatti, guar gum. Gums are characteristics of certain natural orders like Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Combretaceae, and Sterculiaceae. Gums in general, are used primarily as adhesives or thickening agents in printing, textiles, paper, paint, candy, food, and pharmaceutical industries. They are used as tablet binding agents, suspending agents, emulsifiers, stabilizers, and thickening agents.
Gums are grouped into three major categories namely natural gums, modified gums, and synthetic gums.
Natural Gums: They are obtained in a natural state such as the tree exudates, extracted from seeds of some legumes or seaweed hydrocolloids. Ex: gum arabica, guar gum, tragacanth.
Modified Gums: They are chemically modified natural gums or derivative of naturally occurring materials such as cellulose or starch. Ex: Carboxy methylcellulose.
Synthetic Gums: They are completely synthesized chemical products. Ex: polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene oxide.
Advantages: Natural gums offer several advantages due to their natural abundance. Some of the advantages are as follows.
- They are biodegradable polymers as they are produced by living organisms.
- They are biocompatible and non-toxic.
- Relatively cheap as the production cost is very low.
- Readily available as a local source or through cultivation.
- The production is ecofriendly.
- Many of the gums are obtained from an edible source, hence they are easily acceptable.
Disadvantages: Disadvantages of natural gums are related to their production from a natural source. Some of the disadvantages are.
- Microbial contamination due to high moisture content and possible degradation.
- Environmental and seasonal factors will influence the quality variation of gums.
- The difference in collection and climatic conditions also leads to quality variation of gums.
- Natural gums are found to show a decrease in viscosity on storage 5, 6.
Natural Gums: A number of natural gums and mucilages have been investigated for a variety of applications.
Some of the recently investigated natural gums are summarized in Table 1.
TABLE 1: SOME REPORTED NATURAL GUMS AND THEIR USES
|S. no.||Gum||Botanical Name||Family||Uses||Geographical Source|
|1||Albizia gum||Albizia zygia||Leguminosae||Used in Food industry||Southeast Asia 7, 8|
|2||Almond gum||Prunus amygdalus||Rosaceae||Used for hair and skin||Kashmir valley 9|
|3||Albizia odoratissima||Mimosa odoratissima||Leguminoseae||Used for indoor
|4||Asafoetida||Ferula foetida regel||Umbelliferae||Used as a powerful nervine stimulant||Eastern Persia and western Afghanistan 10|
|5||Agar gum||Gelidium amansii||Gelidaceae||Used in the preparation of jellies, confectionery||Japan, Australia, New Zealand, USA and India 10|
|6||Abelmoschus||Abelmoschus esculentus||Malvaceae||Used as a polymer for gastric floating dosage form 11||-|
|7||Aegle gum||Aegle marmelos||Rutaceae||Used in printing and used
|8||Ayoyo gum||Cochorus olitorius||Tiliaceae 13||-||-|
|9||Acacia gum||Acacia Senegal||Leguminoseae||Used as pigment binder and adhesive in painting||Sudan, Central Africa and India 14|
|10||Bhara gum||Terminalia billerica||Combretaceae||Used in medicinal purpose 15||-|
|11||Bengal Kino (butea gum)||Butea monosperma||Leguminosae||Used internally for diarrhea and dysentery 16||
|Combretaceae||Used as the herb of
|13||Cordio gum||Cordio oblique||Boraginaceae||Used as anti-fungal||Africa, Asia, America 18, 19|
|14||Copal gum||Bursera bipinnata||Burseraceae||Used in the printing ink, paints, and films||East Africa and Indonesia and South America 20|
|15||Cashew gum||Anacardium occidentale||Anacardiaceae||Used as a jelling agent in canned food||Mexico and the West
Indies 21, 22, 23
|16||Chicle gum||Manikara zapata||Apocynaceae||Used in chewing gum||Mediterranean region of South America 16|
|17||Carob gum||Ceratonia siliqua Linn.||Leguminosae||Used in the food industry for calico printing 16||East Mediterranean region|
|18||Cumbi gum||Gardenia gummifer||Rubiaceae||Used as insecticide 16||-|
|19||Carragennan||Chondrus cryspus||Gigarginaceae||Used in the Food industry, medicinal and industrial 24||
