A REVIEW ON THE SUGAR ALTERNATESHTML Full Text
A REVIEW ON THE SUGAR ALTERNATES
Pranay Wal *, Rashmi Saxena Pal and Ankita Wal
Department of Pharmacy, Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, Kanpur - 209305, Uttar Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: Background: Due to the rise of diabetes as the primary health issue nowadays, there is a need for a sweetener, which apart from fulfilling the role of a sweetener, also complies with the normal body metabolism. Objectives: To review the literature available on the different sugar alternates present globally. Methods: A literature search has been done on the various substitutes of sugar present, belonging to various categories such as artificial sweeteners, natural sweeteners, novel sweeteners, and sugar alcohols. Results: A vast variety of sugar substitutes are available, which are suitable in one or more ways. The main matter of concern is the selection of the right sweetener according to the requirement. Conclusion: Apart from being of low calorie, these sweeteners provide multiple advantages; therefore by choice of right alternate, consumers are benefitted with the sweet taste, thereby complying with the normal body metabolism.
Diabetes, Sweeteners, Sugar, Alternates
INTRODUCTION: Today the primary goal of diabetes management is to keep the blood glucose level under control. Today consumers have a free choice of food products. They must choose the right food to comply with dietary recommendations, and at the same time, the food industry can contribute to this change by providing a variety of adapted food products. There is a need for a sweetener, which apart from fulfilling the role of a sweetener, also complies with the normal body metabolism. This has directed the food industry to discover several forms of intense alternative sweeteners, which have made possible to offer the consumer the sweet taste without the calories 1. The sensory properties of food are highly influenced by the sensory properties like taste, smell, texture, and appearance.
A sweetener is a food additive, which mimics the effect of sugar on taste. Therefore, they are called sugar substitutes. Consumers often select those foods, which are composed of low-calorie sweetener because they want the taste of sweetness without added calories. The dietary option that such product provides may be especially helpful in the management of obesity or diabetes mellitus 2. A sugar substitute is a food additive that mimics the taste of sugar but usually has less food energy. These are both natural and synthetic. The synthetic-based ones are referred to as artificial sweeteners 3. These artificial sweeteners also called non-nutritive or low-calorie sweeteners. These are intense sweeteners, providing no or a few calories per gram. They are used in beverages, dietary products, medicines, etc. 4 Artificial sweeteners have gained attention as nutritional tools that provide a sweet taste without the extra energy derived from foods and drinks containing caloric sugars and thus may assist in weight-loss plan adherence 5. They play an important role in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesity as well as in the maintenance of dental care.
They are cost effective and have a longer shelf life 6. Some people choose to limit their food energy intake by replacing high energy sugar or corn syrup with other sweeteners having little or no food energy. This allows them to eat the same foods they normally would 7. This review article deals with a detailed outlook on some of the sugar substitutes available.
FIG. 1: SUGAR SUBSTITUTES
Sugar substitutes are basically of four types as mentioned in Fig. 1, which can be mainly by their origin as follows:
- Artificial sweeteners
- Natural sweeteners
- Novel sweeteners
- Sugar alcohols 8
Artificial sweeteners are chemically synthesized, are low in calories. Some of them are discussed as following as shown in Fig. 2.
FIG. 2: ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS
Aspartame: It was discovered by James Schlatter, a chemist in 1965. It is chemically-(L-α-Aspartyl)-L-phenylalanine, 1-methyl ester. It is an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener. It is a formed by the combination of the amino acids aspartic acid and phenylalanine as shown in Fig. 3. 9 Aspartame is used to sweeten a variety of low and reduced calorie foods and beverages including tabletop sweetener, also sweetens gum, breakfast cereal, and other dry products. Aspartame provides energy of 4 calories per gram. Aspartame is unstable if subjected to prolonged heating and therefore cannot be used in baking or cooking. It also decomposes in liquids during storage. Upon ingestion, aspartame splits into its natural residual components, such as aspartic acid, phenylalanine, methanol, which further break into formaldehyde, formic acid and diketopiperazine 10, 11.
