BENEFITS OF HERBAL EXTRACTS IN COSMETICS: A REVIEWHTML Full Text
BENEFITS OF HERBAL EXTRACTS IN COSMETICS: A REVIEW
Amreen Fatima*1, Shashi Alok 1, Parul Agarwal1, Prem Prakash Singh 1 and Amita Verma 2
Department of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University 1, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences-Deemed University 2, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT: Herbal extracts are primarily added to the cosmetic formulations due to several associated properties such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. Even today, people in rural and urban areas depend upon herbs for traditional cosmetics. Information on the herbal cosmetics was collected via electronic search (using pub med, scifinder, Google Scholar and web of science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. The herbal extracts, as a whole or part, have been used for various ailments of the skin, hair, and dental care for overall appearance. Cosmetics alone are not sufficient to take care of skin and others body parts, it requires association of active ingredients to check the damage and ageing of the skin. Herbal cosmetics have gained much popularity among the population. Herbal cosmetics products claimed to have efficacy and intrinsic acceptability due to routine use in daily life and avoid the side effects which are commonly seen in synthetic products. Due to the awareness of the environmental damage caused by industrialization, a trend has developed to use products with natural ingredients. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, sub chronic toxicity, mutagenicity, and photo toxicity by the usage of synthetic products that’s why today’s generation prefers herbal cosmetics for hair, skin and dental care. This review attempts and emphasizes the benefits of herbal extracts in cosmetics.
Herbal extracts, Herbal drug, Cosmetic, Skin care, Hair care, Dental care
INTRODUCTION:Since ancient times, plants have been used as herbal medicines. Ayurveda has a 5000 years old rich heritage of role of the use of plants in the treatment of various human ailments as alternative medicines 1.
In the last few years, there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. Many traditional medicines in use are derived from medicinal plants, minerals and organic matter 2.
A number of medicinal plants, traditionally used for over 1000 years named rasayana are present in herbal preparations of Indian traditional health care systems 3. In Indian systems of medicine most practitioners formulate and dispense their own recipes 4. The World Health Organization (WHO) has listed 21,000 plants, which are used for medicinal purposes around the world. Among these 2500 species are in India, out of which 150 species are used commercially on a fairly large scale. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is called as botanical garden of the world 4.
India has a very long, safe and continuous usage of many herbal drugs in the officially recognized alternative systems of health viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy. These systems have rightfully existed side-by-side with Allopathy and are not in ‘the domain of obscurity’, as stated by Venkat Subramanian 5.
Millions of Indians use herbal drugs regularly, as spices, home-remedies, health foods as well as over-the-counter (OTC) as self-medication or also as drugs prescribed in the non-allopathic systems 6. Millions of Indians use herbal drugs regularly, as spices, home-remedies, health foods as well as over-the-counter (OTC) as self-medication or also as drugs prescribed in the non-allopathic systems 7.
India is sitting on a gold mine of well-recorded and well-practiced knowledge of traditional herbal medicine. But, unlike China, India has not been able to capitalize on this herbal wealth by promoting its use in the developed world despite their renewed interest in herbal medicines 8.Now-a-days, in the whole world there is turn to return towards the use of herbal products and to adopt more natural way of life.
People prefer natural food, herbal medicines and natural curing practices for healthy life. The usage of herbal cosmetics has been increased in many folds in personal care system and there is a great demand for herbal cosmetics. All this happen due to excessive use of synthetic based products, synthetic chemicals, chemical dyes and their derived product in the last one and half century; their production and usage cause human health hazard with several side effects leading to numerous diseases. It also caused considerable environmental pollution and disturbed our eco-system 9. The more than 500,000 non-allopathic practitioners are trained in the medical colleges (>400) of their respective systems of health and are registered with the official councils which monitor professionalism.
Hence, these systems are not folklore or traditional herbal practices. There are basic axioms of these systems leading to a logical and systematic structure of pathogenesis and diagnosis, which serves also as a determinant for therapy 10.
Cosmetics: Natural herbs help in preserving and enhancing the beauty and personality of human beings. Natural cosmetic is general term applied to all preparation and external conditioning and beautifying the body 11.
