AYURVEDIC ANTIVIRAL AGENTS: OVERVIEW OF MEDICINAL PLANTS PERSPECTIVEHTML Full Text
AYURVEDIC ANTIVIRAL AGENTS: OVERVIEW OF MEDICINAL PLANTS PERSPECTIVE
Ranu Choudhary *, Laxmikant Borse and Anil Jadhav
Department of Quality Assurance, Sandip Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahiravani, Nasik, Maharashtra, India.
ABSTRACT: In recent years, it has been reported that many herbal plants contain antiviral agents which combat a human disease that is caused by pathogenic viruses. The natural products which are obtained from plants as antiviral agents against viruses have gone through researches to check the efficacy and potentials of the herbal products in the prevention of viral disorders. On the basis of randomized controlled studies and in-vivo studies, and in-vitro studies, some agents are utilized all across the globe. Progressively numerous studies on therapy of antivirals have been increased. Though, efficacy remains disputable for antiviral drugs that are employed for viral disorders. The viral diseases are challenging for the health of people around the world cause significant increase in mortality and enhance crises. There are many synthetic antiviral drugs that have a large number of side effects and have narrow therapeutic window range, while in the other hand herbal formulations have minimized side effects. The advantages of herbal formulation over synthetic drugs encourage us to devise and expand new herbal moieties against the emerging viral infections. The medicinal plants contain phytochemicals that have antiviral properties. In this paper, the activity of antiviral agents from medicinal plants which have importance in Ayurveda, are discussed along with their source.
Keywords: Medicinal plants, Antiviral agents, Ttherapeutic window range, Viral infections, Phytochemicals, Ayurveda
INTRODUCTION: Viral diseases are more threatening to public health day by day. Many numbers of viral diseases have been reported from different regions of the world 1. The therapeutic potentials of medicinal plants recapped by various research programs 2. For humans, plants are the crucial source of medicine. Day by day the demand for traditional medicine is increased. To achieve the health goals it is important to use the traditional medicines as per World Health Organisation. There is about at least 35000 species of plants which are used for the purpose of medicine.
About 700 herbal products are described along with their clinical effects and properties. Fifty categories of the herbs have been described according to their clinical effect as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antiasthmatic, antihelminthic, antipyretic, anti-emetic, antipruritic, antidiarrhea, sedative, anti-epileptic, haemostatic, analgesic, haemopoietic, promoter of strength, semen and sperm, voice, complexion, wound healing etc. 3.
For primary health care, millions of people depend on the medicinal plant, but it is not limited to that; it is also for improvement of livelihood and generation of income 4. Herbal formulations are the basic foundation in many traditional medicinal systems worldwide wide 5. The active natural ingredients of higher plants have been studied for their potency against viruses on the basis of Siddha and Ayurveda traditional system of medicine; these studies revealed the virus’s e.g., feline immuno-deficiency virus, coxsackievirus, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, par influenza virus, etc. The medicinal plants contain several of the phytochemicals constituents, which are responsible for their property to treat diseases.
Among them, some have antiviral properties. Nowadays, people demanding alternative medicines other than conventional medicine shown by a recent survey in developing countries.
What is a Virus: A virus is an infectious agent or parasite of small size that itself reproduces. Viruses are called a link between living and nonliving. The multiplication of viruses occurs only in living cells such as plant cells, animal cells, and bacterial cells 6.
The genetic material of viruses is DNA or RNA. The genome is encompassed within the protein sheath called a capsid. The genetic material may be double or single-stranded. Capsids of viruses are regular arrays of one or a few types of protein. Almost every ecosystem has viruses.
A non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants was described by Dmitri Wanovsky's 1892 article. Tobacco Mosaic virus was discovered by Martinus Beijerink in 1898 7.
Emerging Pathogenic Viruses: The public threat of emerging viruses is increasing day by day. The viral diseases are very dangerous; hence the scientists are continuously involved in the researches for the discoveries of antivirals for curing the new pandemics. Nowadays, coronavirus is spreading increasingly, which is of unknown origin.
Newly Emerging Viruses are given as below:
Coronavirus: Coronavirus is a single stranded RNA virus. The coronavirus is included in coronaviridae family. In humans, it causes a common cold, and complications that include pneumonia and SARS can occur 8.
Ebola Virus: The Ebola virus’s transferral occurs from the wild animals and in the humans by human to human transmission. It is Ebola hemorrhagic fever which causes fatal illness in humans. Ebola virus is a member of the filoviridae family.
