ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY HERBS: A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF MODERN MEDICINEHTML Full Text
ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY HERBS: A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF MODERN MEDICINE
Saikat Sen*, Raja Chakraborty , Biplab De , T. Ganesh, H. G. Raghavendra and Subal Debnath
Creative Educational Society’s College of Pharmacy , Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
Regional Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology , Agartala, Tripura, India
Srikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Siddipet, Andhra Pradesh, India
In recent time, scientific investigations of medicinal plants using indigenous medical systems has attracted a lot of attention globally. Nature has bestowed our planet with an enormous wealth of medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention and cure of diseases and ailments. Inflammation is complex biological response of vascular tissue due to different harmful stimuli and pain is discomfort signals result of actual or potential injury to the body may associate with inflammation. Inflammation with pain is associated with different diseases like rheumatism, encephalitis, pneumonia, oesophagitis, cancer, heart problems, fibrosis etc. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioid analgesic are normally used in the treatment of inflammation and pain but can cause a lot of adverse effect. Therefore herbal drugs can be potential source to replace them. Every year a lot of plants form traditional medicinal system has been screened for their potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity but only few of them only included in health care system after clinical research. So this is time to give more emphasis on research work based on natural sources, investigate the active phytoconstituents, use them on specific treatment, find out adverse effect and to work towards tapping their therapeutic utility.
Herbal drug, Indigenous medical system, Phytoconstituents, Anti-inflammation, Analgesic
INTRODUCTION: Plants are important and basic of preventive and curative health cares system since immemorial. Disease is as old as mankind and use of indigenous herbal medicine is a very ancient art and an integral part of treatment 1. Traditional medicinal herbs have served as a potential source of alternative medicine and different healthcare products. Knowledge of herbal medicines has derived from rich traditions of ancient civilizations and scientific heritage. From ancient time Indian, Chinese, Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Syrian medicinal system documented the use of different plant based medicine for different diseases 2.
According to WHO, nearly 75-80% of world population still depends on herbal medicines. Active constituents from plant sources directly used as therapeutic agent and phytoconstituents are also served as lead molecule for the synthesis of various drugs 2, 3. Folk medicine and their use against diseases in different cultures is a vast traditional knowledge; which is based on the necessities, instinct, observation, trial and error and long experience of ancient/tribal people 4. Indigenous or herbal medicines confer considerable economic benefits to most rural and poor people. WHO noted that about 25% of modern medicines are descended from plants sources used traditionally and research on traditional medicinal herbal plant leads discovery of 75% of herbal drugs 3.
Over last decades, there has been extensive interest in the use of herbal medicines therefore the research work and screening of plant has been increased gradually. Different inflammatory diseases are major cause of morbidity and mortality 5. Recent years documented progressive increase in the screening and research of medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity but only few of them only included in health care system after clinical research 6. So this is the time for systemic study of plant, isolate the active phytoconstituents, investigate their therapeutic, toxic dose and work towards tapping their therapeutic utility. Therefore this review documented 42 plants from 27 different families which proved useful as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent; and can be a potential source of medicine in our healthcare system.
Inflammation: Inflammation is a complex response in the vascularized connective tissue occurs due to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. Inflammation is a normal, protective response to tissue injury caused by physical trauma, noxious chemicals or microbiologic agents, which is a part of the host defense. It endeavor to inactivate or destroy foreign organisms, eliminate irritants which is the first phase of tissue repair. Inflammatory process usually subside on completion of healing process but sometimes inflammation turns to severe, which may be far worse than the disease and in extreme cases, it may be fatal also 7, 8, 9. Inflammatory process is characterized by reoccurrence of several phenomenons like initiation, chemoattraction of inflammatory cells and activation of these cells to release inflammatory mediators.
Redness, increased temperature, swelling, pain, and loss of function are the classical sign of inflammation 10.Inflammation can be provoked by a wide variety of noxious agents, foreign materials, toxins, infections, frostbite, chemicals, pathogens, antibodies, necrosis, blunt, immune reaction and physical injuries 11. Different inflammatory mediators such as histamine, serotonin, kinins (bradykinin), neuropeptides, eicosanoids (prostaglandins and leukotriene B4, C4, D4, E4), nitric oxide, biological oxidants, platelet activating factors, tumor narcosis factor, oxygen metabolites, complement proteins, cytokines, adhesion factors, and digestive enzymes are plays important role in pathogenesis of inflammation 12, 13. Different cells like neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, mast cells, connective tissue fibroblasts, resident macrophages and lymphocytes are also involved in pathogenesis of inflammation 14.
