COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA L. AND EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA L. (STEM)HTML Full Text
COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA L. AND EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA L. (STEM)
- Sereena* and T. A. Shahida
Department of Botany, MES Asmabi College, P. Vemballur, Thrissur (Dt), Kerala, India
ABSTRACT: Dugdhika is one of the important raw drug used in Ayurveda. E. thymifolia is used as the genuine source plant of drug Dugdhika, it posses properties like, used for skin disorders, sexual disorders, effective drug for asthma., diarrhoea, dysentery. The present study deals with the comparative study of morphological, anatomical, histochemical characters of E. hirta and E. thymifolia. Two plants show similarities and differences between them at morphological, anatomical and histochemical levels. Morphologically these two plants show differences in many characters. But histological studies of both plants are almost similar. The histochemical study of both plants shows differences. This study helps to identify the genuine plants of the drug Dugdhika for the preparation of Ayurvedic medicine.
Dugdhika, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia thymifolia
INTRODUCTION: Medicinal and aromatic plants form a numerically large group of economically important plant which provides basic raw materials for medicines, perfumes, flavours and cosmetics. These plants and their products not only serve as valuable source of income for small holders and entrepreneurs but also help the country to earn valuable foreign exchange by way of export. Medicinal plants are those plants which are rich in secondary metabolites and are potential source of drugs. Medicinal plants are renewable natural resources and therefore, their conservation and sustainable utilization must necessarily involve a long term, integrated, scientifically-oriented holistic action programme.
With this background the comparative histological and histochemical work was undertaken in two important Ayurvedic medicinal plants.
The selected plants are E. hirta and E. thymifolia. E. hirta belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae and genus Euphorbia. It is slender stemmed annual hairy plant with many branches from the base to top. Leaves are opposite, elliptic- oblong- lanceolate, acute or sub acute. E. thymifolia is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. It is a monocious, prostrate, annual herb. The stem is with white latex. The leaves are opposite, simple, blade ovate. Inflorescence is in the form of terminal or axillary clusters of flower called cyathium.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The present study was designed to compare two medicinal plants E. hirta and E. thymifolia belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. The useful parts of the plants were collected and preserved in FAA (Formaldehyde Acetic acid alcohol mixture) for the anatomical and fresh materials used for histochemical studies.
TABLE 1: COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL CHARACTERS OF STEM
|S. No||Characters||E. hirta||E. thymifolia|
|1||Shape of the stem||Almost circular||Almost circular|
|2||Nature of cuticle||Thick cuticle bearing long hairs||Thick cuticle with hairs.|
|3||Nature of epidermis||Epidermal cells are elongated, compactely arranged, bearing unicellular and multi cellular trichomes (Fig. 1 A).||Epidermal cells are elongated, compactely arranged, bearing comparatively more number of trichomes which are unicellular (Fig.3 A).|
|4||Nature of cortex||10-12 layered paranchymatous and chlorenchymatous cortex (Fig. 1 C & D).||8-10 layered paranchymatous and chlorenchymatous cortex (Fig.3 C & D).|
|5||Nature of inclusions||Large number of reddish orange oleoresin containing cells are present in the epidermal cells, cortex region and in the pith (Fig.2 B). Plenty of starch grains are present in the cortex and pith, which are oval to round in shape (Fig. 2 C & E). Lignified cells are present (Fig. 2 A,).||Oleoresin containing cell are present. (Fig. 4D) Starch grains are comparatively lesser than E. hirta (Fig.4 B & C). Lignified cells are present (Fig.4 A).|
|6||Nature of phloem||4-6 narrow parenchymatous phloem (Fig. 1 D).||6-8 narrow, parenchymatous, phloems (Fig. 3 D).|
|7||Nature of xylem||Composed of radially running vessel of various sizes, associated with trachieds, parenchyma and fibres. Medullary rays are uni seriate, lignified (Fig. 1 E).||Radially arranged xylem vessel associated with fibres and tracheids; medullary rays are uni-biseriate, lignified (Fig. 3 C).|
|8||Nature of primary xylem||Numarous primary xylem groups are seen towards the pith region (Fig. 1 E).||Numarous primary xylem groups are seen towards the pith region (Fig. 3 C).|
|9||Nature of pith||Parenchymatous pith (Fig. 1 F).||Pith is parenchymatous and starch grains are present in the pith region (Fig. 3 D).|
TABLE 2: COMPARATIVE HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERS OF STEM
|S.l no||E.hirta||E. thymifolia|
+ Indicate the presence.
- Indicate the absence.