|20||Cassia tora||Cassia tora Linn.||Leguminoseae||-||Europe, Japan, India 25, 26|
|21||Dammar gum||Shorea wiener||Dipterocarpaceae||Used in foods and glazy agent||India and East Asia 27|
|22||Ferula gum||Ferula gummosa||Apiaceae
|Used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis asthma 28||-|
|23||Grewia gum||Grewia mollis||Liliaceae||Used as
|Middle belt region of Nigeria 29, 30|
|24||Guar gum||Cyamompsis tetraganolobus||Leguminoseae||Used in appetite suppressant & Medicine for constipation.||India, Pakistan, North-Western Country 31|
|25||Ghatti gum||Anogeissus latifolia||Combretaceae||Used in non-petroleum waxes||India and Sri Lanka 10|
|26||Guggal gum||Commiphora weightii||Burseraceae||Used as anti-inflammatory Used in essence sticks||India, Arabia, Bangladesh, and Pakistan10|
|Used in ice cream and
|America 32, 33|
|Garcinia henburii||Guttiferae||Used as a hydragogue cathartic||Cambodia, Slam, Cochin and China 10|
|29||Hakea gum||Hakea gibbosa||Proteaceae||-||Australia, Italy & America34|
|30||Honey locust gum||Gleditsia tricanthus||Leguminosae||Used as insecticides||Europe and Southern England 35|
|31||Khaya gum||Khaya grandifolia||Meliaceae 36||-||-|
|32||Kondagogu gum||Cochlospermum religiosum||Bixaceae||Used in the paper, textile, paint and ink products||India 37|
|Fabaceae||Used to treat boils and other skin diseases||India and
|34||Katira gum||C. religiosum||Bixaceae||As a gelling agent 16||-|
|35||Leucaena seed gum||Leucaena
|Leucocephata||Used to control stomach ache and contraception||Southern Mexico, and Northern Central
America 38, 39
|Myrtaceae||Used to treat bladder inflammation||Tropical and subtropical region 10|
|37||Locust bean gum||Ceratonia siliqua Linn.||Leguminosae||Used in the food industry||Europe and Africa 10|
|38||Mango gum||Magnifera indica||Anacardiaceae||Used to treat laxative and antioxidant||India 40|
|39||Mimosa scabrella gum||mimosa scabrella||Mimosaceae||Used in paper industry||South Africa and Brazil 41|
|40||Moi gum||Lannea coromandelica||Anacardiaceae 42||-||-|
|41||Moringa oleifera gum||Moringa oleifera||Moringaceae||Used in herbal medicine||India, Africa, Central and South America 43|
|42||Mucuna gum||Mucuna flagillepes||Papillionaceae||Used in herbalism and food crop 44||
|43||Mastic gum||Pistacia lentiscus||Anacardiaceae||Used for intestinal ulcers and muscle aches||Portugal, Greece, Turkey and Africa 45|
|44||Myrrh gum||Commiphora mol mol||Burseraceae||Used in uterine stimulant.||Africa, Arabia. 10|
|45||Malva nut gum||Scaphium scaphigerum||Sterculiaceae||Used as Chinese medicine as a coolant||southeast Asia 46|
|46||Neem gum||Azadirachta indica||Anacardiaceae||Used in Insects repellant,||India 47|
|47||Olibanum gum||Boswellia serrate||Burseraceae||Used in plasters and fumigating pastilles||Southern Arabia and Somaliland 48|
|48||Okra gum||Hibiscus esculenta||Malvaceae||
|India, turkey, Iran, Malaysia and Pakistan 49, 50, 51|
|49||Odina gum||Odina wodier||Anacardiaceae||Used as anti-inflammatory, respiratory irritation.||India 52|
|50||Prunus gum||Prunus domestica||Rosaceae||It is used medicinally||Europe 53|
|51||Red gum (eucalyptus Kino)||Eucalyptus rostrata||Myrtaceae||Used as astringent
|52||Rosin gum||Pine pix stylvestris||-||Used as photocopying and laser printing paper||Indonesia, Southern China 16|
|53||Salai gum||Boswellia serrata roxb||Burseraceae||Used for lighting fires||India and Pakistan 16|
|54||Tara gum||Caesalpinia spinosa||Leguminosae (or) Fabaceae||Used in the food industry||Geographic north Africa and East Africa 54|
|55||Tragacanth gum||A. gummifer labill||Leguminosae||Used as confectionery||India, Pakistan and Africa 10|
|56||Tamarind gum||Tamarindus indica||Fabaceae||Used in textile, paper, pet food, mining industry||Eastern tropical Africa, India 55|
|57||Xantham gum||Xanthomonas lempestris||Used in food
Classification of Gums: Gums are present in high quantities in certain plants, animals, seaweeds, fungi, and other microbial sources, where they perform several structural and metabolic functions. Various classification systems are available for gums as shown in Fig. 1.