West Nile Virus: It is an example of a mosquito-borne zoonotic virus caused by a change in the climate. It belongs to the family of Flaviviridae and is transmitted by mosquitoes.
Nipah Virus: It was first revealed in April 1999 in Malaysia on the pigfarm. It caused the outbreak of respiratory and neurological diseases. Symptoms of encephalitis in humans and respiratory in pigs were observed in outbreak 7.
Sin Nombre Virus: Sin Nombre virus is related to Hantavirus. The symptoms of the Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) are fever, cough, headache, pulmonary edema, and death at the end. SNV belongs to the genus of Hantavirus of the family Bunyaviridae.
The reservoir of SNV infection is rodent carrier (the deer mouse); the inhalation of virus-contaminated deer mouse excretion is the mode of transmission of SNV about 66 7. percent fatality rate of SNV induced HPS reported in the United States.
SARS-coronavirus (SARS): It is caused by SARS-CoV. It is viral respiratory disease. In bats high probability of SARS-CoV is originated on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and in humans it spreads directly or indirectly via animals held in the Chinese market. 8273 cases and 775 deaths were reported in China in the middle of November 2002 & July 2003.
MERS-Corona Virus: MERS-CoV is a novel coronavirus. In 2012 in Saudi Arabia, it was isolated out of a patient who suffered from acute Pneumonia. The fatality rate of MERS - CoV is higher than SARS-CoV up to 30%. 1084 cases and 439 deaths were reported in March 2015. Through dromedary camel MERS-CoV spreads from bats to human here is the list of major zoonotic viruses 7, 8.
Natural Antiviral Agents: Natural antiviral agents are obtained from the medicinal plants which are described in Ayurveda along with their antiviral properties.
The extraction of the parts of medicinal plants gives the crude antiviral agents later; these crude products can be purified by using purification techniques such as chromatography 9.
These are obtained as active phytochemicals, including polyphenols, terpenoids, coumarins, alkaloids, phytosterols, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, sulphides, lignans etc. 9, 10.
Some antiviral agents from medicinal plants, including their mechanism of action, are explained in Table 2 3, 4, 6, 11.
TABLE 1: LIST OF MAJOR ZOONOTIC VIRUSES 7, 8:
|S. no.||Family of virus||Zoonotic virus||Reservoir host||Origin of infection in human||Disease|
|1||Coronavirus||SARS-CoV||Bats||Bats||Rigorous acute respiratory syndrome|
|2||Bunyavirus||Hantavirus||Wild mouse||Mouse||Hemorrhagic fever|
|Sin Nombre Virus||Wild mouse||Mouse||Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome|
|3||Influenza virus||Avian influenza H5N1||Wild birds||chicken||Respiratory disease|
|Avian influenza virus H7N9||Wild birds||Chicken||Respiratory disease
|4||Paramyxovirus||Hendra virus||Bats||Horse||Hemorrhage in lung|
|5||Filovirus||Ebola virus||Bats||primates||Hemorrhagic fever|
|6||Rhabdovirus||Rabies virus||Wild animals (bats, racoonetc)||Animals(dog)||Paralysis and hydrophobia|
|7||Flavivirus||West Nile Virus||Birds||mosquito||Encephalitis|
|Dengue virus||Monkeys||mosquito||Hemorrhagic fever|
|Japanese encephalitis virus(JEV)||Birds, bats||mosquito||Encephalitis|
TABLE 2: ANTIVIRAL AGENTS FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS, INCLUDING THEIR MECHANISM OF ACTION ON THE VIRUS
|S. no.||Name of plant||Active antiviral agent||Parts of plant used/extract||Common name of plant||Botanical name of plant||Mechanism of targeting the virus||Activity of antiviral|
|1||Lahsun||Ajoene, allicin, allyl methyl thiosulfinate and methyl allylthiosulfinate||Bulb,oil macerates &fresh garlic extract||garlic||Allium sativa||Interferes with virus adsorption & penetration||Common cold virus ,influenza virus A, dengue virus, Herpes simplex virus1,Herpes simplex virus2,HIV,coxsackie virus, infectious bronchitis virus|
|2||Palandu||Quercetin||Leaves||onion||Allium sepa||Inhibits viral entry or inhibiting components required by viral replication||Poliovirus ,hepatitis. influenza A|