Beauty, the quality that gives pleasure to the senses, is perhaps the desire of every human being on earth. Some are born beautiful and some are in fact made beautiful. Aesthetic appearance has always been a matter of prime importance. The word ‘Beauty’ is not only related to women, as is often thought, but men also used cosmetic products. By the European Directive 93/35/EEC (European Commission), the ‘cosmetics products’ are define as “any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and external genital organs) or with the teeth and mucous membranes of the oral cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, changing their appearance and/or correcting body odours and/or protecting them or keeping them in good conditions” 12.
Cosmetics typically claim to improve skin tone, texture, and radiance, while reducing wrinkling. Cosmeceuticals are the fastest-growing segment of the natural personal care industry 13.
A cosmeceutical’s “intended use” - gleaned from the labelling, advertising, promotional materials – determines the regulatory fate of cosmeceutical as a cosmetic or drug 14.
In general, vitamins, herbs, various oils, and botanical extracts may be used in cosmetics, but the manufacturer may not claim that these products penetrate beyond the skin's surface layers or that they have druglike or therapeutic effects 15.
Herbal cosmetics are the preparations, which represent cosmetic associated with active bioactive ingredients or pharmaceuticals. The uses of phytochemicals from a variety of botanicals have dual function;
(i) They serve as cosmetics for a care of body and its parts and;
(ii) The botanical ingredients present influence biological functions of skin and provide nutrients necessary for the healthy skin or hair.
Herbal cosmetics are not considered under the preview of drugs and regulations of food and drug administrations. Like cosmetics, these are subjected for their safety according to their existing rules of the different countries. Generally it is not mandatory for a manufacturer to claim that how bioactive ingredients penetrate the skin or that these ingredients cause drug-like or therapeutic effect 9.
The physical states of cosmetics preparation are broadly divided into following three categories:
- Solids: Face powders, Talcum powders, Face packs, Masks, Compact powders, Cake make-up, etc.
- Semi solids: Creams, Ointments, Liniments, Wax base creams, pastes, etc.
- Liquids: Lotions, Moisturizers, Hair oil, Conditioners, Shampoos, Cleansing milk, Mouth washes, Deodorants, Liniments, Sprays, etc.
The preparation of any herbal cosmetics basically follows the same procedure as in the case of cosmetics. In preparation, suitable bioactive ingredients of their extracts are used along with requisite ingredients basically used for cosmetics. It requires selection of suitable emulsifying agent, and modified methodology to obtain desirable product of specified parameters.
The herbal cosmetics formulation is a sophistical and sensitive technological profile because it retains the bioactivity of the botanicals during excessive processing and ascertains their availability after application on skin. It is desirable that manufacturers should ensure the quality of products through systematic testing at their level. Other parameters like organoleptic characteristics, pH, viscosity, stability towards light and refrigeration should also be evaluated 9.
TABLE 1: BOTANICALS USED FOR SKIN CARE
|S. No.||Botanical name / Family||Common name||Chemical constituent||Uses|
|Adhatoda vasica Acanthaceae||Vasaca||Vasicine, vasicine acetate, 2-acetyl benzyl amine, vasicinone, quinazoline 16.||Fresh leaves juice / extract is used for skin affection and control of scabies 16.|
|Ailanthus excels Simaroubaceae||Maharukh||Apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin 17.||Leaves extract checks skin eruption and useful in skin creams and lotions 17.|
|Allium sativumAlliaceae||Garlic||Llicin, phytoncidea, alliin, ajoene, isoalliin, methiin, alliin 18.||Garlic oil is useful to control sores, pimples and acne. It may be used in skin lotions and creams 18.|
