A SYSTEMIC REVIEW ON BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS AND SYNTHESIS OF METALLIC NANOPARTICLESHTML Full Text
A SYSTEMIC REVIEW ON BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS AND SYNTHESIS OF METALLIC NANOPARTICLES
Santosh S. Bhujbal * and Rakesh M. Pawara
Department of Pharmacognosy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Sant Tukaram Nagar Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles (NPs) are nanosized materials that are widely used in the modern world for various scientific applications. Engineering science to applied biomedical application the use of nanoparticles has always grown. Method of preparation is one of the reasons for its vast use. The top-down method and bottom-up method are two widely used methods. These methods are further comprised of various methods involving liquid-solid-based, biological-based, etc. Even though there are always concern variations while preparation and thus the final outcome of preparation and its evaluation becomes a critical aspect of nanoparticle synthesis. Characterization of nanoparticles thus is done through various spectroscopical methods, XPS (X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy), Zeta Potential and numerous other methods. Quality nanoparticles arranged are known to have a wide scope of use. The biomedical application being one of prominent among it. Nanoparticles are used to treat different types of diseases such as a tumour, bacterial and parasitic disease and chemotherapeutic agent. Limited drug capacity, reactivity and stability of MNPs are few concerns that limit the use of nanoparticles.
Keywords: Metallic Nanoparticles, Nanoparticles Synthesis, Characterization, Biomedical application
INTRODUCTION: Preparation of nanoparticles of different sizes shapes nano-size particles ranging from 1 nm to 100 nm 1. Nanotechnology is applied in different fields such as physics, organic and inorganic chemistry, engineering sciences, molecular biology, medicine. The nanoparticles term comes from the Greek word 'nano' signifies little, and when utilized prefix, it demonstrates size. Metallic nanoparticles are commonly portrayed as nano-sized.
Metals with measurements within the size range of 10-100 nm 2, 3. The ancient time, noble metals have been used in colloidal forms to treat different diseases. The synthesis method is similarly paramount because the time of the synthesis process, like an association of metal particles with reduced agent absorption of a preservative agent with MNP different types of experimental technique, produces strong influences on its morphology, stability, physical and physical-chemical properties 1, 4.
Nanoparticles most beneficial because they travel through the confine of any targeted organ and this prompts imaging and helpful biomedical application 1, 5. Most metal particles present in the products like shampoos, soaps, detergents, medicine, pharmaceutical products and cosmetic product are direct use the human. Silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles are mostly used in medicine in Ayurveda formulation in China, India and some other country. Silver nanoparticles mostly use for their antimicrobial activity 1, 4. Other metals like zinc oxide, platinum, palladium, magnesium, selenium. Iron, copper also widely used for biomedical applications 1.
Characterization of nanoparticles most important after the synthesis of nanoparticles for its confirmation required to make sure the prepared particle are nano in size 6. Advanced techniques that have been emerging over recent years along with the past used techniques that have been utilized for centuries are considered for characterization of nanoparticles helping to determine the structure, composition and at the same time generates important data that enables whether the method was successful and achieve desire goals 7. Characterization of nanoparticles using different instruments such as Absorbance Spectroscopy IR Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, PL spectroscopy (Photoluminescence), Zeta Potential 8, 9. Biological, environmental, material science, electronics, and various catalytic applications are being achieved through the use of MNPs. Environment pollution removal, generating a safe and efficient drug delivery system, temperature control using smart fabrics and glass windows that can clean-up without manual intervention are few short-and long-term uses of MNPs 10, 11. In this view present audit is an agglomerate of various kinds of strategies utilized for the arrangement of MNPs, characterization of MNPs and their biomedical application, advantages, and limitations.
Metallic Nanoparticles: Metallic Nanoparticles (MNPs) having unique properties and metal being intrinsically attractive can be utilized for focused and controlled medication conveyance application. The polymer has an enormous atomic weight, and controlling for application is troublesome when contrasted with MNPs. Different types of MNPs below Fig. 1 12, 13.
FIG. 1: TYPES OF MNPS
FIG. 2: PREPARATION METHOD OF MNPS
Preparation of MNPs: The strategies for the make of nanoparticles can be divided into two types include either a "top-down" method or a "base up" method Fig. 2. These techniques fuse the choking of materials fragments with a further self-social gathering process which prompts the arrangement of nanostructures 3, 5, 14. Mass material is used as starting material in top-down strategies, and molecule size is decreased to a particular level by particular physical, substance, and mechanical techniques, while molecules are the beginning material in base up techniques 2, 3, 15.