Characterization of Gums: Gums are complex substances. A suitable strategy is required to characterize gums, as summarized in Table 2. Gums and mucilages are polysaccharides, and they contain sugars. Preliminary confirmatory tests are conducted for dried gums and mucilage powders for some important structural components. To determine the purity, tests for alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, amino acids, saponins, oils and fats, and tannins and phenols are carried out. The physicochemical properties such as color, odor, taste, shape, texture, touch, solubility, pH, swelling index, loss on drying, hygroscopic nature, angle of repose, bulk, and true densities, porosity, and surface tension can be estimated. The microbial load and presence of specific pathogens are also determined. Gums and mucilages are highly viscous.
FIG. 1: CLASSIFICATION GUMS
TABLE 2: CHARACTERIZATION OF GUMS
|Carbohydrates||Solubility test||Nuclear magnetic resonance||Structural|
|Mucilage||Swelling index||ATR-FTIR spectroscopy||Purity|
|Polysaccharides||Loss on drying||Thermogravimetric analysis||Impurity profile|
|Enzymes||Total ash and acid insoluble ash determination||Differential Scanning
|Alkaloids||Ph determination||Particle size analysis|
|Flavonoids||Angle of repose||Flow rheological measurements|
|Terpenoids||Bulk and tap densities||Thermal analysis|
|Steroids||Compressibility index (c%)|
|Proteins and amino acid||Viscosity (1%w/v solution)|
|Glycosides||Average particle size|
|Phenolic compounds||Melting point|
So, the rheological properties of excipients are important criteria for deciding their commercial use. The chemical and structural composition can be determined by using analytical characterization. The acute toxicity of gums and mucilages are determined by the fixed-dose method as per OECD guideline no.425 11.
Economic Importance: The hydrocolloids market is appraised to a value of 8.8 billion USD in 2018 and is expected to increase and to reach a value of 11.4 billion USD by 2023. 57 The demand for hydrocolloids is attributed to the increased utilization in food, pharmaceutical industry. India is one of the largest producers of natural resins, gums, and gum-resins (NRGs) along with China, Indonesia, Russia, and Brazil. Our country is the world leader in production of guar, karaya and psyllium gums as well as lac. The total production of NRG has been increased from 1160314 tons in 2013-14 to 1196308 tons in 2014-15. The production in 2016-17 was reported to be 566230 tons.
The average exported quantity of all-natural resins and gums during 2016-17 was reported to be 329045.55 tons and valued Rs. 289060.92 Lakh 58. Realizing the strategic importance of these natural gums ICAR-Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums continuously making efforts to strengthen the sector in the country.
Pharmaceutical Application of Gums: Gums posses a complex, branched polymeric structure because of which they exhibit high cohesive and adhesive properties. Gums have a variety of applications in pharmacy, and some are summarized in Table 3. They are used in medicine for their demulcent for cough suppression, dental, and other adhesive and as bulk laxatives 59, 60. These polymers are useful as tablets binder, disintegrating agent, stabilizing agent protective colloids in suspension, and sustain agent in tablets.