We eat about 5 g aspartame annually, equivalent to another kg of sucrose, whose 4000 kcal (16 740 kJ) could generate 0.5 kg gain in weight. But evidence that aspartame prevents weight gain or obesity is generally inconclusive. One of the most significant advantages of aspartame is that people who have diabetes or are on a low-calorie diet can enjoy a variety of desserts that are low in fat and calories but are still enjoyable. They reduce the levels of blood sugar, which is excellent for people who have diabetes. Moreover, products that are made with aspartame are much lower in calories, than foods and beverages that contain sugar.
FIG. 3: ASPARTAME
The disadvantages of it are effects on gums, headaches, rashes on the skin. Two Japanese companies have reported one formation route to produce aspartame directly by incubating micro-organisms with L-aspartic acid and the methyl ester of phenylalanine 12, 13.
Saccharine: It was originally listed as GRAS, in 1996, the ban imposed on it earlier was withdrawn due to the reasonable certainty of no harm from Saccharin. It is an excellent low-calorie sugar-free product 14. Saccharin, which is chemically 1,1-dioxo-1,2-benzothiazole-3-one, as shown in figure 4 is 300 times sweeter than sucrose. It is heat stable and is not metabolized in the body. Apart from being used as a tabletop sweetener, it is also used to sweeten soft drinks, baked goods, jams, canned fruit, candy, salad dressings, dessert toppings, and chewing gum. Consumption of saccharin-sweetened products can benefit people with diabetes as the substance goes directly through the human digestive system without being digested.
To monitor the risk factors as headaches, breathing difficulties, diarrhea and skin problems associated with the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives had established an acceptable daily intake of 5 mg/kg body weight for saccharin 15. One animal study has shown that consumption of products containing saccharin may lead to increased body weight and obesity 16, 17.
FIG. 4: SACCHARINE
Sucralose: This organochlorine sweetener is a synthetic disaccharide which is chemically1, 6-dichloro-1, 6-dideoxy -β -D -fructofuranosyl -4-chloro- 4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside, as shown in figure 5, provides 3.3 cal/gm. Its sweetness potency is approximately 385 to 650 fold higher than sucrose.
FIG. 5: SUCRALOSE
In 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved sucralose for use in various categories that included water-based as well as fat-based products either in foods or in beverages, e.g., frozen dairy desserts, baked goods, confectionaries, puddings, chewing gum, etc. It is made from sugar, so tastes like sugar 18. GLP-1 was elevated in human subjects (both in healthy volunteers and in individuals with type 1 diabetes) who drank a caffeine-free diet soda sweetened with sucralose and ace-K when compared with carbonated water control. The advantages of it are many as it mixes well, has a longer shelf life with no bitter after taste. The disadvantages of it are digestion, causing diarrhea, gas, and bloating 19.
Cyclamate: Cyclamate was discovered in 1937 by graduate student Michael Sveda, while working in the lab he put his cigarette down on the lab bench, tasted sweet on later use led to the discovery of sweet taste of cyclamate. It is sodium or calcium salt of cyclamic acid or cyclohexane sulfamic acid, as shown in Fig. 6.
FIG. 6: CYCLAMATE
It is 30-50 times sweeter than sucrose. But it is least potent of all the commercially used artificial sweeteners. It is often used in combination with other artificial sweeteners, especially saccharin; the mixture of 10 parts cyclamate to 1 part saccharin is commonly used for various purposes. It is cheap and is stable under heating. Cyclamate is available in the market in tablet form as well as in the way of liquid by the diabetics. As it is stable to heat, therefore suitable for use in cooking and baking 20. Sodium cyclamate is used as a non-nutritive sweetener and the analogous calcium salt used mainly in low sodium diets. Cyclamate offers advantages to people with diabetic diets to satisfy their taste for sweets without affecting blood sugar, which gives them flexibility in meal planning with the resulting variety of diabetic foods available and is less expensive as well. The main disadvantages are its carcinogenic effects on bladder 21.