Top-Down Methods: Top-down strategy enormous mass material is changed over into nano-size particles. Size reduction of the starting bulk material or bulk mass done by different physical and chemical treatments. This method includes Mechanical processing, laser ablation 1, 13.
Mechanical Processing Method:
Ball Milling Method: John Benjamin has developed this procedure for particle size decrease. This assistant is liable for the adjustment of surface properties. The achievement of mechanical processing is influenced by process variables and properties of milling powder 1. It is classified into low vitality and high vitality processing that rely upon incited mechanical vitality to powder blend. Nanosized particles are generally made using a high imperativeness ball preparing process 16.
In this strategy, the mass powder is included in a compartment alongside a few substantial meatal spheres. High mechanical imperativeness is applied on mass powder material with the help of a quick turning ball. Molecule shape decrease should be possible utilizing diverse more vitality milling, for example, whittling down the ball, large ball processing plant, low vitality present particle plant, and large vitality round shaped ball plant. In all these methods, over-free moving high-imperativeness balls may descend on the surface of the chamber containing mass powder material in a movement of equivalent layers, or they may fall transparently and influence the powder 17, 18.
Mechanochemical Method: This strategy depends on the rehashed twisting and break of the blend of reactants. During the processing procedure, distinctive compound alterations are delivered of a nano-sized molecule. For the most part, high temperature is required to substance responses for different purposes like to isolate responding stages from the product stage 3, 19. In mechanochemical strategy for combination, the beginning materials (like chloride hexahydrate and Na2CO3 for iron (III) oxide nanoparticles blend) are blended stoichiometrically and processed 20. A few concoction responses are produced on the surface among substrate and reagent, and in this manner, the reaction that requires a high temperature will occur at a low temperature with no outside usage of warmth. Molecule size control can changing elements are volume division of the result stage shaped during processing, processing time, processing crash vitality, processing temperature, and the utilization of procedure control operators 21.
Laser Ablation Method: In the laser removal technique, laser radiation is utilized to decrease molecule size at nano-level 3. connection of metal nanoparticles with laser light continues through its ingestion by free electrons. The fragmentation formation of solid material in nanosize particle with help laser radiation which stays in the fluid that encompasses the objective and produces a colloidal solution 22. The capability of coupling radiation to nanoparticles depends upon the closeness of laser recurrence to plasmon repeat of charge transporters. Effective enveloping liquid medium with or without surfactant impacts expulsion capability and typical for metal molecule frothed 23.
Bottom-Up Method: Base up approach suggests the improvement of material from the base: atom-by-atom or bunch by-group 1. This route is more often used for preparing most of the nanomaterials with the capacity to create a uniform size, shape, and conveyance. It successfully covers substance combinations and absolutely controlled the response to hinder further molecule development. In spite of the fact that the base-up approach is the same old thing, it assumes a significant job in the manufacture and handling of nanostructures and nanomaterials 3, 13.
Physical Vapour Deposition: The Physical vapor deposition (PVD) method approach utilizes the physical energies and radiation for the production of large quantities of metallic nanoparticles. It is a single-step reduction method. The time required is less than other techniques. For example, physical fume affidavit procedures, for example, beat fume statement, are commonly utilized for the flimsy planning film of lanthanum and cobalt 3, 24.
Laser pulses are bombarded on a solid targeted metallic material. The solid material is deposited on another end as nanoparticles, energy is generated on the target surface and vaporization occurs, which is then condensed and gets deposited on the other end, and finally, the formation of metallic nanoparticles occurs Fig. 3 25.
FIG. 3: PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION.
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD): The synthesis of metal nanoparticles in the solution by using three major components i.e. metal precursors, reduced substances, and stabilize substances. The most used reducing agents in this method are NaBH4, ethylene glycol, sodium citrate, and glucose. These reducing agents are responsible for the reduction of nano-level size 3. In this method, a chemical reaction is produced by the thin films. In the General case, such responses can occur both in the gas stage and on the substrate surface 26. CVD named nuclear layer statement utilizes just surface concoction responses to develop dainty moves with incredible accuracy 27. In the plasma increment CVD technique, plasma is created in the empty chamber and saved as a meager film on the surface by the compound response of responding vaporous it tends to be usable at a lower temperature that is the reason valuable in enormous scope modern application reason for the grapheme nanosized structure manufacture 2, 28.