Types of Inflammation: Inflammation is generally divided into two types i) acute inflammation and ii) chronic inflammation. Inflammatory reactions arbitrate by different mechanisms and occur in phases like 13;
- Acute phase - temporary local vasodilation and increased capillary permeability
- Delayed, sub-acute phase - infiltration of leukocytes and phagocytic cells
- Chronic proliferative phase - tissue deterioration and fibrosis
Acute inflammation is initial response of the body to risk factors like an infection or trauma etc., this is non-specific and first line of defense of the body against danger 15. Main features of acute inflammation include a) accumulation of fluid and plasma at the affected site, b) intravascular activation of platelets, c) polymorpho-nuclear neutrophils as inflammatory cells 16. When the risk factors lengthen and are not removed, acute inflammation will then turns and extend to chronic inflammation. It occurs for a longer duration and associated with the presence of macrophages, lymphocytes, blood cell proliferation, fibrosis and tissue necrosis. The macrophages produce a wide number of biologically active products which leads to tissue destruction and fibrosis characteristics of chronic inflammation 17, 18.
Inflammatory Diseases: Abnormalities related with inflammation comprise a large, officially distinct group of disorders which trigger a vast variety of human diseases. The immune system is often involved with inflammatory disorders. Autoimmune disease, allergic reactions and some myopathies are common type of inflammatory disease. Cancer, atherosclerosis and ischaemic heart disease are some common non-immune diseases with etiological origins in inflammatory processes 6. Table 1 listed some of the acute and chronic inflammatory disorder.
TABLE 1: SOME OF THE COMMON TYPES OF INFLAMMATORY DISEASE 8, 12, 19, 20
|NAME OF THE DISEASES||EXPLANATION|
|Allergy||Inflammatory cytokines induce autoimmune reactions associated with inflammation|
|Appendicitis||Inflammation of vermiform appendix or appendiceal inflammation is associated with obstruction|
|Arthritis||Bacterial and viral infections, immune complex results inflammation of joints results destroy of joint cartilage and synovial fluid|
|Asthma||Respiratory disease due to allergy results smooth muscle hyperplasia, excess mucus, inflammation|
|Bacillary angiomatosis||Disease of skin of immunocompromised individual characterized by reddish elevated lesion often surrounded by scaly ring and inflammation|
|Cancer||Unlimited growth of tissue associated with inflammation|
|Cellulitis||Infection causes subcutaneous inflammation of connective tissue|
|Cholecystitis||Inflammation in gallbladder|
|Colitis||Bacterial infections, ulcer causes inflammation in colon|
|Congestive heart failure, stoke, heart attach||Common heart diseases associated with inflammation.|
|Cystitis||Inflammation in urinary bladder|
|Dermatomyositis||Polymyositis with involvement of skin marked by reddish erythematous eruptions and inflammation|
|Encephalitis||Viral infections in results brain inflammation|
|Endocarditis||Inflammation of lining of the heart and heart valves|
|Fibrosis||Condition marked by increase in intestinal fibrous tissue in response to inflammation or direct toxic insult to the liver|
|Gastritis||Alcohol abuse, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric acid reflux causes inflammation in mucous membrane of stomach|
|Goodpasture syndrome||Autoimmune disorder of basement membranes of kidney glomeruli and lung alveoli|
|Hepatitis||Injury to the liver connected with an influx of acute or chronic inflammatory cells due to viral infection|
|Infectious rhinitis||Viral infection of respiratory tract also known as common cold|
|Insulitis||Inflammatory or autoimmune disease in islets of Langerhans results destruction of beta cells of pancreas|
|Leprosy||Chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae characterized by formation of nodules on body surface.|
|Mediterranean fever||febrile disorder of unknown cause characterized by attacks of fever accompanied by inflammation in Mediterranean region|
|Meningitis||Inflammation in meninges especially in pia mater and in arachnoids due bacterial and viral infections in meninges|
|Oesophagitis||Inflammation and pain due to gastric acid reflux, fungal infections in esophagus|
|Osteomyelitis||Inflammatory disease of bone due to bacterial infection causes death and separation of tissue.|