Neotame: Neotame is a derivative of a dipeptide compound of the amino acids - aspartic acid and phenylalanine. Chemically it is (3S) -3 -(3, 3-Dimethylbutylamino)-4-[[(2S)-1-methoxy-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid, as shown in Fig. 7. It provides zero calories per gram. Neotame has been developed as a sweetener with a high degree of sweetness and is obtained by N-alkylating aspartame. Its degree of sweetness varies according to the kind of food and blend composition. It is 7000 to 13,000 times and about 30 to 60 times sweeter than sugar and aspartame respectively. Its advantages are that it has zero calories per serving as well as zero glycemic indexes. This makes it suitable as part of a diabetic diet. It doesn't show any significant toxicity and is non-carcinogenic. The disadvantage of it is the toxicity exerted by it more severe than aspartame. Neotame is quickly metabolized and eliminated, without getting accumulated in the body. The hydrolysis of methyl ester metabolizes it by esterase which is present throughout the body 22. The degree of sweetness varies according to the kind of food and blend composition23. Neotame is a highly potent sweetener that can be used to modify and enhance the flavor of foods and beverages 24.
FIG. 7: NEOTAME
Natural Sweeteners: These are found in nature, occur mostly in the form of fruits. They carry a nutrition value and are non-carcinogenic as compared to synthetic sweeteners. They have larger sweetening powers even in smaller concentrations. They have low calorific value and are thermostable as well. Some important ones are as follows:
Honey: Honey is a naturally occurring product, having numerous beneficial effects. It has been reported to contain about 200 substances. It consists of mainly fructose and glucose, along with fructooligosaccharides and many amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and enzymes. It contains flavonoids such as kaempferol, quercetin, ferulic acid, and ascorbic acid. Sugar accounts for 95-99% of honey dry matter. One oz. of honey contains 86 calories. The essential carbohydrates of honey are constituted by fructose ranging from 32.56 to 38.2% and glucose ranging from 28.54 to 31.3 %, which represents 85-95% of total sugars 25.
Almost all natural honey contains flavonoids such as apigenin, pinocembrin, kaempferol, quercetin, galangin, chrysin and hesperetin, phenolic acids such as ellagic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids. Ascorbic acid, tocopherols, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), Millard reaction products and peptides. Most of those compound work together to provide a synergistic antioxidant effect. The disadvantage is that the glycemic index of honey is higher than sugar; therefore it raises blood sugar levels more quickly. This is because of its higher fructose content, and the absence of trace minerals. The advantage of honey is that it has slightly more calories than sugar, although it is sweeter, so less amount may be required 26, 27, 28, 29, 30.
Stevia: Being native of South America, Stevia is a green, leafy plant has been used for therapeutic purposes for many centuries. The plant is cultivated for its strong, sweet flavor. There are more than 100 species of the stevia plant, but most important of all- Stevia rebaudiana is excellent as a sweetener, due to the compound rebaudioside A, the sweetest-flavored component of the Stevia leaf. Rebaudioside A is a steviol glycoside, having aglycone in the form of steviol that is 200 times sweeter than sugar. It provides zero calories per gram. The glycoside contains only glucose as its monosaccharide moieties. It includes four glucose molecules in total with the mean glucose of the triplet connected to the main steviol structure at its hydroxyl group, and the remaining glucose at its carboxyl group forming an ester bond.
The glucosyltransferase UGT76G1 from Stevia rebaudiana is a chameleon enzyme in the targeted biosynthesis of the next-generation premium stevia sweeteners, rebaudioside D (Reb D) and rebaudioside M (Reb M). Stevia offers advantages to diabetics in the suppression of plasma glucose levels and significantly increases glucose tolerance, resulting in stabilization of blood sugar levels. The disadvantages of it are that people with sensitivity to sugar alcohol may experience bloating, abdominal cramps, nausea, and diarrhea, though one type of sugar alcohol, erythritol, poses less risk of symptoms than others 31, 32, 33, 34, 35.
Liquorice: Glycyrrhizin is found in liquorice root of a small leguminous shrub, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from Europe and Central Asia. Glycyrrhizin or 20-β-carboxy-11-oxo-30-norolean-12-en-3β-yl-2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-α-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid is a triterpenoid glycosides. Glycyrrhizin is 50-100 times sweeter than sucrose and has a slow onset of sweetness followed by a lingering licorice-like aftertaste. It has a sweet woody flavor, which limits its use as a sweetener in pure or crude form.