Liquid Synthesis Method:
Aqueous Method: In this strategy, during aqueous treatment, metal cations at first encourage as polymeric hydroxides. After some time, these hydroxides experience drying out to the shape of metal oxide precious stone shape 29. It was found that the closeness of the second metal cation was important in controlling the particle improvement process undoubtedly by preventing the game plan of complex hydroxides when the base was added to the infection metal salt course of action. Two assortments of the unending watery technique were investigated, explicitly cold mixing and hot mixing 3. The product formed med by the blending contains less polluting influences than that readied by the hot blending method. Strikingly, comparable aqueous crystallization was seen at the solid interface when the gas stage was drenched with water. This response, thusly, permits direct change of strong for runner into crystalline moves. Develop (size increment) techniques. Aqueous preparation utilizes both these systems; aqueous crystallization is one of the development techniques, for example, aqueous crystallization of zirconia, while aqueous oxidation speaks to the breakdown strategies, for example, creation of fine powder of α-aluminum oxide. It is an appropriate technique for the planning of nanoparticles, even a single precious stone 29, 30.
Sol-Gel Technique: Sol-gel is a valuable strategy for the creation of nanomaterials made of particles in a securing system with captivating appealing or optical properties. In this method, synthesis of nanoparticles involves either. Colloidal metal mixing with matrix-forming species followed by gel development or metal oxide and metal and nano-size molecule direct blending inside a silica gel or complexation of silon with metal and decrease of metal before hydrolysis. A silica gel might be framed by arranging development from a variety of discrete colloidal suspensions. Tetra methoxy silane and Tetra ethoxy silane are mostly used for the formation of silica gel 31, 32. Steps involved in the sol-gel method as follows-Hydrolysis, Condensation, Growth of particle, Particle agglomeration. In the direct precipitation of metal or metal oxide method, the metal oxide particles are accelerated from silica sol typically by heat treatment at very low temperatures. Slight films of the most part arranged by utilizing this method 33, 34.
Biological Method: The biological method nano size. Utilizing a green union strategy is a noticeable pattern of nanotechnology. These types of methods get the better of problems like a safety issue, high cost, reaction complication, environmental issue 3. Different applications of biological method microorganisms and its enzymes, extracts and isolates from plants. The preparation of nanoparticles from plant extract and microorganisms technique has more advantages than other methods like physical and chemical methods. Because these methods are cost-effective. Biogenic metallic nanoparticles union can be part into two arrangements. The first is bioreduction, in which metal particles are synthetically decreased into progressively stable structures organically. Numerous life forms can use dissimilatory metal decrease, in which the decrease of a metal particle is combined with the oxidation of an enzyme 35, 36. This outcome is steady and inactive metallic nanoparticles that would then be able to be securely expelled from a polluted sample. The subsequent class is bio sorption. This includes the official of metal particles from a watery or soil test onto the life form itself, for example, on the cell divider and doesn't require the contribution of vitality. Certain microorganisms, growths, and plants express peptides or have an altered cell divider which ties to metal particles and these can shape stable edifices as nanoparticles 37, 38.
Bacteria- Nanoparticles Synthesis: Research has concentrated intensely on prokaryotes as a method for blending metallic nanoparticles. Because of their plenitude in the earth and their capacity to adjust to extraordinary conditions, microorganisms are a decent decision for study 37. They are furthermore rapidly creating, modest to create and easy to control. Improvement conditions, for instance, temperature, oxygenation, and agonizing time, can be easily controlled. Changing the pH of the improvement medium during agonizing results in the production of nanoparticles of differentiating shape and size 39 Few organisms utilized for the synthesis of nanoparticles such as Lactococcus garvieae 40 Lactobacillus sp. 32 Bacillus licheniformis 28 Thermomonospora sp, 41 Escherichia coli, Bacillus sp., 42 Rhodopseudomonas capsulate 43 Synthesis of nanoparticles by using bacteria some example listed Table 1.
