DILLENIA INDICA (OUTENGA) AS ANTI-DIABETIC HERB FOUND IN ASSAM: A REVIEWHTML Full Text
DILLENIA INDICA (OUTENGA) AS ANTI-DIABETIC HERB FOUND IN ASSAM: A REVIEW
Apurba Talukdar*1, Nayan Talukdar 2, Satyendra Deka 1 and Bhargab Jyoti Sahariah 1
Department of Pharmacy, Assam Down Town University 1, Guwahati-26, Assam
Department of Biotechnology, Down Town College of Allied Health Sciences 2, Guwahati-26, Assam, India
ABSTRACTDillenia Indica, commonly known as elephant apple and locally known as outenga, is the handsome evergreen tree grows in the moist forest of sub-Himalayan region to Assam. The fruit grows in abundance and due to lack of knowledge and technical knowledge; most of these fruits are wasted. In Assam, traditionally the unripe fruits are used to make curries because of its sour taste and ripe fruits are making pickles. The fruits are generally high in fibre and due to presence of gummy substances, extraction of juice becomes difficult. The plant grows about 15 m tall. Not only the fruits have medicinal values but the leaves and the bark also showed numerous pharmacological activity. The studies showed that the plant possesses various activities like Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, dysentery, Antidiabetic etc. The fruits and the juice of the plant are traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases and one of the major diseases is Diabetes Mellitus. It was also proved from the review of literatures that this plant possesses some antidiabetic properties (Sunil kumar et.al). Thus in this review we gave some emphasise on the traditional and clinical use of Dillenia Indica (outenga or elephant apple) as an antidiabetic herb
|Keywords:Dillenia Indica (outenga or elephant apple),Antidiabetic,|
INTRODUCTION: Dillenia Indica (outenga or elephant apple) is the common fruit that is an integral part of grandma’s recipe, which has more to it than just its bitter taste and flavour. It is also a favourable dish of Assamese cuisine. The jelly like pulp of the fruit is applied to scalp for curing dandruff and falling hairs. The sepals are traditionally used for stomach disorder.
The D. Indica is an evergreen large shrub or small to medium-sized semi deciduous, branches spreading tree growing to 15 m tall. Leaves are fascicled at the end of the branches, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 20-30 cm long and sharply serrate1. Flowers are white, large, up to 15 cm diameter, solitary, towards the end of each branchlet. The fruit are large with 7.5-10 cm diameter.
In the present review an attempt was made to focus D. Indica for it’s as anti-diabetic use. Allopathic medicines used for treatment of diabetes have side-effects in the long run. So it is better to use indigenous traditional knowledge system to treat diabetes.
Kingdom : Plantae- Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta- Vascular plants
Superdivision : Spermatophyta- Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta- Flowering plants
Class : Magnoliopsida- Dicotyledons
Subclass : Dilleniidae
Order : Dilleniales
Family : Dilleniaceae – Dillenia family
Genus : Dillenia L. - dillenia
Species : Dillenia indica L. - chulta
FIGURE 1: IMAGE OF DILLENIA INDICA FRUIT
English : Elephant Apple, Indian catmon, Hondapara Tree, Ma-tad
Hindi : Chalta, Karambel
Sanskrit : Avartaki
Assamese : Outenga
Bengali : Chalta, Chalita
Traditional and medicinal uses: D. Indica(Outenga) is one of the widely used herbs by the various tribes of entire North East along with Assam 2. It is one of the evergreen plants found in wild forest. Traditionally, the jelly like content inside the fruit was used to treat dandruff and falling hairs. It was also found traditionally that in various part of Northeast India the juices of leaves, bark and leaves were mixed and given orally for the treatment of cancer and diarrhea 3, 4. The leaves and bark are used as a laxative and astringent 5.
The review of various literature showed that the leaves, bark, fruits or the various part of the D. Indica(Outenga) have extensive medicinal values. It possesses various activities like Antimicrobial 6, 7, Antioxidant 7, 8, 9, Analgesic 10, Anti-inflammatory11, Dysentery 12, Antidiabetic 13, 14 etc. Thus the D. Indica has a wide range of activity which makes the fruit or the whole plant a gift for human being.