TABLE 3: PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS OF NATURAL GUMS
|S. no.||Gum||Pharmaceutical Applications||References|
|1||Agar gum||Suspending agent, emulsifying agent, gelling agent in suppositories, surgical lubricant, tablet disintegrant, medium for bacterial culture, laxative||61|
|2||Albizia gum||Tablet binder||62|
|3||Abelmoschus gum||Binder in tablets||63, 64|
|4||Acacia gum||Suspending agent, emulsifying agent, the binder in tablets, demulcent and emollient in cosmetics||65|
|5||Almond gum||Binding, sustaining and transdermal film-forming agent||66|
|7||Cashew gum||Suspending agent||67|
|8||Cassia tora||Binding agent||68|
|9||Carrageenan||Gelling agent, stabilizer in emulsions and suspensions, in toothpaste, demulcent, and laxative||69, 70, 71|
|10||Cordio gum||Novel oral sustained release matrix-forming agent in tablets||72|
|11||Guar gum||Binder, disintegrant, thickening agent, emulsifier, laxative||73,74, 75, 76|
|12||Gellan gum||Disintegrating agent||77|
|13||ghatti gum||Binder, emulsifier, suspending agent||78|
|14||Grewia gum||Suspending agent and binder||79, 80|
|15||Hakea gum||Sustain release and peptide mucoadhesive for buccal delivery.||34|
|16||Karaya gum||Suspending agent, emulsifying agent, a dental adhesive, sustaining agent in tablets, bulk laxative||81|
|17||Khaya gum||Binding agent.||82|
|18||Katira gum||Colon drug delivery||66|
|19||Kondagogu gum||Gastric floating drug delivery||83, 84|
|Emulsifying agent, suspending agent, the binder in tablets, disintegrating agent in tablets||85, 86|
|21||Malva nut gum||Stabilizer and thickening agent||66|
|23||Moringa gum||Gelling agent, binder, release retardant in tablet formulations||87|
|24||Neem gum||Binding, suspending agent and transdermal film forming agent||88|
|25||Sesbanic gum||Gelling agent, Sustained release Formulation||89, 90|
|26||Tragacanth gum||Suspending agent, emulsifying agent, demulcent, emollient in cosmetics||91|
|27||Tamarind gum||Binding agent, emulsifier, Suspending agent, sustaining Agent||92|
|28||Welan gum||Thickening agent||66|
|29||Xanthan gum||Suspending agent, emulsifier, stabilizer in toothpaste and ointments, sustained-release agent||93|
Application of Gums in Tablets Formulation: Natural gums have a wide range of pharmaceutical applications that include their use as binder, disintegration in tablets and used as sustaining agents in tablet. Natural polymer, gums modify the drug release from formulations. Natural gum has good binding property in wet granulation for the manufacturing of tablets. Some reported are Cassia roxbughii seed gum as a binder in paracetamol tablets 94, Magnifier indica gums as binder in paracetamol tablets 95, cashew gum as binder in metronidazole tablets 96.
Gums as Emulsifying and Suspending Agent: Gums are widely used in pharmacy as thickeners, suspending agents and emulsifying agents. Natural gums are hydrophilic colloids that form dispersion with water and increase the viscosity of the continuous phase so that solid particle suspended is sufficient for long time to measure the uniform dose. The use of Ocimum gratissimum, Butea monospermama, Leucaena leucocephala seed gum, and Cordia gharaf gum as suspending agent 97 has been reported.
Gums as Sustaining Materials in Dosage Form: Natural gums are used widely in pharmaceutical dosage forms, their use as biodegradable polymeric materials. The use of several natural gums such as Guar gums, xanthan gums and karaya gum 98 has been explored for the development of sustained-release dosage forms.
Gums as Coating Agent: Plant-based materials can be modified and has been widely used for functional and non-functional purposes, to coat tablets, capsules, granules, powders, and pellets. Grewia Gum as a film coating agent in theophylline tablet formulation 99.
Application of Gums in Microencapsulation: Microencapsulation is defined as a process to entrap one substance with another substance. The gums because of their ability as a coating and matrix-forming agent can be utilized for microencapsulation of drug particles for sustaining the drug release. Several gums such as Kondagogu, Xanthan, gum guar 100 has been utilized in microencapsulation.