|Aloe vera Liliaceae||Ghikanwar||Hydroxyanthroquinone – barbaloin, y – hydroxyaloin isomers, aloe emodin, chrysophanol, loins, Barbaloin, Isobarbaloin, Aloin 19.||Leaves juice, its pulp or extracted material is applied on skin for smoothness, healing controlling skin burn, sun burn and injury Used in moisturizers, lotions, creams, hair tonic, shaving creams, etc 19.|
|Andropogon muricatus Poaceae||Khas||Vetiselinenol, khusimol, sesquiterpenoids-vetidiol 20.||Powdered root paste with red sandal wood is used to cure irritatedskin and allergies 20.|
|Azadirachta indicaMeliaceae||Neem||Di-n-propyl disulfide, 1-cinnamoylmelianolone, Isonimolicinolide, nimolicinoic acid 21.||Bark, seed, fruits and leaves contain diterpenes and highly oxidized tetraner warmer parts triterpenoids including azadirachtin; antiseptic agent; useful in curing wounds, skin deseases, leprosy, ulcers etc 21.|
|Butea frondosaFabaceae||Dhak||6, 8 di-C-rhamnosyl apigenin, luteolin, Chrysoeriol 7-O-β-D-4C1-glucuronic acid 22.||Leaves extract is useful in pimples and seed extract for fungal infection and bruises 23.|
|Carica papaya Caricaceae||Papaya||Papain, chymopapain, carpain, carpasemine, benzyl isothiocyanate 24.||Milky juice of unripe fruit is a good ingredient for facial and face cream; fruit pulps make skin soft and remove blemishes 25.|
|Cassia tora Caesalpiniaceae||Panwar||Anthraquinone, naphthopyrone glucoside 26.||Leaves and seed extract are useful for skin infection, ringworm, eruption, etc 27.|
|Citrus limonRutaceae||Nimbu||Limonene, β-myrcene and decanal 28.||Potential source of vitamin C; oil is used in various preparation to reduce skin itching and skin nourishment, pulp left after extraction of juice is useful as a facial ingredients 29.|
|Cocos nuciferaArecaceae||Nariyal||Sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones 30.||Coconut oil is useful for skin itching and rashes 30.|
|Cucumis sativusCucurbitaceae||Khira||24-ethylcholesta-7, 25-trienol, 25-dienol, avenasterol, spinasterol, karounidiol and isokarounidiol 31.||Water extract of fruits and seeds protect skin from sunburn 32.|
|Curcuma longaZingiberaceae||Haldi||Curcumin, turmerone and zingiberene; cineole and p-tolylmehyl carbinol α-phellantrene, terpinolene, 1,8-cinceole, undecanol and p-cymene 33.||Rhizome powder possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties; used in facial, face creams and ointments 33.|
|Cuscutareflexa Convolvulaceae||Akashbel||7'-(4'-hydroxy,3'-methoxyphenyl)-N-[(4-butylphenyl)ethyl]propenamide, 6,7-dimethoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-ethanoate, 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3 34.||Plant extract is useful to control dermatitis, itching and ringworm 35.|
|Cydonia oblongaRosaceae||Bile||3-O-caffeoylquinic, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, schaftoside, chrysoeriol, citric, ascorbic, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids 36.||Seed extract is used for beautification and protection of skin 37.|
|Eclipta albaAsteraceae||Bhringraj||Stigmasterol, Hentriacontanol, P-amyrin, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside, Wedelolactone, Triterpene, Eclalbatin, Ursolic acid, Oleanolic acid 38.||Paste of herb is useful to control skin diseases and eczema 39.|
|Euphorbia thymifolia Euphorbiaceae||Choti dhudhi||Afzelin, quercitrin, myricitrin, rutin, quercitin, euphorbin-A, euphorbin-B, euphorbin-C, euphorbin-D 40.||Plant extract is useful to control ringworm and skin infections 41.|
|Jasminum grandiflorum Oleaceae||Chameli||Secoiridoid glucosides, 2''-epifraxamoside, demethyl-2''-epifraxamoside, secoiridoid, jasminanhydride 42.||Essential oil extracted from flowers is used in skin creams and lotions to control skin diseases. Essential oil extracted from plant is used in creams for the protection from sunburn 43.|
|Juniperus communis Cupressaceae||Aaraar||Monoterpene hydrocarbons, sabinene, α-pinene and limonene 44.||Whole plant extract is useful in skin creams to control skin rejuvenation 45.|
|Lavandula veraLamiaceae||Lavender||Resinous matter, tannic acid 46.||Essential oil is used in skin anti-acne 47.|
