CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PUPICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM MENTHA SPICATA AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTIL. (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)HTML Full Text
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PUPICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM MENTHA SPICATA AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTIL. (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)
S. Paulraj * 1, 2, T. Selvamohan 3 and K. Kumaraswamy 4
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University 1, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli - 627012, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Zoology 2, Raja Doraisingam Government Arts College, Sivagangai - 630561, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Zoology 3, Rani Anna Government College for Women, Tirunelveli - 627008, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Zoology 4, S. T. Hindu College, Nagercoil, Kanniyakumri - 629002 Tamil Nadu, India.
ABSTRACT: Mosquito-borne diseases are serious health problems in India, and mosquito vector control is a fundamental approach to control various diseases. Essential oils represent eco-friendly alternatives to costly synthetic pesticides for mosquito control. The essential oil of Mentha spicata in India was used for its activity against Ae. aegypti. The essential oil showed pupicidal activity against this mosquito. The results indicated that essential oil from M. spicata induced 29, 49.5, 60.8, 67.76, and 81.36% mortality at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm essential oil concentration, respectively. The essential oil was rich for various phytochemicals, including estragole, thymol, (-) - 8 - p - Menthen - 2 - yl, acetate, trans, and 3, 5-Heptadienal, 2-ethylidene-6-methyl-. This essential oil may serve as a low-cost vector control agent for mosquito-borne diseases.
Essential oil, Mentha spicata, Phytochemicals, Pupicidal activity, Aedes aegypti, Vector control
INTRODUCTION: Mosquitoes involved in the transmission of various human diseases such as filariasis, yellow fever, dengue fever, and malaria, which mainly consider them among the serious health problems across the world 1. Anopheles species are considered as vectors of various human diseases such as certain arboviruses and filariasis 2. Anopheles stephensi, an oriental malaria vector, is distributed in the Indo-Persian area from India, Pakistan, and Iran, to countries around the Persian Gulf 3.
Although there are various methods for control of Anopheles mosquitoes, however resistance and the environmental effect are an essential concern. Synthetic pyrethroids, which are mainly considered as highly effective insecticides against Anopheles are generally expensive and beyond the financial resources of various developing countries. Botanical insecticides can apply as an alternative to costly synthetic chemical formulations.
Most botanical insecticides are breakdown easily and rapidly acting on the organisms. The extract of essential oil of some plants and the whole leaf has been studied against various disease-causing mosquito vectors 4-6. Plant secondary metabolites have activity against predator insects, and microorganisms are natural candidates for the novel discovery of products of combat A. aegypti. Many studies focused on various natural products to control Aedes mosquitoes as larvicides and insecticides 7, 8. The repellent activity of essential oil from and clove 9 and orange peel 10 was reported. The essential oil from Cymbopogon citrates 11, and Lippia sidoides 12 showed auspicious larvicidal activity. In this study, the essential oil of Mentha spicata was used to test its activity against the pupae of Ae. aegypti.
MATERIALS AND METHOD:
Collection and Rearing of Selected Mosquito: In the present study mosquito stock culture was established as per the method prescribed by Al – Mashhadani et al. 13 Freshly moulted Aedes aegypti pupae were selected from the stock culture to analyze pupicidal activity. Ae. aegypti colony was maintained at the laboratory for analysis.
Essential Oil: In this study, the essential oil was extracted from M. spicata and stored in an amber colour bottle at room temperature for its pupicidal activity against the freshly moulted pupae of Ae. aegypti.
Pupicidal Activity of Essential Oil from M. spicata: The pupicidal activity of the M. spicataessential oilwas assessed by using the standard method as prescribed by WHO 14. The concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 & 500 ppm were prepared and tested against the pupae of Ae. aegypti. DMSO in water was treated as control. The pupae of these mosquito species (n=30) were introduced in 250-ml containers, and the required amount of plant oils were added individually for each experiment. The pupae mortality was recorded after 24 h treatment. For each experiment, five replications were maintained, and the percentages of mortality were calculated by the prescribed formula 15.
