ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF PYROSTEGIA VENUSTA PRES. STEMSHTML Full Text
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF PYROSTEGIA VENUSTA PRES. STEMS
Md. Rageeb Md. Usman * and Neelesh Chaubey
Department of School of Pharmacy, Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore - 466001, Madhya Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: Objective: Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers, Bignoniaceae, is native to the Brazilian Cerrado and popularly known as “cipó-de-são-joão”. In Brazilian folk medicine, the flowers of P. venusta are used as a general tonic and a treatment for diarrhea, vitiligo, cough, and common infections and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system. Nevertheless, there are still no studies on its possible anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Methods: The P. venusta methanolic and pet. ether extract was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced paw edema and anti analgesic activity effect in hot plate method. Results: Stem extracts of Pyrostegia venusta demonstrated the analgesic activity at dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. At the end of one-hour percent analgesia induced by petroleum ether extract is 26.34% and that by total methanolic extract is 40.69%. The total petroleum ether extract produced 43.10% inhibition of paw edema, methanolic extract showed 54.31% inhibition of paw edema. Both the extracts had comparable activity. Conclusions: Hence it revealed that Pyrostegia venusta stem extracts had potent anti-inflammatory activity.
Pyrostegia venusta Pers., Stems, Pharmacognostical, Physiochemical, Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic
INTRODUCTION: Many species belonging to the Bignoniaceae family, such as Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl). Miers are known to be of medicinal value 1. P. venusta is popularly known in Brazil as “cipó-de-são-joão”, “cipó-caititu”, “cipó-tingá” and “dedo-de-moça” 2 and is widely distributed in the cerrado, which is noted as being a typical ecosystem of central and southeastern Brazil 3. In folk medicine, the aerial parts of P. venusta are mainly used as an infusion or decoction.
They are administered orally as a general tonic for the treatment of diarrhea, vitiligo, cough and common infections and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, such as bronchitis, flu and the common cold 4, 5, 6. Previous studies demonstrated that the hydroethanolic extract of flowers of P. venusta attenuated the sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the forced swim and open field test, suggesting that the extract inhibits immune and inflammatory responses, including cytokine and prostaglandin production, supporting the popular use of P. venusta as a general tonic as well as a treatment for the general symptoms of flu and cold 7.
The literature records the phytochemical study of the flowers of P. venusta, from which the compounds β-sitosterol, n-hentriacontane, acacetin-7- O-β-glucopyranoside and meso-inositol have been isolated 7, 8. Other studies have indicated the presence of carotenoids in the flowers and rutin in the leave 9. It has been demonstrated that the compounds acacetin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside and β-sitosterol showed anti-inflammatory activity 10, 11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the methanolic and pet. ether extract of P. venusta stems in animal models.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Plant Material: The plant specimens for the proposed study were collected from Maharashtra in the month of October 2016 were air dried in shade avoiding exposure to direct sunlight, then were pulverized in grinder. The plant was authenticated by Dr. D. A. Dhale, PG and Research Department of Botany, SSVPS’s L. K. Dr. P. R. Ghogare Science College Dhule, Maharashtra, India, identified the plant and Voucher R-002. The powdered stem (# 60-80) were utilized for Soxhlet extraction.
Preparation of the Plant Extracts and Reference Drugs: The stems of P. venusta were dried in an oven at 40 °C and powdered. The P. venusta methanolic and pet. ether extract were obtained by Soxhlet extraction for 48 h. Both extract were concentrated on a rotary evaporator and then dried with a spray dryer (Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290).
Animals: Albino rats, Hoechst strain (100 - 120 gms) collected and housed under controlled light (12:12 h light: dark cycle; lights on at 6:00 am) and temperature conditions (23 ± 1 ºC) with access to water and food ad libitum. The animals were allowed to habituate to the housing facilities for at least one week before the experiments were started. All experiments were conducted according to India regulations for animal experimentation (CPCSEA), after approval by the Ethical Commission of Animal Experimentation (COPSSS UTMS/ANIL/17-03). The doses used in the present study were selected based on previous studies 12.