Glycyrrhizin helps to enhance food flavors, masks bitter flavors, and increases the perceived sweetness level of sucrose. It provides zero calories per gram. The advantages of it are that liquorice root also contains substances with an anti-diabetic effect. These amorfrutins not only reduce blood sugar; they are also anti-inflammatory and are very well tolerated. The disadvantages of consuming liquorice daily for several weeks or longer can cause severe side effects including high blood pressure, low potassium levels, weakness, paralysis, and occasionally brain damage in otherwise healthy people. Many manufacturing companies use it as a sweetener for many products to mask the bitter taste 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43.
Recently one compound named mono ammonium glycyrrhizin was known as MAG has gained popularity in Europe. Recently in 2018 the research team of a startup named Diabport Healthcare Private Limited, operating in North India, came up with a particular combination of mono-ammonium glycyrrhizin and Stevia which has shown tremendous publicity among diabetic patients as it produced effects which do not cause aftertaste as with other artificial sweeteners. The mentioned formulation is readily available and is recommended by physicians and healthcare professionals.
Hesperidin: is a flavonoid glycoside as shown in figure 8 present in citrus fruits, mainly belonging to the Rutaceae family. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin, which is a form of flavonoid. Its name is derived from the word "hesperidium", for fruit produced by citrus trees. Hesperidin was first isolated by French chemist Lebreton 1828, from the white inner layer of citrus peels. The advantage of it is that it prevents diabetic retinopathy in people with diabetes whereas its disadvantage is that it causes stomach pain and upset, diarrhea, and headache 44.
FIG. 8: HESPERIDIN
Thaumatin: Thaumatococcus daniellii is indigenous to Africa, is the natural source of thaumatin, which is an intensely sweet protein, commonly used as a sweetener. The aril of it is rich in thaumatin, which is at least 3000 times as sweet as sucrose. It provides 4 cal/gm. In West Africa, the aril is traditionally used for sweetening bread, wines and sour food. Seeds on consumption, even after one hour, the sweet taste is retained, that even sour materials are taken also taste very sweet. Since the mid-1990s, the food and confectionery industry uses it as sweetener and flavor enhancer. It is used as a non-caloric natural sweetener. The advantage of it is that because of not being a carbohydrate, is too good for consumption for people with diabetes. The disadvantages of it are the induction of heart disease, metabolic syndrome, and strokes 45-49.
Novel Sweeteners: Novel sweeteners or sweetening materials not previously known or used in the food materials as food additives and as such would generally be reviewed within existing regulations which deal with food additives 24. Novel sweeteners are hard to fit into any particular category because of their manufacturing process. For example, despite being promoted as natural sweeteners, highly-processed Stevia preparations along with other additives have been approved by the FDA, but whole-leaf Stevia and crude Stevia extract have been not. Besides from being calorie-free, Stevia rebaudiana, the plant from which the popular Stevia sweetener is made, has been linked to various health benefits.
Novel sweeteners include:
- Stevia extract,
- Trehalose 50, 51
Stevia: is obtained from the leaves of the plant species Stevia rebaudiana. It is used as a sweetener as well as a sugar substitute. The active compounds of Stevia are steviol glycosides mainly stevioside and rebaudioside, which have up to 150 times the sweetness of sugar. It provides zero calories per gram. These are heat-stable, pH-stable, and not fermentable. Some of its extracts have a bitter or liquorice-like aftertaste at high concentrations. Its taste has a slower onset and longer duration than that of sugar 52, 53. Stevia and other derivatives are small, herbaceous shrub of the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves contain a complex mixture of sweet diterpene glycosides, including stevioside, steviolbiosides, rebaudioside (A, B, C, D, E, and F), and dulcoside A. Dry leaves of Stevia are sweeter approximately 10-15 times than sucrose. The use of sweeteners containing stevia or steviol glycosides is recommended for diabetics and obese persons, as they are non-toxic and non-addictive, and can be cooked or baked.
However, very little attention has been directed towards the safety of these sweeteners in bakery products and their role in the formation of heat-induced compounds. It has been reported that substituting sucrose with Stevia decreased the acrylamide level eight times. Replacing reducing saccharides with polyols in the dough formulation led to a decrease in the extent of browning reactions because the formation of HMF was limited during the baking process. Similar behavior has been described for acrylamide. Meanwhile, there are no data in the recent literature on the influence of sugar replacers on the formation of 3-MCPD, which is 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol or 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol and its esters 54, 55, 57, 57, 58.
