ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MARINE ALGAE KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII USING THREE SOLVENT EXTRACTSHTML Full Text
ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MARINE ALGAE KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII USING THREE SOLVENT EXTRACTS
V. Prabha*1, D.J. Prakash 2 and P.N. Sudha3
Department of Biochemistry, D.K.M College for Women 1, Vellore-632 001, Tamil Nadu, India
Neurophysiology Laboratory P.G. & Research Department of Zoology 2, Voorhees College, Vellore-632 001, Tamil Nadu, India
P.G. and Research Department of Chemistry, D.K.M College for Women 3, Vellore-632 001, Tamil Nadu, India
The seaweeds are economically valuable resources, used as food, fodder, fertilizer and medicine and thus useful to mankind in many ways. In the present study, Kappaphycus alvarezii, a marine alga, has been analysed for the presence of bioactive products using three solvent extracts. Antimicrobial activity was also done using the same extracts of seaweed. The results revealed that the selected seaweed has active secondary metabolites and also exhibited antimicrobial activity, mainly in the methanolic extract of Kappaphycus alvarezii.
Seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Secondary metabolites, Antimicrobial activity
INTRODUCTION: Economical significance of seaweed lies in their utilization in food and cosmetic industry and also in medicine and pharmacy. Genera of agar containing red seaweed, Gelidium Sp. and genera of carrageenan-containing red seaweed. Kappaphycus alvarezii are used most widely 1.
The chemical composition of seaweed provides their high nutritional value contributing to human nutrients-such as proteins with all essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins.
In addition, they consist of bioactive secondary metabolites and many different compounds with health benefits 2, 3, 4.
The chemical composition of seaweed varies, which is dependent on the type of species, habitat, time of collection, external conditions such as temperature, light and nutrient concentration in water 5, 6. Bioactivity of diverse secondary metabolites and other compounds extracted from seaweeds plays an important role in prevention of different serious diseases. These biogenic compounds, also have antibacterial, antialgal, antifungal properties 7, 8.
The antimicrobial activity of seaweeds are associated to secondary metabolites like terepenoid derivatives, phlorotannins or phenolic lipids 9, 10.
Thus, the present study aims at the extraction and qualitative detection of various phytochemicals of biological importance, from the selected seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii using three solvent extracts. Antimicrobial activity was also done using the same solvent extracts of the seaweed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Collection and Identification of Seaweed: The sea weed Kappaphycus alvarezii was purchased from the Mandabam region, Tamil Nadu, India and identified by SNAP natural and alginate products pvt ltd, Sipcot Ranipet, Tamil Nadu, India.
Preparation of Plant Extracts: The seaweed was washed thoroughly to remove epiphytes and other debris. Then they were shade dried and coarse powdered. The powder obtained (250gms) were extracted successively with 3 solvents, Ethanol, Methonol and Acetone in a soxhlet extractor for 18-20hrs.
All those extracts was concentrated at 45oC under reduced pressure using rotary flash evaporator. All the three extracts were used for phytochemical screening and the methanolic extract was used for antimicrobial studies.
- Phytochemical Screening: All the extracts of seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) were subjected to various qualitative tests for the identification of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins and aminoacids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, flavanoids, terepenoids, tannins and saponins, by using standard methods 11.
- Antimicrobial studies:
- Preparation of Extract For Microbial Studies: For microbiological studies, 1 gm of dried methanol extract was dissolved in 10 ml of the same solvent.
- Test Organisms Used: The bacterial and the fungal strains that were used for the determination of antimicrobial activity of the selected seaweed are as follows,
- Bacterial strains - Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus lutus, Klebsiella pneumonia, E.Coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus.
- Fungal strains - Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates, Candida albicans, Candida tropicals.
Well Diffusion Method: Antimicrobial assay was done using Muller Hinton Agar (MHA) and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). Sterilized medium was poured into a petridish and was inoculated by streaking the swabs of the test organisms. After allowing the inoculums to dry at room temperature, methanol extract of Kappaphycus alvarezii was then loaded in the well bored in solidified agar. The plates were allowed to stand at room temperature for 1 hour for extract to diffuse into the agar and then they were incubated at 370 for 24 hours. After incubation, the zone of inhibition exhibited by the extract was measured.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Phytochemical Screeing of Kappaphycus alvarezii extracts: Table 1 demonstrates qualitative phyto-chemical screening of ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of Kappaphycus alvarezii. The results revealed the presence of various phytochemical constituents in all the extracts used. The methanolic extract showed a maximum number of active phytochemicals compared to ethanolic and acetone extracts.
TABLE 1: QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII
|Proteins andamino acids||+||+||-|
+ = Presence ; - = Absent
Antimicrobial activity of Methanolic Extract of Kappaphycus alvarezii: Antimicrobial activity of seaweed is mainly due to the presence of phenolic lipids, terepenes and phlorotannins. Since antimicrobial agents required for the antimicrobial activity were maximum present in the methanolic extract of the selected seaweed. The antimicrobial assay was done using the methanolic extract of the seaweed9 (Table 2). The zone of inhibition was observed. The selected seaweed exhibited antimicrobial activity for 3 bacteria and 3 fungi out of 6 and 5 test micro-organisms used respectively (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).
TABLE 2: ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII
|Micro-organisms||Zone of inhibition (mm)|
|Staphylococcus aureus||No zone||5|
|Bacillus cereus||No zone||No zone|
|Micrococcus leutues||No zone||6|
|Klebsiella pneumonia||No zone||No zone|
|Escherichia coli||No zone||6|
|Pseudomonas aeroginosa||No zone||No zone|
|Aspergillus flavus||No zone||6|
|Aspergillus niger||No zone||No zone|
|Aspergillus fumigates||No zone||5|
|C. albicans||No zone||5|
|C. tropicalis||No zone||No zone|
C – CONTROL ; K – KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII
FIG. 1: ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII
C – CONTROL ; K – KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII
Fig. 2: Antifungal activity of methanolic extract of Kappaphycus alvarezii
In summary, of the 3 solvent extracts of the seaweed, methanolic extract showed potential antibacterial activity 12 against gram positive and gram negative organisms, and antifungal activities against selected fungal species. Also results of phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, sterols, phenolic compounds, tannins, terepenes etc, in the solvents used, and which act as potential antimicrobial agent, when extracted with methanol.
CONCLUSION: The result of this study justifies that the marine algae, Kappaphycus alvarezii is associated with numerous health benefits with all its bioactive compounds, and can be recommended for the development of antimicrobial drugs.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: We are grateful to the Department of Biochemistry, D.K.M. College for Women, Thiruvalluvar University, Tamil Nadu, India, for providing necessary facilities for carrying out this work.
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How to cite this article:
Prabha V, Prakash DJ and Sudha PN: Analysis of Bioactive compounds and Antimicrobial activity of Marine algae Kappaphycus alvarezii using Three Solvent Extracts. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2013; 4(1); 306-310.
V. Prabha*, D.J. Prakash and P.N. Sudha
Head & Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, D.K.M College for Women, Vellore-632 001, Tamil Nadu, India
10 September, 2012
18 October, 2012
17 December, 2012
01 January, 2013