AQUASOMES: A NOVEL CARRIER FOR DRUG DELIVERYAbstract
Nanobiopharmaceutics involves delivery of biopharmaceutical product through different biomaterials like multifunctional nanoparticles, quantum dots, aquasomes, superparamagnetic iron oxide crystals, and liposomes dendrimers. Nanotechnology has emerged fields of biomedical research in the last few decades the presents context is an attempt to present the brief information about nanobiotechnological applications. Aquasomes are nanoparticulate carrier system but instead of being simple nanoparticles these arse three layered self assembled structures, comprised of a solid phase nanocrystalline core coated with oligomeric film to which biochemically active molecules are adsorbed with or without modification. Aquasomes are spherical 60–300 nm particles used for drug and antigen delivery. Aquasomes discovery comprises a principle from microbiology, food chemistry, biophysics and many discoveries including solid phase synthesis, supramolecular chemistry, molecular shape change and self assembly. Three types of core materials are mainly used for producing aquasomes: tin oxide, nanocrystalline carbon ceramics (diamonds) and brushite (calcium phosphate dihydrate). Calcium phosphate is the core of interest, owing to its natural presence in the body. The brushite is unstable and converts to hydroxyapatite upon prolong storage. Hydroxyapatite seems, therefore, a better core for the preparation of aquasomes. It is widely used for the preparation of implants for drug delivery. The solid core provides the structural stability, while the carbohydrate coating protects against dehydration and stabilizes the biochemically active molecules. This property of maintaining the conformational integrity of bioactive molecules has led to the proposal that aquasomes have potential as a carrier system for delivery of peptide, protein, hormones, antigens and genes to specific sites. Aquasome deliver their content through specific targeting, molecular sheiling and slow sustained release process. Aquasome technology represents a patform system for conformational integrality and biochemical stability of bioactives. Their large sized and active surfaces enable them to be loaded with water insoluble drugs through non covalent processes. Their intended route of administration is parenteral and with advancement of research in this field, other routes might be contemplated. This article reviews the principles of self assembly, the challenges of maintaining both the conformational integrity and biochemical activity of immobilized surface pairs, and the convergence of these principles into a single functional composition.
Vishal Sutariya* and Parth Patel
Department of Pharmacology, K. B. Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India
07 November, 2011
09 December, 2011
17 February, 2012