Application of Gums as Gelling Agent: Some thickening agents are gelling agents (gellants), form a gel which dissolve in the liquid phase a colloid mixture that forms a weakly cohesive internal structure there are various types of junction zones in polymer gels like stacked double helix junctions in carrageenans, partly stacked triple helices in gelatin and ‘egg-box’ junction in alginate. Galactomannan interacts synergistically with xanthan gums and carrageenan to form as elastic gel.
Application of Gums as Film Formers: Film-forming systems is a novel approach to conventional topical and transdermal systems. They became a promising method for drug reservoirs in transdermal, buccal drug delivery systems. Various film modifiers like Xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, and locust bean gum was provided with proper texture to film and reduce recrystallization of drug.
Natural Polymers for Intelligent Drug Delivery: Some natural polymers respond to certain environmental factors such as ions, pH, enzymes, temperature, and electromagnetic field. Such polymers are known as intelligent, smart, stimuli- and environmental-responsive polymers. These polymers in response to certain environmental factors trigger specific drug release to affected tissues or cells 101.
Cross-linked Plantago psyllium gum (with methacrylamide) was employed as colon-specific drug delivery system due to its response to pH 102, and they produced hydrogels that respond to ions as well as pH 103. Pectin derived from plant cell walls depends on its degree of esterification responds to ions, pH and enzymes. While cellulose derivatives respond to ions, pH and temperature 101 and have been utilized for colon-specific drug delivery 104.
Natural Polymers for Nano Drug Carriers: Natural gums have also been utilized for the development of nanoparticles 105. Recent reports have shown on development of nanoparticles using guar gum, kondagogu, gum ghatti 106, 107, 108. Development of polyelectrolyte nanoparticles using Moringa gum has shown complexation techniques 109 for controlled and extended-release of molecularly entrapped drug.
Natural Polymers for BioMEMS: BioMEMS refers to biomedical or biological microelectro mechanical systems. The process of utilizing and customization of microfabrication technologies for biomedical applications. Microneedles are fabricated for transdermal delivery. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and amylopectin for fabrication of Microneedles using photolithography for the micro molds 110. Plant polymers should be explored for the fabrication of microneedles and other BioMEMS.
Natural Polymers for Theranostics: A theranostic is a delivery system fabricated to deliver both medicine and imaging agent(s) in a single dose, bridging the gap between imaging and therapy, thereby facilitating real-time monitoring of therapeutic efficacy of the incorporated drug 111. The multi-functionality of nanoparticles confers the ability to deliver medicine and imaging agents. Metallic nanoparticles have been used as theranostics as well as synthetic and natural polymeric nanoparticles.
Natural polysaccharides due to their excellent biocompatibility, low toxicity, biodegradability and functionalities that the body can identify which, make them excellent materials for theranostics. The nanoparticles were then characterized for in-vitro cellular uptake, ex vivo tissue distribution, in-vivo distribution, and tumor targeting. Other natural polymers such as alginate, dextran and chitosan 111, 112 have been used. Plant polysaccharides should be explored in fabrication of theranostics as they exhibit functionalities recognized by the body as compared to those of the polymers in biological systems. Polysaccharides are the materials for drug targeting and concentration at the site of action. Considering cancer therapy, some polysaccharides have exhibited anti-tumor activity 113. Incorporation of chemotherapeutic into a polysaccharide carrier may enhance cancer therapy.
CONCLUSION: The advent of natural gums as pharmaceutical excipients is attractive because they are economical, abundant, non-toxic, and capable of chemical modifications, potentially bio-degradable and biocompatible. Applicability of gums and mucilages has been well established in the fields of pharmaceuticals. However, there is a need to develop other natural sources as well as with modifying existing natural materials for the formulation of novel drug delivery systems, biotechnological applications, and other delivery systems. Therefore, in the years to come there will be continued interest in natural gums and their modifications aimed at the development of better materials for drug delivery.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors are thankful to GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM Deemed to be University for providing necessary facilities for a review article.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: Authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Lankalapalli S and Sandhala D: A review on natural gums and their use as pharmaceutical excipients. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2019; 10(12): 5274-83. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(12).5274-83.
All © 2013 are reserved by the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
S. Lankalapalli * and D. Sandhala
GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM Deemed to be University, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.
23 March 2019
12 June 2019
17 November 2019
01 December 2019