|Pancreatitis||Inflammation in pancreas results pancreatic insufficiency|
|Pericarditis||infections in cardiac pericardium tissue|
|Pleurisy||Bacterial and viral infections in pleura results inflammation with fever, cough, painful and difficult respiration|
|Pneumonia||Disease of lungs characterized inflammation due to infection or irritant|
|Pneumonia||Disease of lung with inflammation and consolidation due to infection or irritants|
|Proctitis||Ulcerative colitis associated with inflammation in rectum and anus|
|Pyelonephritis||Mainly bacterial infection causes inflammation in parenchyma of kidney and the lining of its renal pelvis|
|Rheumatic fever||Acute, recurrent disease characterized by fever, swelling and pain around joints, inflammation in pericardium layer of heart|
|Stenosis||Associated with narrowing or constriction of the diameter of body orifice due to inflammation, like aortic, mitral, pulmonary, spinal, subaortic stenosis|
|Sunburn||UV radiation causes allergic condition and inflammation in skin|
|Syphilis||Sexual transmitted diseases caused by Treponema pallidum|
|Thyroiditis||Encompasses a diverse group of disorders characterized by thyroid gland inflammation and pain|
|Tuberculosis||Infection of lungs caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis characterized by fever, cough, inflammation, difficulty in breathing|
|Ureteritis||Inflammation in uterus develop as one component of urinary tract infections|
Pain: Pain is a subjective, multidimensional and unpleasant experience allied with actual or potential tissue damage comprising sensory (e.g., intensity, duration, location), affective (e.g., unpleasantness, emotional, motivational), and cognitive (e.g., awareness of the implications, fear, anxiety) components 21. Pain has both sensory (somatic) and psychological (affective) mechanism. However, pain is more than a sensation or the physical alertness; it also includes perception, the subjective interpretation of the discomfort 10, 21.
The pain reaction is transmitted over the reflex arc by sensory fibers in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and by synapsing motor neurons in the anterior horn. Due to harmful stimulus anatomic pattern of sensory and motor neurons move quickly, nerve impulses alerting the individual to move away from such stimuli are simultaneously sent along efferent nerve fibers from the brain 10. Bradykinin, histamine, prostaglandins are major mediators of pain. Different types of pain include 10, 22, 24, 25:
- Somatic pain: caused by the activation of pain receptors in either the body surface or musculoskeletal tissues, which may be caused by a combination of factors likes abnormalities, inflammation, repetitive trauma, excessive activity, vigorous stretching and contractions due to paralysis.
- Visceral pain: associated with the damage of internal organs and is most common form of pain, this is result by the activation of pain receptors in the chest, abdomen or pelvic areas.
- Neuropathic pain: caused by injury or malfunction to the spinal cord and peripheral nerves associated with burning, tingling, shooting, stinging, pins and needles sensation.
- Acute pain: results from tissue damage or injury, but usually goes away as the injury heals or the cause of the pain is removed. It is short lasting and usually manifests in ways that can be easily described and observed.
- Chronic pain: pain lasting for more than three months and more subjective, treating chronic pain possess a great challenge for physicians as it has ability to change the function and quality of life.
Synthetic Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to reduce inflammation, pain and fever. NSAIDs inhibit cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzyme results inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. NSAIDs are usually consider as mild analgesics and particularly effective when inflammation has results sensitization of pain receptors to normally painless mechanical or chemical stimuli 12.
However, for severe or chronic malignant pain, opioids analgesics are the drugs of choice8. The greatest drawback in the available potent synthetic analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs lies in their adverse effect, toxicity and reappearance of symptoms after discontinuation. Table 2 tabulated adverse or toxic effect of some of the commonly available modern drugs used for treatment of pain and inflammation.