Phytochemical Constituent: The phytochemical constituent of Dillenia indica Linn. crude extract include Glycoside, Steroids, Flavonoids, Saponines and reducing sugar. The investigation of the phytochemical constituent indicates that the leaves are provided a rich source of triterpenoids and flavonoids 15. It also reported to contain various chemical constituents like 3, 5, 7-trihydroxy-3’, 4’-dimethoxy flavone (dillenetin), betulinic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol 15, 16.
Chief contents of the fleshy sepals are tannins, malic acid, arabinogalactan and glucose. They also contain an arabinogalactan, betulin, betulinic acid and flavonoids. Bark and wood contain flavonoids, betulin, betulinic acid, betulinaldehyde, lupeol, β-sitosterol, myricetinhydroxy-lactone, dihydroisorhamneti, dillentin and glucosides. Stem bark contains betulinaldehyde, betulin, lupeol, β-sitosterol, myricetin, a new hydroxylactone, dihydro-isorrhamnetin, dillentin and glucosides.
BETULINIC ACID (R=COOH)
Leaf microscopy1: D. indica is an herb of Dilleniceae family which is further characterise by the presence of anomocytic types of stomata. Leaf surface also shows the presence of veins, vein-islets and vein terminations. Transverse section of leaf shows the epidermis layer, and patches vascular bundles (xylem and phloem), collenchymas, etc.
The vascular bundles were stained pink with phloroglucinol and conc. HCl. Trichomes are unicellular and lignified. Strips of collenchyma are present below and upper layer of epidermis.
a) Anomocytic stomata; b) Veins, veinlet termination & vein-islet
FIGURE 2: LEAF SURFACE OF D. INDICA
a) T.S. (stained) of D. indica leaf; b) Vascular bundles; c) T.S. (unstained) of D. indica leaf
FIGURE 3: TRANSVERSE SECTION OF D. INDICA LEAF
Powder Microscopy 1: The characteristics of powder microscopy showed the presence of unicellular lignified trichomes, anomocytic stomata, calcium oxalate crystals, epidermal cells, xylem vessels, etc.
a) Calcium oxalate crystals; b) Stomata; c) Unicellular lignified Trichomes; d) Fibre
FIGURE 4: POWDER CHARACTERISTICS OF D. INDICA LEAF
Antidiabetic activity: Sunil kumar et al., 13, 14, 17 carried out an investigation to know the antidiabetic activity of bioactive fraction of D. indica methanolic extract in experimental diabetic Wistar rats. They induced type-I diabetes in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozocin (60 mg/kg body weight) and type-II diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozocin (60 mg/kg body weight) followed by intraperitoneal injection of Nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight) after 15 mins. The rats were treated by administering graded oral doses of isolated ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of D. indica for 21 days. They found a significant reduction in blood glucose level for both the experimental rats.
The possible mode of action of the plant extract might be by potentiation of the insulin effect by increasing the pancreatic secretion of insulin from cell of islet of Langerhans or its release from the bound form or regeneration of the cells.
CONCLUSION: Diabetes stands as one of the foremost health troubles worldwide. Therapies developed along the principles of western medicine are often limited in efficacy, carry the risk of adverse effects, and are often too costly, especially for the developing world. Therefore, treating diabetes with plant-derived compounds and traditional medicines has always a superior advantage. In this review article, an attempt has been made to find out the use of Dillenia Indica (outenga or elephant apple) as an antidiabetic herb. It has exhibited significant clinical & pharmacological activity and widely found in various region of Assam.
The potency of herbal drugs is significant & they have negligible side effects than the synthetic antidiabetic drugs. There is increasing demand by patients to use the natural products with antidiabetic activity. In recent times there has been renewed interest in the plant remedies. Plants hold definite promises in the management of Diabetes mellitus. Isolation & identification of active constituents from these plants, preparation of standardized dose and dosage regimen can play a significant role in improving the hypoglycaemic action.
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How to cite this article:
Talukdar A, Talukdar N, Deka S and Sahariah BJ. Dillenia Indica (Outenga) As Anti-Diabetic Herb Found In Assam: A Review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012; Vol. 3(8): 2482-2486
Apurba Talukdar*, Nayan Talukdar , Satyendra Deka and Bhargab Jyoti Sahariah
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacy, Assam down town University, Sankar Madhab Path, Gandhinagar, Panikhaiti, Guwahati- 781026, Assam, India
24 April, 2012
21 May, 2012
21 July, 2012
01 August, 2012