|Leucas asperaLamiaceae||Hul Khusa||Triterpenoids, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, b-sitosterol, nicotine, sterols, glucoside, diterpenes 48.||Juice of leaves is applied to control scabies, skin psoriasis, chronic skin, skin eruption and eczema 49.|
|Mallotus philippensis Euphorbiaceae||Kamala||5, 7-dihydroxy-8-methyl-6-prenylflavanone, 3'-prenylrubranine, red compound, isorottlerin, rottlerin 50.||Flower powder is useful to control scabies ringworm, leprous eruption, etc 51.|
|Mangifera indicaAnacardiaceae||Aam||Mangiferin, isomangiferin, tannins, gallic acid protocatechic acid, catechin, mangiferin, alanine, glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid, kinic acid, shikimic acid 52.||Plant extract possesses anti-oxidant properties 53.|
|Matricaria chamomilla Asteraceae||Babuna||Herniarin, umbelliferone, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, apigeni, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin, rutin, naringenin 54, 55.||Leaves extract is applied in anti-acne cream 56.|
|Mimosa pudicaMimosaceae||Lajwanti||Flavones, isorientin, orientin, isovitexin, vitexin 57.||Herb extract applied in skin creams and lotions to control itching 58.|
|Momordica charantia Cucurbitaceae||Karela||Momordicin I, momordicin II, cucurbitacin B, momordin, charantin, charantosides, momordicinin, momordicilin, momordenol, momordol momorcharin, momordin 59.||Plant extract possesses antioxidant properties 60.|
|Ocimum sanctumLamiaceae||Tulsi||Eugenol, epi-α-cadinol, α-bergamotene, γ-cadinene 61.||Leaves extract is useful to control skin infection and rejuvenation 62.|
|Phyllanthus emblica Euphorbiaceae||Amla||Ellagitannins, emblicanin A, emblicanin B, punigluconin, pedunculagin, punicafolin phyllanemblinin A, phyllanemblin, ellagic acid, gallic acid 63.||Fruit extract possesses anti-oxidant properties 64.|
|Pistia stratiotesAraceae||Water lettuce||Stigmasterol, stigmasteryl stearate, palmitic acids, anthocyanin-cynidin-3-glucoside, luteolin-7-glycosid, vitexin, orientin 65.||Leaves extract is applied to control chronic skin disorders 66.|
|Badam||3‘-O-methylquercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, naringenin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, catechin, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid 67.||Kernel extract is used in sun creams and other formulations to make the skin fair and beautification creams 68.|
|Psoralea corylifolia Fabaceae||Babchi||Corylinin, isopsoralen, psoralen, sophoracoumestan A, neobavaisoflavone, daidzin, uracil 69.||Seeds extract possesses potential to control skin diseases 70.|
|Rosa damascenaRosaceae||Lal gulab||Citronellol, Citronellyl acetate, Citronellyl formate, eugenol, Farnesol, Geraniol, Nerol, Geranyl acetate, Geranyl formate, Linalool, Methyl isoeugenol, Rose oxide, Alpha-Terpineol, 4-Terpinenol, Methyl heptenone, Humulene, Hexanol, Guaiene, Eudesmol, Guaiene, Humulene 71.||Essential oil extracted from flowers is usedin skin creams, lotions and ointment for beautification, smoothness and protection from sunburns 46.|
|Chandan||Alpha- and beta-santalol, cedrol, esters, aldehydes, phytosterols, squalene 72.||Paste of hardwood is used in face pack; essential oil used in preparation of creams, ointments and lotions for skin beautification and protection from sunburn; possesses anti-oxidant properties 73, 74, 75.|
|Saussurea lappaAsteraceae||Kuth||P-hydroxybenzaldehyde, ethyl 2-pyrrolidinone-5(s)-carboxylate, 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde, palmitic acid, succinic acid, daucosterol, beta-sitosterol 76, 77.||Roots extract is used in ointments for chronic skin diseases 78.|
|Sesamum indicumPedaliaceae||Til||Latifonin, momor-cerebroside, soya-cerebroside II, beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, D-galacititol 79.||Seed extract is useful for skin protection and rejuvenation 80.|
|Swertia chirayita Gentianaceae||Cheretta||Triterpene swertanone, seco-hopene lactones, swertiamarin swertia lactone – C, swertain – D 81||Bark powder extract controls skin affections; possesses antioxidant properties 82.|