TABLE 1: BIOSYNTHESIS OF MNPS BY USING BACTERIA
|Name of organism||Nanoparticles Produced||Synthesis location||Method||References|
|Lactococcus garvieae||Ag||Extracellular||Biosorption and Reduction||40|
|Lactobacillus sp.||Ag||Extracellular||Biosorption and Reduction||32|
Plant Extracts - Nanoparticles Synthesis: Recently trend of plant-mediated extract and product for synthesis of nanoparticles worldwide 3, 44. The plant isolate and extract are obtained from secondary metabolites of a plant such as alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic acid, and flavonoids that reduce the metallic ions and formation of the metallic nanoparticles 45, 46. Some plants and its part are used to synthesis of nanoparticles such as Cymbopogon flexuosus extract 47 Coriolus Versicolor 48 Acalypha Indica leaf extract 49 Live Alfalfa plants 50 Prosopis farcta aq. Extract 51 Macrotyloma uniflorum 52 Stevia rebaudiana 53 Extract with the expansion of various molar centralizations of gold, zinc oxide silver nitrate arrangement to incorporate eco-accommodating silver nanoparticles, ZnNPs and AuNPs with explicit morphological highlights 44 Plant extract are commonly favored as a result of its simple accessibility, appropriate for mass creation and by items or waste product shaped are eco-accommodating 45, 46. Synthesis of nanoparticles by using plant extracts, some examples listed Table 2.
TABLE 2: BIOSYNTHESIS OF MNPS BY USING PLANT EXTRACTS
|Plants & Extracts||Nanoparticles Produced||Synthesis Location||Method||References|
|Cymbopogon flexuosus extract||Au||Extracellular||Reduction||47|
|Acalypha Indica leaf extract||Ag||Extracellular||Reduction||49|
|Live Alfalfa plants||Au||Intracellular||Reduction||50|
|Prosopis farcta aq. Extract||Zinc oxide||Extracellular||Reduction||51|
Ideal Properties of Methods:
- Minimum waste generation.
- Less no of the reagent in preparation.
- The reaction temperature and room temperature should be close to each other.
- Economical, reproducible, and easily available 1.
Characterization: The basic procedures for the characterization of nanoparticles are as the following:
Absorbance Spectroscopy: Absorbance Spectroscopy is a helpful strategy to confirm metal nanoparticles formation. This method is helpful for the approximate and quantitative examination of nanoparticles 54. Metal nanoparticles with unique optical properties show surface plasmon reverberation impact because of the excitation of an electron on the metal surface. The excitation varies based on the size, shape, and concentration of metal ions was studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy 55, 56.
IR Spectroscopy: There are various factors that influence this interaction, mass of the atoms involved, bond strength and the molecular environment. This method can provide information on the functional group that would be present around or formed MNPs. It additionally gives significant data to comprehend the surface Structure of the metal nanoparticles 54, 57.
Transmission Electron Microscopy: Trans-mission electron microscopy is a determination technique to gained information about the morphology of metallic nanoparticles 55. It has the ability to really image particles in the crystalline example at a resolution close to 0.1 nm 58.
Scanning Electron Microscopy: Scanning Electron Microscopy is a generally important or powerful technique for imaging metallic nanoparticles. Used to study the morphology and surface structure of nanoparticles. The resolution of substance down to close about 1 nm 59. In SEM technique electron beam incident on the placed sample, then interaction occurs this causes the emission of a secondary electron and auger electron with energies littler than 50ev 60.
X-Ray Diffraction: It is a significant and broadly valuable method for deciding the precious crystal structure. The advantage of XRD procedures, ordinarily acted in tests of powder structure, for the most part in the wake of drying their relating colloidal arrangements, is that it brings about factually delegate, volume-found the middle value of qualities 58, 61.
X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is an exceptionally surfaces explicit method, with a test profundity of a couple of nanometres, that has been generally utilized in describing the concoction and electronic basic properties of metallic nanoparticles 62. XPS was used to obtained information about the metal structure 63.
AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy): AFM is giving a point by point data about the nuclear scale, which is significant for understanding the electronic structure and substance holding of iotas and particles. Fast assessment essential piece of metallic nanoparticles possible in AFM and resolution around 1 nm 58, 59.
PL Spectroscopy (Photoluminescence): It is widely used for the observation of optical properties - connection to structure highlights, for example, abandons, size, synthesis. What's more, the PL of metal NPs is liberated from photograph flickering.
Along these lines, PL can be viewed as a superior option to fluorescent atoms for optical naming applications. Single-photon and multi-photon excitation PL has been acquired using plasmonic nanostructures of a couple of shapes 3, 58.
Zeta Potential: Zeta potential analysis is a significant method utilized for deciding molecule size, dependability, conglomeration, and zone NPs. At the point when the electric field is applied, a particle starts moving because of the fascination between the electric field and the charged atom. The greatness of the zeta potential gives data about the molecule stability 54, 56.
Biomedical Application of MNPs: The biomedical application of metallic nanoparticles is widely used for their antimicrobial activity.