Trehalose: Trehalose, also known as mycose or tremalose, is a natural alpha-linked disaccharide, containing an α,α-1,1-glucoside bond between two α-glucose units. Chemically it is(2R,3S,4S,5R,6R)-2-(Hydroxymethyl)-6-[(2R, 3R, 4S, 5S, 6R)-3, 4, 5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxyoxane-3,4,5-triolas shown in Fig. 9. In 1832, H.A.L. Wiggers discovered trehalose from ergot of rye. In 1859, Marcellin Berthelot isolated it from trehala manna and named it trehalose. It provides 4 cal/gm. Microbes can synthesize it like bacteria, fungi, plants, and invertebrate animals. It is a non-reducing sugar. It is implicated in the anhydrobiosis-the ability of plants and animals to withstand prolonged periods of desiccation. It has high water retention capabilities. It is used in various food and cosmetics. Trehalose offers advantages to diabetics as it triggers only a small increase in blood insulin levels. It is safer and non-toxic in use. The disadvantage of it is that any undigested trehalose passes to the large intestine where normal bacteria break it down to gases and irritant substances that can cause abdominal bloating or diarrhea 59, 60, 61, 62, 63.
FIG. 9: TREHALOSE
Tagatose: is a natural sweetener found in traces in fruits, cacao, and dairy products. It provides 1.5 kcal/gm. Chemically it is (3S, 4S, 5R)-1, 3, 4, 5, 6-Pentahydroxy-hexane-2-one as shown in figure 9. It can be commercially obtained from galactose through an enzymatic conversion. Initializing with lactose which is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. D-Tagatose was introduced as a sweetener by G. Levin. He patented a cheap method to make tagatose in 1988. The low food calorie contents are due to its resemblance to L-fructose. D-tagatose provides an advantage as glycemic and lipoprotein control through the certain mechanism of action, unlike any agent that is currently available in the market. The disadvantage of it is gastrointestinal disturbances 64, 65, 66.
FIG. 10: TAGATOSE
Sugar Alcohols: The sugar alcohols commonly found in foods are:
- Isomalt, and hydrogenated starch hydrolysates.
Sugar alcohols are obtained from plant products such as fruits and berries. These sugar substitutes provide somewhat fewer calories than sucrose, mainly because they are not well absorbed and may even have a small laxative effect 67. Polyols are naturally present in smaller quantities in fruits and certain kinds of vegetables or mushrooms; they are regulated as generally recognized as safe, or as food additives. Among polyols, erythritol ((2S,3R)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol), xylitol (2S,4R)-pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol), and maltitol ((2S,3R,4R,5R)-4-[(2R, 3R, 4S, 5S, 6R)-3, 4, 5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxyhexane-1, 2, 3, 5, 6-pentol) are the most recognised polyols used in bakery industry 68, 69, 70. They provide good stability during baking with acceptable textural and sensory properties, low glycemic index and their sweetness are roughly comparable with this obtained from sugar (erythritol: 70%, xylitol: 100%, maltitol: 90% of the sucrose sweetness 71, 72, 73.
Sorbitol: Sorbitol is a sugar substitute. Chemically it is (2S, 3R, 4R, 5R)-Hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol as shown in Fig. 11. Sorbitol is about 60% as sweet as sucrose. Sorbitolprovides dietary energy in the form of 2.6 kilocalories per gram. It is often used to sweeten diet foods as mints, cough syrups and is used to make sugar-free chewing gum. The advantages of sorbitol is that it has lesser effects on blood sugar levels than sugar, which can benefit people at risk of developing diabetes. When eaten, sorbitol has a mouth-cooling sensation, with virtually no aftertaste. Sorbitol offers disadvantages in the intestine by causing water retention, resulting in diarrhoea 74, 75, 76.