Mortality (%) = % A - % B / 100 - % B × 100
Where, % A = % pupal mortality in treatment and % B = % pupal mortality in control. The LC50 and LC90 values were calculated using probit analysis (SPSS version 20, 2016).
GC-MS Analysis of Essential oil from M. spicata: The GC–MS analysis of the oil was performed on Perkin Elmer Clarus 500 gas chromatography, coupled to VG Analytical 70-250S mass spectrometer.
The GC was equipped with a fused capillary column Elite-5 (Column length 30 mm; Column id: 250 µm; Crossband 5% Phenyl 95% dimethyl-polysiloxane). Helium was used as carrier gas at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The oven program started with an initial temperature of 160 °C held for 2 min, and then the oven temperature was heated at 10 °C/min to 200 °C and finally held isothermally for 20 min; an electron ionization system for GC-MS detection with ionization energy of 70 eV was used. A scan rate of 0.6 s (cycle time: 0.2 s) was applied, covering a mass range from 40 to 450 amu. The identification of the compounds was made based on the comparison of retention indices and mass spectra of most of the compounds with data generated under identical experimental conditions by applying a two-dimensional search algorithm, considering the retention index, as well as mass spectral similarity or with those of authentic compounds available in NIST 2005 libraries. Moreover, special software, namely Turbo Mass software (Ver 5.2.0) was used for the processing and interpretation of mass
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Pupicidal Activity: Pupicidal activity of M. spicata essential oils was tested against the pupae of Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi. Uniformed size, hale, and healthy pupae were subjected to different concentrations viz., 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm concentrations. The results indicated that essential oil from M. spicata induced 29, 49.5, 60.8, 67.76, and 81.36% mortality at 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm essential oil concentration Table 1. Larvicidal, pupicidal, and repellent activities of Gaultheria oil against the filarial vector, C. quinquefasciatus were investigated by Aruna et al. 16
Bezerra-Silva et al., 17 determined the evaluation of the activity of essential oils of three cultivars of Etlingera elatior from an ornamental flower against AEA electrophysiology, molecular dynamics and behavioral assays. Ephantus et al. 18 examined the chemical composition of garlic and asafoetida essential oils and their individual and combined toxicity against larvae of C. pipiensand C. restuans, West Nile virus vectors. Andrade-Ochoa et al. 19 tested the larvicidal activity of essential oils, and their major components are tested against C. quinquefasciatus.
TABLE 1: PUPICIDAL ACTIVITY OF MENTHA SPICATA AGAINST THE FRESHLY MOULTED PUPAE OF AEDES AEGYPTI
|Concentrations (ppm)||Number of Pupae Subjected to the Experiment (n)||Mortality**|
|30||Pupal Mortality||% Pupal Mortality|
The value represents the mean ±S.D. of five replications.* Number of pupae subjected to the experiment. **Mortality of the pupae observed after 7 days of the exposure period (WHO, 2005 and Abbott, 1925). Values in the column with a different superscript alphabet are significantly different at p<0.05 (Tukey’s Test).