|3.||Ghritakumari||Anthraquinones: aloe emodin||Flowers||Aloe vera||Aloe barbedensis||Partially destroys the viral envelope & inactivate them||Influenza virus, herpes simplex -1|
|4||Neem||N/A||Neem bark extract||Neem tree||Azadirachtaindica||Blocks HSV-1entry into glycoprotein D(gD) receptors expressing CHO-K1 cells||Dengue virus, pox virus(DNA), small pox virus(DNA)|
|5||Suryakanthisoppu||Triterpene saponin||N/A||Scarlet pimpernel, red pimpernel||Anagallisarvensis||In vitro inhibits virus replication||HSV, poliovirus|
|6||Pashanbheda||N/A||Methanolic extract||Hairy bergenia||Bergeniaciliata||N/A||Influenza virus A, HSV-1|
|7||Mulethi||Glycyrrhizic acid||Roots||Liquorice root||Glycyrrhiza radix||GL interfere with an early step of EBV replication cycle||EBV(Epstein-Barr Virus)|
|8||Swarnapatri||Anthraquinones||Hot glycerine extract||Senna, indiansenna||Cassia angustifolia||Partially destroy the vial envelope & inactivate them||HSV|
|9||Asishimbi||Lectins||N/A||Sword bean||Canavaliagladiata||In vitro inhibits virus penetration||HSV ,HIV, influenza virus|
|10||Naaranga||Tangeretin and nobiletin (polymethoxylated flavones)||Pericarps||Mandarine orange||Citrus reticulate||Affects the intracellular replication of RSV. Teregerin down regulated the expression of RSV phosphoprotein||Respiratory Syncytial Virus(RSV)l|
|11||Rathnagandhi||Quercetin derivative||Aqueous extract of fruit,stem,leaf,fruit&, seed||Peacock flower, red bird of paradise||Caesalpiniapulcherrima||Inhibits the viral replication at early stages of cycle||HSV|
|12||Toona||Acid polysaccharides||Leaves fraction extracts||White cedar, cedrobatata||Cedrelatubiflora||Inhibits virus replication||HSV, Vesicular Stomatitis virus|
|13||Ustukhudus||Lignin-carbohydrate complex||Fruit spikes||woundwort, carpenter's herb||Prunella vulgaris||Inhibits penetration of HSV-1 & blocks binding to vero cells||HSV-1, HSV-2|
|14||Guanandi||Apetalicacid,calanolide band C||Hexane extracts of leaves||Brazil beauty leaf||Calophyllumbrasiliense||Inhibitory effect on reverse transcriptase||HIV|
|15||Chanaka||Phenolic compound||Seed,fruit skin ,aerial parts||Chick pea||Cicerarietium||N/A||HSV|
|16||Narikela||Catechin,epicatechine& B type procyanidins||Husk fiber's water extract||Coconut||Cocosnucifera||N/A||HSV|
|17||Mahinimba||Meliacarpin||Ethyl acetate extracts of leaves||Indian lilac,china berry tree||Meliaazedarach||Inhibits the virus replication||HSV|
|18||Kumkum||Crocin, picrocrocin||N/A||kesar||Crocus sativus||Inhibition of viral replication at begining & later when virions incorporated into vero cells ,inhibit viral entry & replication||HSV-1
|19||Kataphala||Tannin(prodelphinidin B-2,3,3'-di-O-gallate)||Bark||Red bayberry||Myricarubra||Inhibits the viral attachment with cell||HSV|
|20||Bililotan||N/A||Volatile oils||Lemon balm,balm mint||Melissa officinalis||Inhibits virus replication||HSV|
|21||Punnaga||Inophyllum, calanolide A coumarins||N/A||Alexandrian laurel,balltree||Calophylluminophyllum||Inhibitory effects on reverse transcriptase||HIV|
|22||Rajamasha||Unguilin||seed protein||Cowpea||Vignaunguiculata||inhibiting effect on reverse transcriptase and the glycohydrolases alpha and beta-glucosidase||HIV|
|23||Simdalu||Quercetin 3rhamnoside(Q3R)||Aerial parts||chameleon plant||Houttuyniacordata||Inhibit replication in initial stage of viral infection by direct interaction with virus particle||Ant-influenza|
|24||Asmagnhni||Scopadulcic acid B||Whole plant||Broom weed||Scopariadulcis L.||Inhibit the viral replication||HSV-1|
|25||Bhora||Polysaccharide||Alkaline extract||Asiastic mangrove||Rhizophoramucronata||Inhibited the viral binding to cell||HIV|
|26||Amla||N/A||Solvent extract of dried fruits||Indian gooseberry||Phyllanthusemblica||Inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase||HIV|
|27||Tulsi||Apigenin, ursolic acid||Methanolic holy basil extract||holy basil||Ocimumtenuiflorum||Viral adsorption & penetration||HSV, hepatitis,enterovirus|
|28||Kalmegha||Diterpeneandrographolide, neoandrographolide&14-deoxy-2911-1230didehydroandrographolide||N/A||Green chireta||Andrographispaniculata||N/A||HSV|
|29||Adrak||Beta-sesquiphellandrene||Fresh rhizomes||ginger||Zingiberofficinalis||Blocks viral attachment &internalization||Reapiratory syncytial virus(RSV)|