FIGURE 1: MICROSCOPY OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA STEM. A, TS OF STEM GROUND PLAN x 200. B, ONE PORTION ENLARGED x 400. C & D, CORTICAL REGION ENLARGED x 400. E, VASCULAR REGION SHOWING PROTOXYLEM x 600. F, ENLARGED VIEW OF PITH REGION x 400. CT, CORTEX; E, EPIDERMIS; P, PITH REGION; Ph, PHLOEM; Px, PROTOXYLEM; T, TRICHOME; V, VESSEL.
FIGURE 2: HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA STEM. A, HISTOCHEMICAL STAINING FOR LIGNIN x 200. B, HISTOCHEMICAL STAINING FOR OIL GLOBULES X 200. C-E, HISTOCHEMICAL STAINING FOR STARCH GRAINS x 200. Lig, LIGNIN; Og, OIL GLOBULES; S, STARCH GRAINS.
FIGURE 3 MICROSCOPY OF EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA STEM. A, T.S OF STEM GROUND PLAN x 200. B, ONE PORTION ENLARGED x 400. C & D, CORTICAL AND VASCULAR REGION ENLARGED x 400. CT, CORTEX; E, EPIDERMIS; P, PITH REGION; Ph, PHLOEM; Px, PROTOXYLEM; T, TRICHOME; V, VESSEL.
FIGURE 4: HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA STEM. A, HISTOCHEMICAL STAINING FOR LIGNIN x 200. B & C, HISTOCHEMICAL STAINING FOR STARCH GRAINSX 200, D, HISTOCHEMICAL STAINING FOR OIL GLOBULESx 200. Lig, LIGNIN; Og, OIL GLOBULES; Sg, STARCH GRAINS.
For the present study two important plants, E. hirta and E. thymifolia are coming under the family Euphorbiacea under the raw drug Dhuktika were selected. The major criteria selected for the study involves cellular structures and their histochemical constituants. The pharmacognostic parameters studied may be used as tool for the correct identification of the plants and also to test the genuinity 9. Morphological studies of E. hirta were reported by 4. Anatomical studies of E. hirta, E. heterophylla and E. milli reported by Essiett et al (2012). But the comparative anatomical and histochemical studies of these two plants are meager as envisaged in the present study.
In the present study the author made an attempt to study the anatomical and histochemical details of E. hirta and E. thymifolia are reported. Morphologically both the plant shows differences in the size, shape, size of the leaves, nature of stem etc. In E.hirta the colour of the stem is hairy and yellowish in colour, but in the case of E. thymifolia the stem is creamish brown in colour. The leaves of E. hirta Simple, opposite, elliptic to lanceolate, acute to subacute, serrulate to minutely dentate, asymmetrical, veins more prominent, petioleate, stipules dark green in colour. In E. thymifolia leaves are Green to purplish red in colour, opposite, oblong, petiole short, stipules fimbriate with pointed tip. The root of E. hirta is cylindrical, pubescent with long hispid hair, older pieces compressed, nodes prominent, surface longitudinally striated; hollow in centre, yellowish colour. The root of E. thymifolia is slender, branched.
The stem anatomy of both the plants shows similarities in epidermis, cortex region, nature of phloem etc. In both the plants parenchymatous and chlorenchymatous cortex, narrow parenchymatous phloem, Parenchymatous pith are present. At the same time plants shows differences also. In the case of E. hirta the uni and multi cellular trichomes are present. But in E. thymifolia only uni cellular trichomes are seen. The medullary rays are uni seriate in E. hirta but in E. thymifolia uni and biseriate medullary rays are present.
The histochemical comparison of stem shows similarities and differences. In both the plants lignin is present. Which is stained by phloroglucinol. Starch grains are present in both plants, but it is plenty in E. hirta than E. thymifolia. Oil deposits are present in both plants.
CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that E. hirta and E. thymifolia show similarities and differences between them at morphological, anatomical and histochemical levels. Morphological, Anatomical and Histochemical markers were identified for comparing the source plants (E. hirta and E. thymifolia) for the drugs Dugdhika. These features helps to distinguish the plants conveniently and coming to a conclusion that there is variation in the anatomical and histochemical constituents in these two species. This method can be used for the identification of raw drugs from their substitutes. It is possible to identify the dried raw drug samples of species using these markers. This method can be used for authentication of the drugs used in Ayurveda and other herbal systems of medicine. This is an easy and effective method for the correct identification of genuine herbs from adulterants.
The raw drug being sold in the market in the form of dried and broken pieces. Hence it is difficult to identify taxonomically. In this context anatomy and histochemistry are more reliable. So the comparative anatomical and histochemical studies are the reliable source to identify the genuine raw drug from their adulterants.
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K. Sereena* and T. A. Shahida
Department of Botany, MES Asmabi College, P. Vemballur, Thrissur (Dt), Kerala, India
18 June, 2014
28 August, 2014
15 November, 2014
01 February, 2015