BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF PERFORMANCE-BASED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN PHARMACIES IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRYAbstract
The objective of this study was to conduct a survey and determine the barriers to implement performance-based management in pharmacies in Trinidad. PBM is defined as “a systematic approach to performance improvement through an on-going process of establishing strategic performance objectives, measuring performance, collecting, analyzing, reviewing, and reporting performance data, and using that data to drive performance improvement”(Performance Management Handbook). A questionnaire was conducted, with respect to the presence or absence of barriers to implementation of performance-based management at pharmacies along the East-West corridor of Trinidad. A twenty-two (22) question survey was administered to sixteen (16) pharmacies to be assessed. This region was chosen because of its close proximity and convenience. Fourteen (14) of the twenty-two (22) questions were based on a Likert-type scale, so that respondents were able to specify their level of agreement or disagreement of applicability on a symmetric “strongly agree – strongly disagree” scale for a series of statements based on the barriers of PBM implementation. Pharmacies were selected in a non-randomized manner. The SPSS statistical computer software was used to estimate a model that would best describe the barriers to the implementation of PBM in pharmacies of Trinidad. While Performance Based Management (PBM) is implemented in various pharmacies throughout Trinidad, it is usually found in those of larger companies with more staff employed and also with the infrastructure and funding available to support this type of management. Since most pharmacies operate with smaller staff, most aspects of PBM are not practised but this does not mean that the management are unaware of PBM. Some pharmacists and pharmacy owners have expressed intentions of employing PBM in the future and do follow some of its practices such as employee documentation and giving performance feedback. However with the many barriers to PBM existing, this type of management may seem too cumbersome for most businesses to implement fully. Although, PBM may not be fully implemented in pharmacies, (especially smaller businesses) if most pharmacy owners do not adapt to changes in the business settings they may not reap the full benefits that come with performance management.
Sandeep Maharaj, Sureshwar Pandey , Farana Mohammed , Saeeda Ali , Amelia Niamath , Chandika Persad , Brent Roopchandsingh , Fazal Ali , Isaac Dialsingh , Robin Antoine and Ashok Sahai
Pharmacy School, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
15 June, 2012
25 September, 2012
29 September, 2012
01 October, 2012