TABLE 2: SOME OF THE COMMONLY USED ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS AND THEIR ADVERSE EFFECT 8, 10, 20:
|Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:|
|Acetaminophen||skin eruptions, gastric upset or bleeding, urticaria, hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, jaundice, hepatotoxicity, hepatic necrosis due to overdose|
|Aspirin||nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, peptic ulcer, tinnitus, allergic and anaphylactic reactions, increased risk of Reye’s syndrome in children, respiratory alkalosis, hyperventilation|
|Ibuprofen||nausea, dizziness, somnolence, dyspepsia, gastric or duodenal ulcer, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, head ach, tinnitus|
|Indomethacin||nausea, constipation gastric or duodenal ulcer formation, GI bleeding hematologic changes|
|Piroxicam||nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness, gastric or duodenal ulcer, GI bleeding|
|Diclofenac sodium||nausea, vomiting, gastric or duodenal ulcer, GI bleeding|
|ketoprofen||dizziness, visual disturbances nausea, constipation, vomiting diarrhea, gastric or duodenal ulcer formation, GI bleeding|
|Ketorolac||dyspepsia, nausea, GI pain, GI bleeding and/or perforation of the stomach or intestines pain at injection site drowsiness|
|Mefenamic acid||dizziness, tiredness, nausea, dyspepsia, rash constipation, bleeding, diarrhea, hemolytic anemia|
|Naproxen||dizziness, visual Dizziness, visual nausea, vomiting, gastric or duodenal ulcer, GI bleeding|
|Sulindac||nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation,, gastric or duodenal ulcer, GI bleeding|
|Valdecoxib||headache, nausea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, anemia|
|Celecoxib and Rofecoxib||headache, dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, dyspepsia, rash, fatigue, ophthalmic changes, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain|
|Fentanyl||sedation, sweating, headache, vertigo, lethargy, confusion, light-headedness, nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression|
|Methadone||light headedness, dizziness, constipation, respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, vomiting, physical dependence|
|Morphine sulfate||sedation, hypotension, increased sweating, constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, somnolence, respiratory depression due to acute opioid poisoning, dysphoria|
|Codeine||sedation, sweating, headache, dizziness, lethargy, confusion, light-headedness|
|Buprenorphine||light headedness, sedation constipation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression|
|Pentazocine||light headedness, sedation, constipation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression, high doses increase blood pressure and can cause hallucinations, nightmares, dysphoria, tachycardia, dizziness|
Herbal Anti-inflammatory Agents: Herbal medicines are the synthesis of remedial experiences and practice of indigenous systems of medicine for over hundreds of years. Despite the tremendous progress in medical research during the past decades, the treatment of many serious diseases including pain and inflammation is still problematic 26. Currently used anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs are associated with some severe side effects; therefore there is a need for the development of potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects 27. Herbal medicine showed safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects than the synthetic drugs. The number of chemical compounds, found within the plant kingdom is a part of the physiological functions of living flora and are supposed to have better compatibility with the human body 2. Different phytoconstituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, xanthone, coumarin, sterols, withaferin-A, andrographolide etc., are also proved effective as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent 5, 6. Therefore it is the demand of time to investigate and herbal medicine and uses them in our daily life. Table 3 tabulated some of the plant reported to demonstrate pain and inflammation reducing properties.