|Withania somniferaSolanaceae||Aswagandha||Withanolides, (-)-sominolide, mindabeolide-1, withanolide-R, flabelline, corydaldine, Oxyhydrastine, fumaritine, protopine, fumariline, juziphine, tetrahydropalmatine, N-feruloy1tyramine, (+)-bicuclline, (-) corlumine 83.||Whole plant extract is used in skin cleansing formulations and possesses antioxidant properties 84.|
|Zea maysMakka||Makka||Luxuriantes, Zea perennis, Zea diploperennis, Zea luxurians 85.||Stigma extract is used in creams and lotions for skin rejuvenation 86.|
TABLE 2: BOTANICALS USED FOR HAIR CARE
|S. No.||Botanical name / Family||Common name||Chemical constituent||Uses|
|Acacia concinna Mimosaceae||Shikakai||Lupeol, spinasterol, lactone, hexacosanol, spinasterone, calyctomine, racimase-A oleanolic acid, lupenone, betulin, betulinic acid, betulonic acid 87.||Pods extract is used as hair cleanser and for control of dandruff 88.|
|Arnica montanaAsteraceae||Arnica||Helenalin, 11α, 13-dihydrohelenalin 89.||Flowers extract is used in hair oil as a tonic material. It stimulates the hair follicles 90.|
|Betula pendulaBetulaceae||Birch||Carotenoid, Rubisco, uronic acids, lignin 91.||Extract of leaves is used as anti-dandruff 92.|
|Brassica spp.Brassicaceae||Mustard||Quercetin, predominate, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin indole-3-carbinol 93.||Seed oil is used as hair oil and useful for hair nourishment 94.|
|Calendula officinalis Asteraceae||Marigold||α-cadinol, T-muurolol, a-thujene, dcadinene, a-thujene, d-cadinene, d-cadinene 95.||Flowers extract is used in hair creams for smoothening effect 96.|
|Carthamus tinctorius Asteracea||Safflower||Benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, syringarenol, lirioresinol-A, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol 97.||Alcoholic extract is used in hair tonics 98.|
|Centella asiaticaApiaceae||Mandukaparni||Centellin, asiaticin, centellicin, asiatic acid, asiaticoside, madecassic acid, madecassoside, brahmoside, brahmic acid, brahminoside, thankuniside, isothankuniside, centelloside, madasiatic acid, centic acid, cenellic acid, betulinic acid, indocentic acid 99, 100.||Whole plant extract is used for the growth and maintenance of hairs 101.|
|Cocos nuciferaArecaceae||Nariyal||Minerals, vitamins, dietary fibres, sugars, organic acids, fatty acid and amino acid , α-Tocopherol, citric, malic acids 102.||Kernel oil is well-established hair oil, which is used as such or as a basic raw material for preparing hair oils and tonics 103.|
|Eclipta albaAsteraceae||Bhangra||Ecliptasaponin C, daucosterol, stigmasterol-3-O-glucoside, wedololactone, ecliptal, β-amyrin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, hentriacontanol, heptacosanol, stigmasterol 104.||Whole plant extract is useful for hair’s nourishment and dyeing 105.|
|Ficus racemosaMoraceae||Bargad||B-sitosterol, p-amyrinj, lupiol acetate 106.||Aerial root powder is mixed with coconut oil for massage to check falling hairs 107.|
|Juglans regiaJuglandaceae||Akroot||Oleic acid, macadamia, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, methionine, cysteine, tryptophan, threonine 108.||Leaves and hull of fruits is used for hair dyeing 109.|
|Lawsonia inermisLythraceae||Henna||Lalioside, lawsoniaside, uteolin-7-Ο-β-d-glucopyranoside, awsonicin, lawsonadeem, vomifoliol 110, 111.||Leaves paste is used for hair dyeing and nourishment 112.|
|Nardostachys jatamansiValerianaceae||Jatamansi||β-eudesmol, elemol, β-sitosterol, angelicin, jatamansinol, nardostachysin 113.||Extract of rhizome is used in hair tonics for their growth 114.|
|Phyllanthus emblicaEuphorbiaceae||Amla||Gallic acid, ellagic acid, 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, 3,6-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose, chebulinic acid, quercetin, chebulagic acid, corilagin, 3-ethylgallic acid (3-ethoxy-4,5-dihydroxy-benzoic acid, isostrictiniin, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose 115.||Fruit extract is used in oils for promotion of hair growth 116.|