TABLE 2: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF M. SPICATA ESSENTIAL OIL
|Peak||Compound name||Compound Formula||Retention Time||% Peak Area|
|3||Bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylene-, (1S)-||C10H16||7.22||0.41|
|8||Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-2-ol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-, (1à,2á,5à)-||C10H18O||10.83||0.07|
|17||Phenol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-, acetate||C12H16O2||20.92||0.01|
|19||2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate, (E)-||C12H20O2||24.89||0.09|
|21||Naphthalene, 1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-octahydro-7-methyl-4-methylene-1-(1-methylethyl)-, (1à,4aà,8aà)-||C15H24||28.14||0.04|
|22||Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(5-methyl-1-methylene-4-hexenyl)-, (S)-||C15H24||29.30||0.29|
|23||Naphthalene, 1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-octahydro-7-methyl-4-methylene-1-(1-methylethyl)-, (1à,4aà,8aà)-||C15H24||29.90||0.05|
|31||Benzene, 2-methoxy-1,3,5-trimethyl-||: C10H14O||47.39||0.02|
|35||Phenanthrene, 1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-6-methoxy-1,1,4a-trimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-, (4aS-trans)-||C21H32O||51.14||0.08|
|Total percentage of chemical compositions||100.0000|
GC-MS Analysis: M. spicata essential oil revealed the presence of 28 different compounds. These include, 1) Estragole; 2) Thymol 3) (-)-8-p-Men-then -2-yl, acetate, trans; 4) 3,5-Heptadienal, 2-ethylidene-6-methyl- ; 5) 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol, 2-methyl-5-(1methylethenyl)-, acetate, (1R-cis)- ; 6) 4 - Acetyl - 1 - methylcyclohexene; 7) α-Bourbonene; 8) Caryophyllene; 9) γ-Muurolene; 10) Humulene; 11) β-copaene; 12) Naphthalene, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8a – hexahydro - 4, 7 dimethyl - 1 - (1-methylethyl)-, (1S-cis)-; 13) γ-Elemene; 14) 1,6,10-Dodecatrien-3-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E)-; 15) Caryophyllene oxide; 16) Ledol; 17) Aroma-dendrene oxide-(2) 18) Tetracyclo [126.96.36.199 (2,5). 0(1,8)] tridecan-9-ol, 4,4-dimethyl-; 19) 2-Naphthalenemethanol, decahydro-α,α,4atrimethyl-8-methylene-, [2R - (2α, 4aα, 8aβ)]-; 20) Tetra-decanoic acid; 21) Kaur-16-ene; 22) -α-inene; 23) Androstan-17-one, 3-ethyl-3-hydroxy-, (5α)-; 24) Octadecanoic acid; 25) Cyclohexanone, 5-ethenyl-5 - methyl - 4 - (1methylethenyl) – 2 - (1-methylethylidene)-, cis- ; 26) 3,7,7-Trimethyl - 1-penta-1, 3-dienyl-2oxabicyclo [3.2.0] hept-3-ene; 27) and 2, 6, 11, 15 – Tetramethyl - hexadeca-2,6,8,10,14- pentaene; 28) Squalene Fig. 1, Table 2. Our present findings are in attribute to the earlier findings of several authors. Aurelie et al. 20 evaluated the Chemical composition and biocide properties of Clausena anisataessential oil against developmental stages of the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii. Andrade-Ochoa et al. 19 tested the larvicidal activity of Cinnamomum verum, Citrus aurantifolia, Cuminum cyminum,Syzygium aromaticum, Laurus nobilis, Lippia berlandieri, Pimpinella anisum and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of CLQ. Cotchakaew and Soonwera 21 studied the efficacies of essential oils from Lilliciaceae and Zingiberaceae plants as oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and adulticidal agents against females Ae. albopictus and An. Minimus.
FIG. 1: GC-MS CHROMATOGRAM OF MENTHA SPICATA ESSENTIAL OIL
CONCLUSION: Mentha spicata is one of the medicinal plants that grow in India. Mosquito pupicidal screening of this species indicates good pupicidal activity, which can be significantly attributed to their major bioactive components. In light of these present findings, we report the importance of analyzing the composition of phytochemicals and various biological properties of essential oils. The present finding would help to develop suitable pupicidal agents to control Ae. Aegypti population.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors are very much grateful to UGC, New Delhi for the financial assistance, and also thankful to the Principal and Head, Department of Zoology, Government Arts College for Men (Autonomous), Nandanam, Chennai - 35 for providing the laboratory facilities.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: None of the conflicts of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Paulraj S, Selvamohan T and Kumaraswamy K: Chemical composition and pupicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata against Aedes aegyptil. (Diptera: culicidae). Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2020; 11(10): 5158-62. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.11(10).5158-62.
All © 2013 are reserved by the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
S. Paulraj *, T. Selvamohan and K. Kumaraswamy
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India.
25 January 2020
29 June 2020
23 August 2020
01 October 2020