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Rat: Carrageenan-Induced Mice Paw Edema: Paw edema was measured with a plethysmometer (Model 7140, Ugo Basile, Italy). The basal volume of the right hind paw was determined before the administration of any drug. After determination of the basal volume, the animals (n=6 per group) were divided into the experimental groups in such a way that the mean volumes of the different groups were similar. The vehicle, extract or ibuprofen was orally administered 1 h before pl. injection of carrageenan (1 mg/paw, 20 μl). The paw volume was measured at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after injection of the inflammatory stimulus. The results are presented as the paw volume (ml) variation in relation to the basal.
Evaluation of Anti-Analgesic Activity in Mice:
Hot Plate Method: Test Drugs: Successive petroleum ether extract and successive methanolic extract. Swiss albino mice weighing 20 - 25 gm were divided into groups. The methanol and petroleum ether extract were made as suspension in 0.1% CMC in 0.9% saline. One group served as control that received 0.1 ml normal saline containing 0.1% CMC. The second group served as standard, which received pentazocine (10 mg/kg i.p). The remaining groups served as test groups. The temperature of hot plate was set at 55 ± 0.5 ºC. The cut off time was set at 20 sec. the animals were placed on the hot plate and time to lick paw / jumping / withdrawal of paw was recorded for each animal. The % analgesia was calculated using below mentioned formula.
% Analgesia = Tt – Tc / 20- Tc × 100
Tt = time required to lick paw in test animal.
Tc = time required to lick paw in control animal.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory Activity: In groups III and IV 100 mg/kg oral dose of extract was given to test group and in group II, 40 mg/kg oral dose of ibuprofen was given. After one-hour 0.1ml of 1% w/v carrageenan was given in sub plantar region in right paw in control as well as in all test groups. Then the reading of paw displacement volume of control and test group was noted at 0, 60, 120 and 180 min. Then the % inhibition of extract was calculated values Table 1 and 2, Fig. 1 and 2.
% inhibition of paw edema is calculated as:
1 - Volume of test × 100/ Volume of control
TABLE 1: ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF STEMS OF PYROSTEGIA VENUSTA
|Group no.||Treatment||Dose||Time||Paw volume displaced in animal||Average
ml of 1%
|III||Pet-ether extract + carrageenan||100 mg/kg||0||0.2||0.2||0.19||0.2||0.21||0.204||0.66
|IV||Methanolic extract + carrageenan||100
TABLE 2: % INHIBITION IN RAT HIND PAW EDEMA AFTER 3 h
|Treatment||Dose||0 h||1 h||2 h||3 h||% Inhibition of paw edema at 3 h|
|Petroleum ether extract||100 mg/kg||0.20±0.005||0.38±0.03||0.64±0.05||0.86±0.04||43.10%|
|Methanolic extract||100 mg/kg||0.21±0.02||0.34±0.05||0.56±0.09||0.74±0.05||54.31|
TABLE 3: ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF STEM EXTRACTS OF PYROSTEGIA VENUSTA STEM EXTRACTS
|S. no.||Treatment||Latency to lick paw (min)|
|1||Vehicle||3.6 ± 0.47||3. 65 ± 0.63||3.98 ± 0.78||3.7 ± 0.40||3.6 ± 0.20|
|2||Pentazocine||4.1 ± 0.40||9.2 ± 0.43||11.9 ± 0.85||10.2 ± 0.30||5.2 ± 0.80|
|3||Petroleum ether extract||3.80 ± 0.25||7.20 ± 0.28||8.20 ± 0.28||9.20 ± 0.40||5.40 ± 0.35|
|4||Methanolic extract||4.00 ± 0.40||7.92 ± 0.28||10. 5 ± 0.47||6.02 ± 0.47||4.25 ± 0.40|
TABLE 4: % ANALGESIA INDUCED BY EXTRACTS AT DIFFERENT INTERVALS OF TIME
| Treatment Time (min)
|% Analgesia (Tt – Tc / 20 – Tc × 100)|
|Petroleum ether extract||1.21%||21.71%||26.34%||33.74%||10.97%|
Stem extracts of Pyrostegia venusta demonstrated the analgesic activity at dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. At the end of one - hour percent analgesia induced by petroleum ether extract is 26.34% and that by total methanolic extract is 40.69% Table 3 and 4, Fig. 3 and 4.
The % analgesia was calculated using below mentioned formula.
% Analgesia = Tt – Tc / 20- Tc × 100
Tt = time required to lick paw in test animal.