TABLE 3: SOME OF PLANT SOURCE WITH ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY 26-64:
|PLANT NAME||TRADITIONAL USES||PART USED||TYPE OF EXTRACT||EXPERIMENTAL MODELS|
|Barks and leaves are used to relief tooth ache, diseases of the gum, allergic disorders and bronchial asthma||Bark||Cold extraction of mixture of Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol||Acetic acid induced writhing, radiant heat tail flick method|
|Annona squamosa Family: Annonaceae||Used to stop diarrhea, dysentery and used as a cold remedy, insecticide, expectorant, tonic||Bark||Petroleum ether||Acetic acid induced writhing test, carrageenan induced paw oedema|
|Artemisia absinthium Family: Compositae||Used as tonic, stomachic, febrifuge, gastric pain, antihelmintic||Seed, stem||Methanol extract||Tail immersion method, carrageenan induced paw edema|
|Bark, root, flower used in hemorrhoids, cough, diarrhea, menorrhagia, skin diseases, sore throat||Stem bark||Methanol extract||Acetic acid induced writhing, carrageenan induced paw oedema|
|Used as stomachic, antihelmintic, antiscorbutic and useful in treatment of scabies, pruritus, intestinal worms, sour, fever||Root, fruit||Ethanolic extract||Eddy’s hot plate, carrageenan induced rat paw edema, analgesy meter induced pain, cotton pellet induced granuloma|
|Cassia sieberiana Family: Caesalpiniaceae||Traditional medicine to treat pain and
|Root||Aqueous extract||Acid induced writhing, carrageenan induced paw edema|
|Widely used against pain, inflammation, infections||Bark||Aqueous extract||Formalin test, carrageenan and histamine induced edema|
|Act as detumescence and acesodyne||Bark,
|Ethanol extract and different fractions (pet. Ether, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate and n-butanol)||Carrageenan induced paw oedema, ear oedema, acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate test|
|Used as a remedy for dysmenorrheal, muscle spasms, cough, asthma, diarrhea, dysentery, convulsions, pain||Whole plant||Methanol extract||Λ-carrageenan induced paw edema, acetic acid induced writhing, determination of antioxidant enzymes, interleukin-1β , tumor necrosis factor and nitric oxide|
|Use in relieving fevers and inflammation||Stem
|Acetic acid induced writhing, formalin test, tail flick method, arachidonic acid and ethyl phenylpropiolate induced rat ear edema|
|Used to treat constipation, edema, bleeding||Gum resin
|Ethyl acetate extract
|Ethyl phenylpropiolate induced ear edema|
|Used in rheumatism, worm infections, leprosy, ulcer, sores, tumor||Aerial part||Hydroalcoholic extract (50% v/v)||Acid induced writhing, eddy’s hot plate method, carrageen induced paw edema, cotton wool granuloma model|
|Treating degenerative disease, joint pain, joint pain||Root
|Acetic acid induced writhing, carrageenan induced paw edema, formalin test|
|Purposed to reduce swelling, aid digestion and is used as tonic and aphrodisiac||Fruit
|Acetic acid induced writhing, carrageenan induced paw edema|
|Used in fibromyalgia, arthritis, muscular pain and fatigue, inflammatory and painful conditions||Aerial part
|Infusion, methanol extract and fractions (aqueous, butanol and chloroform fractions)||Acetic acid induced writhing, tail flick test, tetradecanoylphorbol acetate induced ear inflammation model|
|Used in arthritis, muscular pain and inflammatory and painful conditions||Aerial part
|Infusion, methanol extract and fractions (aqueous, butanol and chloroform fractions)||Acetic acid induced writhing, tail flick test, tetradecanoylphorbol acetate induced ear inflammation model|
|Plant seeds are used for reliving pain, osteodynia||Seed||Methanol/petroleum ether (70/30 v/v) extract||Formaline test, carrageenan induced inflammation model|
|Used as a diuretic, antispasmodic, sedative||Seed, stem||Methanol extract||Tail immersion method, carrageenan induced paw oedema|
|Folk medicine use as pain relievers||Leaf
|Carrageenan, serotonin and histamine induced paw edema, acetic acid induced writhing, tail flick|
|Plant is used in the treatment of painful menstruation, post-partum bleeding, oedema||Aerial part
|Acetic acid induced writhing, carrageenan induced paw edema|
|Seed oil for sprain and rheumatism||Leaf||Ethanol extract||Formalin test, acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, carrageenan and arachidonic acid induced edema|
|Used as bitter tonic||Root||Ethanol extract
|Acetic acid induced writhing, formalin test. Λ-carrageenan-induced paw oedema model|
|Barks are used to relief toothache, post-partum pains, relieve stomach and kidney disease, inflammation||Stem bark||Water extract||Carrageenan and histamine induced paw oedema, acetic acid induced writhing, formalin test.|
|Herbal medicine in the treatment of stomachache and many acute or chronic inflammations, as well as ascariasis.||Fruit
|Acetic acid induced vascular permeability and λ-carrageenan induced hind paw edema, acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests|
|In menorrhagia and heavy manstruration, and washing of eyes||Leaf
|Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and 50% methanol fractions||Interleukin production, ethylphenylpropiolate induced ear edema and the writhing test|
|Useful in haematemesis, fever, vitiated condition of pitta and vata, dipsia, burning sensation||Tuber||Ethanolic extract (50% v/v)||Carrageenan and cotton palate induced granuloma, pain by analgesy meter|
|Used in earache, sore feet, chest pain, epilepsy, febrifuge, wound and stomach ache||Flower||Ethanolic extract||Formalin test, acetic acid induced writhing|
|Used as antihelmintic, laxative, antipyretic and expectorant, and is also used to treat infantile diarrhoea and malarial intermittent fevers, inflammation||Root||Ethanolic extract||Eddy’s hot plate, carrageenan induced rat paw edema|
|Used in fever and reduce inflammation||Root||Hydroalcoholic extract||Carrageenan induced paw oedema, granulomatous tissue assay, writhing test, hot plate test|
|Used in sinusitis, it is a rich source of vitamin c
|Whole plant||Petroleum ether extract||Carrageenan induced hind paw edema, chronic granuloma pouch model, tail flick model|
|Used in cold, nausea, diarrhea, headache and fever||Aerial part, leaf||Methanol extract||Acetic acid induced
Writhing, formalin test, carr-induced edema test, antioxidant study, tissue cox-2 and tnf-α determination
|Different plant from rheedia species used to treat inflammation, pain and infections||Leaf||Aqueous extract||Acetic acid induced writhing, tail flic method, hyperalgesia and pleurisy induced by lipopolysaccharide|
|Leave juice in rheumatic pain and skin disease of hair scalp||Leaf||Ethanol extract||Tail flick models, carrageenan induced inflammation|
|To treat painful conditions, improves digestion and assimilation, alleviates excessive thirst, to kills infectious agents and in blood disease, inflammation.||Leaf||Chloroform,
Methanol, water extract
|Formalin test, tail immersion method|
|It is bitter, acrid, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, digestive and used in dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, skin diseases, and fever.||Bark||Aqueous extract||Carrageenan induced paw edema, hot plate method|
|Plant is uses as astringent and to relief for painful inflammatory conditions||Leaf||Ethanol extract||Acetic acid induced writhing, tail flick method (cold induced), hot plate models, carrageenan induced oedema|
|Used as antihelmintic and used in stomach trouble, wound||Leaf||Chloroform extract||Formaline induced paw edema, acetic acid induced writhing, eddy’s hot plate method|
|Used for stomach upset, swelling, rheumatism, fever andfor lowering blood sugar, and for softening the stool.||Seed||Water soluble partially purified extract (methanol extract subsequently treated with chloroform and acetone )||Acetic acid induced writhing, carrageenan
|Folk medicine against diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, fever, pain, inflammation||Flower bud||Volatile oil isolated by hydrodistillation||Carrageenan induced paw edema, acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method|
|Used as anodyne, antirheumatic, appetizer, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, laxative and sedative||Fruit||Ethanol extract||Acetic acid induced writhing, croton oil induced ear edema|
|Used in pain, inflammation, fever and as aphrodisiac, antiemetic, carminative||Bark||Bark is extracted by ether, ethyl acetate and methanol (1:1:1)||Carrageenan induced paw edema|
|Used in inflammation, stress, tooth pain||Root, bark, leaf||Methanol extract||Carrageenan induced paw edema, tail-flick method|
CONCLUSION: Plants have been medicine and food for animals, since animal life emerged. Plants contain a large number of spread of pharmacologically active ingredients and each herb has its own unique combination and properties. A number of plants have been described in Ayurveda and other traditional medicinal system for the management of different diseases according to the perceived needs of the patient and based upon the individual herb’s constituents. Diseases with pain and inflammation are a widespread and required more attention. Review of herbal medicine used by different medicinal system and tribal/ethnic people in pain and inflammation is essentially quite important in the face of treatment. A large number of people these days are looking for herbal remedies and relief for their ailments. The cause for this is the quest for a natural and safe way to treat disease. Therefore, our efforts should be directed towards the review of medicinal plant, screening of activity, isolation and characterization of the active principles and elucidation of the relationship between structure and activity, that can aimed at towards clinical relevance.
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Saikat Sen*, Raja Chakraborty, Biplab De , T. Ganesh, H. G. Raghavendra and Subal Debnath
Creative Educational Society’s College of Pharmacy, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
29 May, 2010
27 September, 2010
08 October, 2010
01 November, 2010