|Salvia officinalisLamiaceae||Sage||Alpha-thujone, camphor and viridiflorol. Carnosol, rosmanol, epirosmanol, isorosmanol, galdosol, and carnosic acid 117, 118.||Aqueous extract is used as hair conditioner 119.|
|Sapindus mukorossiSapindaceae||Ritha||Saponins, sugars and mucilages 120.||Extract of fruit coat works as natural shampoo: used in herbal shampoo as hair cleanser 121.|
|Saussurea lappaC.B. Asteraceae||Kuth||P-hydroxybenzaldehyde, ethyl 2-pyrrolidinone-5(s)-carboxylate, 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde, palmitic acid, succinic acid, glucose, daucosterol, beta-sitosterol 76, 77.||Roots extract is used in hair dyeing 78.|
|Sesamum indicumPedaliaceae||Til||Latifonin, momor-cerebroside, soya-cerebroside II, benzyl alcohol-O-(2'-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl, 3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, D-galacititol 79.||Seed oil is one of the major sources of hair oils, which is used as such or a base for preparing specific hair oils 80.|
|Terminalia belliricaCombretaceae||Behera||Tryptophan, threonine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, termilignan, thannilignan, together with 7-hydroxy-3‘,4‘-(methylenedioxy) flavan, anolignan B 122.||Seed extract and oil is good for hair dyeing preparation 123.|
|Terminalia chebulaCombretaceae||Harra||Arjunolic acid; terminolic acid; chebuloside I, II; triterpenoids; triterpenoid glycosides 124.||Seed extract is used in hair care formulations 124.|
|Thymus serpyllumLamiaceae||Banajwain||Thymol and carvacrol, linalool, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, borneol, terpinen-4-ol and 1, 8-cineole 125.||Whole herb extract is useful for preparing hair tonics 126.|
TABLE 3: BOTANICALS USED FOR DENTAL CARE
|S. No.||Botanical name / Family||Common name||Chemical constituent||Uses|
|Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae||Puthkanda||β-pinene, sabinene, germacrene-D, estragole, linalool 127.||Root used as a toothbrush, good for dental caries 128.|
|Argemone mexicana Papaveraceae||Kandayi||Dehydrocorydalmine, jatrorrhizine, columbamine, oxyberberine 129.||Pulverized seeds good for gum troubles 130.|
|Azadirachta indica Meliaceae||Neem||Azadirachtol, mahamodin, limonoid, nimbin, gedunin, tolimonoid, naheedin 131.||Twigs used to clean teeth; considered good for dental caries and gum infection 132.|
|Berberis lycium Berberidaceae||Kashmal||Berberine, berbamine, palmatine 133.||Peeled stem considered good for scouring teeth 133.|
|Boehmeria platyphylla Urticaceae||Handa||Cypholophine, O-acetylcypholophine, lactone, loliolide 134.||Leaves used for scouring teeth 135.|
|Calotropis procera Asclepiadaceae||Ak||Calotropin, calotoxin, calactin, uscharidin, voruscharin, calotropagenin 136.||Latex used for toothache due to dental caries 137.|
|Capsicum annum Solanaceae||Mirch||Phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaici, poliphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, capsaicinoids 38.||Fruits boiled in ‘sarson’ oil and oil is poured in ear; good for toothache 139.|
|Cassia occidentalis Fabaceae||Relu||Lenoleic acid, Galactomannan, Torosaflavon B, singueanol I, Questin, Methylgermitorosone, Helminthosoporine 140.||Leaves used for scouring teeth 141.|
|Cinnamomum tamalaLauraceae||Tej-patta||Trans-sabinene hydrate, (Z)-β-ocimene, myrcene, α-pinene, β-sabinene, sesquiterpenes, germacrene A, α-gurjunene 142.||Leaves used for scouring teeth; good for gum inflammation 143.|
|Citrus limon Rutaceae||Galgal||A-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, a-terpinene, linalool, b-bisabolene, limonene, trans-a-bergamotene, nerol, neral 144.||Leaves used for scouring teeth and good as a mouth freshener 145.|
|Citrus medica Rutaceae||Nimbu||Limettin, stigmasta-5, 22-dien-3-ol, palmilic acid 146.||Leaves and rind of fruits recommended for scouring teeth along with a pinch of rock salt 147.|
|Curcuma angustifolia Zingiberaceae||Haldi||Neocurdione, 1,2-hexadecanediol, curcusesterterpene A, curcusesterterpene B, curcusesterterpene C, n-nonacosan-1-ol, curcumin 148, 149.||Powdered rhizome mixed with and mustared oil is applied on gums for pyorrhea 150.|