Antiviral Activity: AgNPs carbonaceous matrix was obtained by heat treatment of the cells and the feasibility against M13 phage was settled using the plaque count technique. antiviral action of synthetic operators iodine and chlorine dioxide against viral strains, for example, bacteriophages and polioviruses, reasoned that oxidative harm of sulfhydryl bunches in the protein coat was a significant viewpoint in the murdering system of viral strains through nanoparticles 64.
Silver nanoparticles of little sizes are defenseless to human immunodeficiency infection (HIV); official of silver nanoparticles of size under 5 nm with the gp120 protein of HIV infection kept the infection from joining itself to the tissues of host cells.
The signs for utilizing a novel class of hostile to HCV operator and a definite antiviral component of metallic nanoparticles may prompt the improvement of specialists with intense exercises against infection 64.
Antibacterial Activity: The use of MNPs gives a new extension in the clinical field for medicating focused on the sedate conveyance framework. Silver and gold are commonly utilized in biomedical and cosmeceutical endeavors. Silver nanoparticles show likely antibacterial development against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Organism form mediated silver nanoparticles (5-40 nm) show antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens yet in the closeness of hostile to contamination specialists, for instance, erythromycin, ampicillin and chloramphenicol, they show redesigned antibacterial potential against test strains due to synergistic effect 65. Silver chloride nanoparticles integrated utilizing microalgae are additionally revealed for bactericidal activity 66.
Antifungal Activity: The sub-atomic systems of the antifungal effect of metallic nanoparticles is vague. For silver nanoparticles, the inhibitory effect on the creature joins silver nanoparticles associated with the cell surface by then invading inside the cell or speaking with phosphorous-containing blends, such as DNA or catch respiratory chain. Every one of these activities is answerable for the restraint of the development of the parasite and furthermore recommend that silver particles unequivocally communicate with gatherings of chemicals and makes them dormant, which causes the demise of cells 65, 66.
Anticancer Agents: MNPs have discovered tremendous advancement in plan and their application in anticancer end and treatment. Gold nanoparticles are nontoxic and promising anticancer treatment due to their optical properties 65. Scientists have structured nanoparticles-based treatment that is viable in rewarding mice with various myeloma. Different myeloma is a malignant growth that successful in plasma cells 1.
Antiparasitic Application: AgNPs biosynthesized utilizing diverse (lotus leaf) Nelumbo nucifera isolates. The 336 utilization of stable, decent metal NPs as bearers may confine the side effect of conventional chemotherapeutic administrators by the specific transport of anticancer authorities to destructive cells without affecting the run-of-the-mill cells.
Whether or not simply the concentrated on movement of NPs is healing, or the NPs go about as transporters for some other biosynthesized NPs are getting logically huge in nanomedicine 66, 67.
Advantages of MNPs:
- Better drug delivery as compared to conventional drug delivery systems.
- Administration through various routes such as nasal, oral, parental, etc.
- Sustain and control the release of drug through nanoparticles improves drug circulation, bioavailability in blood and minimize side effects.
- Improves the aqueous solubility of the drug, thus improving the bioavailability of the drug.
- Nanoparticles used for targeted drug delivery improve drug distribution 68, 69.
CONCLUSION: Nanoparticles are nanoparticular-sized materials used in varying fields of science. Nanoparticles are of different types, but the most prominent one used in the modern world is metallic nanoparticles. MNPs involve the use of metals in the preparation of nanoparticles. Gold, silver, iron, nickel, and a few are the most widely used metal in the preparation of nanoparticles. The preparation of nanoparticles is an important parameter in terms of quality and stability concerns. Namely, two types of methods, i.e., bottom-up and top-down methods, are commonly employed in the preparation of MNPs.
The selection of this would further depend upon the characteristic of the material and method. Characterization of nanoparticles helps to enable determination of characteristic and quality aspect of same. Thus, optimized MNPs are further commerced to treat various diseases. Antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, and various other diseases have been treated with the use of MNPs. Even though its wide use in modern, there is always concern limitation associated with the use of MNPs. Thus, this provides a wide scope of the study to counter the limitation of MNPs and also bringing newly improved and advanced methods and characterization techniques for more quality nanoparticles.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: We would like to thank Principal Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research Pimpri, Pune-018, for providing necessary facilities.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Bhujbal SS and Pawara RM: A systemic review on biomedical applications and synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2021; 12(9): 4666-4675. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.12(9).4666-75.
All © 2021 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Santosh S. Bhujbal * and Rakesh M. Pawara
Department of Pharmacognosy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Sant Tukaram Nagar Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
11 July 2020
27 January 2021
23 May 2021
01 September 2021