|30||Yashtimdhu||Glycyrrhizin, licorice||N/A||liquorice||Glycyrrhizaglabra||N/A||Japanese Encephalitis Virus|
|31||Haritaki||Chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid||Chebula extract||Chebulicmyrobalan||Terminaliachebula||Inhibits viral attachment& penetration||HSV-2,HIV|
|32||Sarifa||N/A||Peel extract||Custard apple||Annonareticulata||Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase||HIV|
|33||Syamapatri||Epigallocatechine 3-gallate||Leaves||Green tea||Camellia sinensis||Inhibition of primitive stages of infection such as attachment and entry &inhibit membrane fusion by interfering with viral membrane protein||Dengue,Hepatitis B Virus,hepatitis C virus,HIV,HSV,EBV|
|34||Eranda||Lectin||N/A||Castor oil plant||Ricinuscommunis||Inhibits reverse transcriptase &N-glycohydrolases||HIV
|35||Haridra||Curcumin||Root||turmeric||Curcuma longa||Reduction of RNA expression,protein synthesis &virus titer||Coxsackievirus|
|36||Lavanga||Eugenol||Flower bud extract||clove||Eugenia caryophyllus||Direct inactivation of virus||HSV|
|37||Vasa||Vasicine||Leaf/justiciaadhatoda crude extract||adusa||Adhatodavasica||Inhibits viral replication||Influenza, HSV-1|
|38||Ashwagandha||Withaferin A||ashwagandha||Withaniasomnifera||Inhibits neuraminase of H1N1 influenza virus and inhibits viral release from host cell||Influenza virus|
|39||Chandana||Beta- santalol||Stem||sandlewood||Santalum album||Inhibition of viral mRNA synthesis of influenza A/HK(H3N2)||Influenza A|
|40||Aaavartaki||N/A||Leaves/bark extract||Babul tree||Acacia nilotica||In vitro inhibit viral attachement&replication,Inhibit influenza A virus infection by interacting with viral hemagglutinin||Influenza, hepatitis C virus|
N/A=Not Available, HIV=Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HSV=Herpes Simplex Virus, EBR=Epstein Barr Virus, RSV=Respiratory Syncytial Virus.
Mechanism of Action of the Antivirals Obtained from Plants: The natural antiviral agents obtain from plants as phytochemicals 9. This phyto-chemicals acts on the virus during the infection of the host cell by the virus & inhibits further viral infection. The infection of the host cell by virus involves the following steps refer Fig. 1. The first step is the adsorption of the virus on the surface of the host cell. This occurs due to the interaction of glycoprotein present on the surface of the virus with a transmembrane receptor on host cell surface.
- After adsorption, penetration of virus through cell wall occurs.
- Then the uncoating of the virus involves the deliverance of genetic material.
- This delivered genetic material integrates, or it may remain exist in the nucleus with the host's genetic material, and this interferes with replication, transcription, and translation processes and protein synthesis occurs.
- These proteins assemble and form virions and release by the process of exocytosis 3.
The natural antiviral drugs can act on different steps as given above and inhibit viral replication in viral synthesis. The adsorption of virus on the surface of host cell in first step. Inhibition of these step occurs by natural agents such as Quercetin, epigallocatechine-3-gallate, Ajoene, allicin tannin such as prodelphinidin B-2, 3, 3’-di-O-gallate etc. 6, 12 penetration through a cell wall is inhibited by apigenin, ursolicacid, lectins, lignin-carbohydrate complex etc 4. After uncoating, the early enzymes and gene products are formed for control of nucleic acid synthesis. This step is inhibited by antiviral agents such as calanolide a, inophyllum, etc 4, 13. Which inhibit the reverse transcriptase enzyme. The inhibition of transcription, translation, DNA replication process can be done by Triterpene saponin, glycyrrhizic acid, meliacarpin, vasicine, scopadulcic acid, acid polysaccharides, quercetin and its derivatives, meliacarpin, scopadulcic acid B etc 12, 13. The viral neuraminase resonsible for release of virus from host cell, this neuraminase is inhibited by with aferin. One more recognised mechanism of action of opposing viruses carrying DNA as genome is the demolition of coating of virus facilitated by natural antivirus such as anthraquinones like aloe emodin.