FIG. 11: SORBITOL
Mannitol: Mannitol is classified as a sugar alcohol, as shown in Fig. 12, that is, it can be derived from a sugar called mannose by reduction. Other sugar alcohols include xylitol and sorbitol. Mannitol and sorbitol are isomers, the only difference being the orientation of the hydroxyl group on carbon 2. It is a reduced-calorie sweetener with only 1.6 calories per gram. It is non -hygroscopic. It provides sweetness, with a cool and refreshing taste. It can be used as an alternative sweetener for people with diabetes. Mannitol is slowly absorbed from the intestinal tract. Therefore, when mannitol is used, the rise in blood glucose and demand for insulin is much less than compared to that of sucrose. It also controls caloric intake and body weight in people with diabetes. Mannitol offers advantages as the body only partially absorbs it and it significantly reduces the rise in blood glucose and insulin levels that occur following the ingestion of glucose. Mannitol does not promote dental caries. Mannitol has a shallow glycemic index. This combined with its low-calorie value (1.6 kcal/g), which is very beneficial for weight control, makes mannitol a useful alternative sweetener for people with diabetes. Products sweetened with mannitol in place of sugar help provide diabetics with a broader range of low-calorie and sugar-free options. The disadvantages of it are abdominal pain, excessive gas (flatulence), loose stools or diarrhea 77, 78.
FIG. 12: MANNITOL
Xylitol: xylitol is achiral, unlike other sugar alcohols as shown in Fig. 13. It is produced on the industrial basis from xylan, which is hemicellulose, extracted from hardwoods or corncobs. It can be hydrolyzed into xylose, which is catalytically hydrogenated into xylitol. The conversion changes the sugar xylose, which is an aldehyde into xylitol, primary alcohol. One gram of xylitol contains 2.43 kilocalories. The disadvantages of xylitol are like gas, bloating and diarrhea 79, 80, 81.
FIG. 13: XYLITOL
Oligosaccharide Based Sweeteners: They differ in their nature of monomeric sugars and are named so. They have varied sources of origin and differ in their benefits imparted to the consumer. The most popular oligosaccharides are FOS, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), lactulose derived galactooligosaccharides (LDGOS), xylooligo-saccharides (XOS), arabino-oligosaccharides (AOS), algae-derived marine oligosaccharides (ADMO). Other oligosaccharides occurring in nature are pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS), maltooligosaccharides (MOS), cyclodextrins (CD) and human milk oligo-saccharides (HMO) with specific acknowledged benefits. Fructooligosaccharides have been claimed to lower fasting glycemia and serum total cholesterol concentrations, possibly via effects of short-chain fatty acids produced during fermentation. Compared to sugars, they are more slowly absorbed because the chains have to be split before being absorbed. The presence of oligosaccharides in the glucose syrup we use provides an additional advantage to the products 82, 83.
CONCLUSION: Sugar alternates are being used in various food and beverages are very popular in most of the countries. Six low-calorie sweeteners have been currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe such as Stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, and sucralose. Some studies have been carried out to confirm the safety of artificial sweeteners. Some studies have also shown the adverse effects as well as safety parameters of the artificial sweeteners. But most of the studies have limitations such as effects shown only in animals, not in human, small sample size, high doses, statistically non-significant or borderline significant, etc. The sugar substitutes have been tested on safety parameters and then approved by different regulatory authorities like the USFDA etc. In spite of the demand for rare sugars, their commercial availability, application, and usefulness are negligible as they are expensive to prepare and unavailable.
So research is required to make natural sugars having the desired quantities of sweetness, low caloric value, and least observed physiological effects. Products containing Stevia and Mono ammonium glycyrrhizin should be encouraged as besides carrying the goodness of natural ingredients, it is free from the hazardous effects of other chemical based alternates. MAG (Mono ammonium glycyrrhizin) enhances the flavor of cocoa and chocolate-flavored products, flavors and sweetens candy, confectionery, and beverages, and masks the bitter taste of pharmaceuticals 84.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors sincerely thanks Department of Pharmacy, PSIT, Kanpur for constant support and valuable suggestions in completing this manuscript.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Wal P, Pal RS and Wal A: A review on the sugar alternates. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2019; 10(4): 1595-04. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(4).1595-04.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
P. Wal *, R. S. Pal and A. Wal
Department of Pharmacy, Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
03 August 2018
11 November 2018
30 November 2018
01 April 2019