|Ficus hispida Moraceae||Daagrein||Norisoprenoid, ficustriol phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid, O-methyltylophorinidine 151.||Latex used for toothache 152.|
|Ipomoea carnea Convolvulaceae||Ghodan||Swainsonine, 2-epi-lentiginosine, calystegines B1, B2, B3, and C1, N-methyl-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline 153.||Leaf juice recommended for toothache 154.|
|Jatropha curcas Euphorbiaceae||Japhrota||Fatty acids, palmitic acid, stearic acid, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, linoleic acid 155.||Twigs used as a toothbrush; good against dental caries 156.|
|Juglans regia Juglandaceae||Khod||Palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate, linolenate 157.||Bark and leaves used for scouring teeth 158.|
|Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae||Aam||Mangiferin, isomangiferin, tannins, gallic acid protocatechic acid, catechin, mangiferin, alanine, glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid, kinic acid, shikimic acid 52.||Leaves used for scouring teeth 53.|
|Murraya koenigii Rutaceae||Gandhela||α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene, limonene, bornyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene, α-humulene 159.||Stem used for scouring teeth and for healthy gums 160.|
|Murraya paniculata Rutaceae||Gandhela||β-cyclocitral, methyl salicylate, trans-nerolidol, α-cubebene, (−)-cubenol, β-cubebene, isogermacrene. β-caryophyllene, (−)-zingiberene, germacrene D, α-copaene, α-humulene 161.||Used for scouring teeth and for healthy gums 162.|
|Carya illinoensis Juglandaceae||Kagji-khod||Fatty acid, sucrose, protein, fiber, aluminum, vitamin C 163.||Leaves used for scouring teeth; good for gums 164.|
|Pistacia integerrima Anacardiaceae||Kakarsingi||Chrysoeriol, diandraflavone, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-(6″-O-syringyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-(4″-O-galloyl)-α-l-arabinopyranoside, rutin, aglycons, quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin 165, 166.||Leaves chewed to check toothache 167.|
|Plumbago zeylanica Plumbaginaceae||Chitra||Plumbazeylanone, plumbagic acid, β-sitosterol, lupeol, lup-20(29)-en-3,21-dione, norcanelilline, 3-O-glucopyranosyl plumbagicacid, methylester, uridine, daucosterol 168.||Stem recommend for scouring teeth and root paste to check toothache 169.|
|Prunus cerasoides Rosaceae||Paza||Jaquanine, prunetin, sasccuranin, taxifolin, padmetin 170.||Twigs used for scouring teeth 171.|
|Psidium guajavaMyrtaceae||Guava||Guajanoic acid, beta-sitosterol, uvaol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid 172.||Leaves and stem used for scouring teeth 173.|
|Robinia pseudo-acaciaFabaceae||Rasinia||Acacetin, secundiflorol I, mucronulatol, isomucronulatol, isovestitol, Robinspirols A–C, Robinlin, Robinpiramic acid, Abrisapogenol E, abrisapogenaldacetal 174.||Powdered bark recommended for toothache 175.|
|Spilanthes oleraceaAsteraceae||Karkara||Trans-caryophyllene, germacrene-D, 1-dodecene, spathulenol, spilanthol 176.||Inflorescence used for gum inflammation 177.|
|Vitex negundo Verbenaceae||Bana||Luteolin, luteolin-3’-O-glucuronide, isoorientin, 2’-p-hydroxybenzoylmussaenosidic acid, agnuside, phydroxyl benzoic acid, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol 178.||Twigs recommended to clean teeth; considered good for pyorrhea, gum inflammation, dental caries and other problems 179.|
|Zanthoxylum armatumRutaceae||Tirmir||Linalool, methyl cinnamate, limonene, β-phellandrene, 1, 8–cineole, sabinene, β-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, β-cymene, 2-tridecanone 180.||Twigs considered as a best source for sucoring teeth and considered good for any dental problem 181.|
Adverse reaction of Cosmetics: Skin cleansing agents remain on the body for a very short period of time and rarely cause significant adverse reactions, however, perfume and others constituents may cause skin irritation and allergic reactions. Moisturizers increase the hygroscopic properties of the skin; however, high concentration of these substances may cause irritation and exfoliation.