FIG. 1: MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ANTIVIRALS OBTAINED FROM PLANT SOURCE
CONCLUSION: Keeping in view it has been concluded that in Ayurveda, many of the medicinal plants contain similar phytochemicals that are responsible for their antiviral property.
The enzymes which are essential for viral replication are targeted by phytochemicals procured from plants and acts on different stages of viral replication. The mechanism to target the virus of many phytoconstituents has not been discovered yet. The discoveries & researches on these phytochemicals for their mechanisms to target the viruses are in progress throughout the globe. In this era of emerging viral infections, new bioactive moieties should be discovered. The medicinal plants are taken as a source for a finding of new antiviral agents with potent antiviral activity than conventional antiviral compounds.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: I acknowledge support from my guide Dr. Laxmikant Borse and co-guide Dr. Anil Jadhav.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: The author declares no conflicts of interest.
- World Health Statistics. World Health Organization 2012.
- Gupta YK, Briyal S and Gulati A: Therapeutic Potential of Herbal drug in Cerebral Ischemia. Indian Journal Of Physiology And Pharmacology 2010; 54(2): 99-122
- Kalyani P and Kamaruz Z: Antiviral Activity of some Indian Medicinal Herbs. Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2013; 2-6.
- Pushpa R, Nishant R, Navin K and Pankaj G: Antiviral Potential of Medicinal Plants: An Overview. International Research Journal of Pharmacy 2013; 4(6): 2230-07.
- Rathore B, Mahdi AA, Paul BN, Saxena PN and Das SK: Indian Herbal Medicines: Possible Potent Therapeutic Agents for rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 2007; 12-41.
- Sohail MN, Attitalla I and Rasul F: Plant as a Source of Natural Antiviral agents. Asian Journal of Animal & Veterinary Advances 2011; 6(12): 1683-19.
- Buhner SH: Herbal Antivirals, Storey publishing 210 MASS MoCAWay, and North Adams 2013.
- Liang-TzungLin, Wen-Chan Hsu and Chun-Ching Lin: Antiviral Natural Product and Herbal Medicine. Journal of Traditional and Complimentary Medicine 2014; 4: 24-35.
- Hafidh RR, Abdulamir AS, Jahanshiri F and Bakar AF: Asia is the Mine of Natural Antiviral Products for Public Health. The Open Compleme Medicine J 2009; 1: 58-68.
- Perez RM: Antiviral Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants. Pharmaceutical Biology 2008; 1388-0209.
- Kotwal GJ: Natural Antivirals against Human Viruses. Virology & mycology 2014; 3(2): 2161-0517.
- Sharma N: Efficacy of Garlic and Onion against virus. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2019; 0975-7538.
- Kapoor R, Sharma B and Kanwar S: Antiviral Photochemical: An Overview. Biochemistry& Physiology 2017; 2168-9652.
- Jassim SSA and Naji MA: Novel antiviral Agents: A medicinal plant perspective. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2003; 412-27.
- Sasidharan H, Venkatesh S, Prabhu M, Koppala S and Kumar NS: Identity Parameters on Traditionally Used Antiurolithiatic Herb-Scopariadulcis Linn. J of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Science 2017; 2456-3110.
- Damle M: Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice)-a potent medicinal herb. International J of Her Med 2017; 0255-22.
- Pal SK and Shukla Y: Herbal Medicine: Current status and the future. Asian Pacific Journal of Career Prevention 2003; 281-88.
- Zhang Y, Nagao T, Tanaka T, Yang C, Okabe H and Isao Kouno: Antiproliferative activity of the main constituents from phyllanthusemblica. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 251-55.
- Sohail MN, Attitalla I and Rasul F: Plant as a Source of Natural Antiviral agents. Asian Journal of Animal & Veterinary Advances 2011; 1683-19.
How to cite this article:
Choudhary R, Borse L and Jadhav A: Ayurvedic antiviral agents: overview of medicinal plants perspective. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2021; 12(12):6214-20. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.12(12).6214-20.
All © 2021 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Ranu Choudhary *, Laxmikant Borse and Anil Jadhav
Department of Quality Assurance, Sandip Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahiravani, Nasik, Maharashtra, India.
09 December 2020
02 April 2021
28 May 2021
01 December 2021