Tc = time required to lick paw in control animal.
CONCLUSION: The stems of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers, Bignoniaceae, are commonly used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that the methanolic and pet. ether extract attenuated the sickness behavior in mice, supporting the popular use of stems of Pyrostegia venusta as treatment for the general symptoms of flu and cold (Veloso et al., 2010). However, its pharmacological actions have not been completely investigated to date. The present study demonstrated that the methanolic and pet. ether extract of the stems of Pyrostegia venusta display antianalgesic and anti - inflammatory properties. Because the extract did not produce any mortality in mice even at a dose of 5 g/kg, it may be considered relatively safe.
The method employed for anti-inflammatory evaluation was carrageenan induced hind paw edema in rats. The total methanolic extract exhibited 54.31 inhibition of paw edema, whereas petroleum ether extract showed 43.10 % inhibition. Which was comparable to standard drug ibuprofen. It revealed that Pyrostegia venusta stem extract has potent anti-inflammatory activity. Analgesic activity used for the screening of extracts for analgesic activity was hot plate method. Both the extracts displayed analgesic effects comparable to standard drug pentazocine. Petroleum ether extract produced 26.34% analgesia and methanolic extract produced 40.69% analgesia at the end of 1 h at the dose of 50 mg/kg.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors are grateful thank to Dr. Deenanath Jhade for his valuable guidance and inspiration for promoting this work. Authors are also thanks to department of school of pharmacy, Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore, Madhya Pradesh, India for providing facility and timely support for performing research work.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Emmanuel EI, Peter AA and Chukwuemeka SN: Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Spathodea campanulata Beauv (Bignoniaceae). J Med Food 2010; 13: 827-833.
- Pool A: A review of the genus Pyrostegia (Bignoniaceae). Ann Mo Bo Gard 2008; 95: 495-510.
- Ferreira DT, Alvares PS, Houghton PJ and Braz-Filho R: Chemical constituents from roots of Pyrostegia venusta and considerations about its medicinal importance. Quim Nova 2000; 23: 42-46.
- Scalon SP, Vieira MC, Lima AA, Souza CM, Mussury RM: Pregerminative treatments and incubation temperatures on the germination of “cipó-de-São-João” [Pyrostegia venusta (Ker ) Miers] - Bignoniaceae. Rev Bras Pl Med 2008; 10: 37-42.
- Cardozo NP, Parreira MC, Alves PL and Bianco S: Foliar área estimate of two sugarcane-infesting weeds using leaf blade linear dimensions. Planta Daninha 2009; 27: 683-687.
- Veloso CC, Bitencourt AD, Cabral LDM, Franqui LS, Dias DF, dos Santos MH, Soncini R and Giusti-Paiva A: Pyrostegia venusta attenuate the sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2010; 132: 355-358.
- Dubey R and Misra KJ: Chemical components of venusta Xowers. J Indian Chem Soc 1976; 53: 378.
- Harbone JB: Comparative biochemistry of the flavonoids. VI. Flavonoid patterns in the Bignoniaceae and Gesneriaceae. Phytochemistry 1967; 6: 1646-1651.
- Blatt CTT, Santos MD, Salatino A: Flavonoids of Bignoniaceae from "cerrado" and their possible taxonomic significance. Plant Syst Evol 1998; 210: 289-292.
- Gupta MB, Nath R, Srivastava N, Shanker K, Kishor K and Bhargava KP: Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of beta-sitosterol. Planta Med 1980; 39: 157-163.
- Shen KH, Hung SH, Yin LT, Huang CS, Chao CH, Liu CL and Shih YW: Acacetin, a flavonoid, inhibits the in vasion and migration of human prostate cancer DU145 cells via inactivation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biol 2010; 333: 279-291.
- Vilela FC, Bitencourt AD, Cabral LD, Franqui LS, Soncini R, Giusti-Paiva A: Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effect of Sonchus oleraceus in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2010; 127: 737-741.
How to cite this article:
Usman MRM and Chaubey N: Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Pyrostegia venusta pres. stems. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2018; 9(11): 4696-00. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.9(11).4696-00.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
M. R. M. Usman * and N. Chaubey
Department of School of Pharmacy, Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore, Madhya Pradesh, India.
22 March, 2018
23 May, 2018
31 May, 2018
01 November, 2018