Skin lightening/depigmenting agents, such as hydroquinone (HQ), are one of the most widely prescribed agents. Ochronosis is an uncommon adverse effect of HQ, characterized by progressive darkening of the area to which the cream containing high concentrations of HQ is applied for many years 182.
'Black henna' tattoo is a chemical stain due to p-phenylenediamine (PPD), in the form of commercial hair dye mixed into the henna paste. Addition of this artificial dye stains the skin in much shorter duration, an hour or less. Adverse reactions to PPD can include stinging sensations, with an erythematous rash, swelling, blisters, and surface oozing 183.
Adverse effects to sun-screening agents may result in irritant, allergic, phototoxic, or photoallergic reactions, and caused not only by the active constituents but also by the additives such as fragrances and stabilizers. Benzophenones are probably the most common sensitizers, while dibenzoylmethanes, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and cinnamates may cause photoallergic dermatitis 184.
The allergic reactions associated with deodorants and fragrances are usually caused by fragrance or other ingredients. Fragrance can enter the body through lungs, airways, skin, ingestion, and via pathways from the nose directly to the brain and can cause headaches, irritation to eyes, nose, and throat, dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness, and other symptoms. Fragrance is the number one cause of skin allergic reactions to cosmetics 185, 186.
Shampoos and conditioners have only a brief contact with the skin and are not a common cause of cutaneous irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, eye irritation can be a problem. Possible sensitizers in shampoos include formalin, parabens, hexachlorophene, triclosan, and fragrances. Matting of scalp hair is most commonly a sudden, usually irreversible, and tangling of scalp hair resulting from shampooing 187.
Hair straightening (relaxing) with pressing oils and heated metal combs or round tongs may be associated with hair-shaft breakage and scarring alopecia.Hair removal techniques may partially account for allergic and photoallergic reactions 188.
The adverse effects of shaving include skin irritation, cuts in the skin, ingrown hair (pseudofolliculitis), etc. The active ingredients in hair bleaches are hydrogen peroxide solutions that oxidize melanin to a lighter color. They may be supplemented with persulfate boosters. The disadvantages of bleaching include skin irritation, temporary skin discoloration, pruritus, and the prominence of bleached hair against tanned or naturally dark skin. Ammonium persulfate may cause types I and IV allergic contact reactions 189.
About 12% of cosmetic reactions occur on the eyelid, mainly due to the eye shadow. Irritant contact dermatitis is more common than allergic contact dermatitis. Mascara is the most commonly used eye cosmetic. The most feared adverse effect of mascaras is that of infection, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal infections, which can permanently destroy visual acuity, due to multiple reuses of applicator and reinsertions into the tube between uses.
Kajal and surma are mainly carbon compounds, but surma also contains mercury or lead and may put at risk of serious health problems.
Nail plate discoloration and allergic contact dermatitis are the major dermatological concerns with the use of nail polish. The nail staining is seen more with dissolved rather than suspended pigments 182.
CONCLUSION: There are also a number of Institutes/Universities in India carrying our research work on herbal drugs and medicinal plants for lesser side effects and rich sources of beneficial compounds including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. In India more than 70% of the populations use herbal cosmetics for their health care. Now a day’s herbal cosmetics has been increased in personal care system and there is a great demand for the herbal cosmetics in daily life. Healthy teeth, shiny hair and glowing skin are fundamental for the good looking of the human body.
In allopathy, the treatment of all the problems is expensive and cannot be afforded by poor people. So, these types of herbal medicines, which are almost free, are a great help. Although, cosmetic preparations have rarely been related with serious health hazards, this does not mean that cosmetics are always safe to use.
Cosmetics and personal-care products may contain ingredients whose safety is unknown or which are known to create health risks. The present review focuses on the potential of herbal extracts for cosmetic purposes.
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors are thankful to the authorities and Vice-Chancellor of Bundelkhand University, Jhansi for providing support to the study and other necessary facility like internet surfing, library and other technical support to write this review article.
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How to cite this article:
Fatima A, Shashi Alok, Agarwal P, Singh PP and Verma A: Benefits of Herbal extracts in Cosmetics. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013: 4(10); 3746-3760. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR. 0975-8232.4(10).3746-60
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Amreen Fatima*, Shashi Alok , Parul Agarwal, Prem Prakash Singh and Amita Verma
Department of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India
07 April, 2013
11 August, 2013
26 September, 2013
01 October, 2013