COVID19: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, CLINICAL FEATURES, DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENTAbstract
SARS-CoV-2 viral cause infection called COVID-19 was initially reported in China has resulted in a pandemic because it has spread in over 210 countries. This review summarized pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and COVID 19. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 viral infections is a matter of concern because of a mutant variant of virus. The COVID-19 infection is having 14 days incubation period. Fever, sore throat, cough, severe headache, breathlessness, myalgia and weakness are common symptoms observed in patients with COVID-19. Steps of replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus are attachment, penetration, uncoating, replication, assembly and release. Patients’ screening tests are complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte, sedimentation rate (ESR), D-dimer, serum ferritin, and others. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the important diagnostic test of molecular genetic assays for detecting viral RNA. In-Patient of COVID 19 CT scan shows ground-glass opacities with or without consolidations in lung regions. In CT scan, standardized assessment scheme is CORAD classification and assessment of lung involvement can be done CT severity score index. Management: Management of COVID -19 starts with supportive and symptomatic treatment. As soon as the patient gets an infection, the patient should maintain adequate isolation to prevent transmission to other contacts, patients, and healthcare workers. Mild infection can be managed at home with counseling about danger signs. The patient should be advised to maintain hydration and nutrition, and symptomatic treatment should be given. A variety of therapeutic options currently include remdesivir, favipiravir, bamlanivimab / etesevimab, casirivimab / imdevimab dexamethasone, baricitinib, tocilizumab are available.
J. Bhumika Patel, S. Usha Lalwani and B. Mukeshkumar Vora *
Department of Pharmacology, GMERS Medical College & Civil Hospital, Sola, Ahmedabad , Gujarat, India.
19 June 2021
12 November 2021
05 December 2021
01 January 2022