EFFECT OF BIOCOMPOSTED VEGETABLE AND GROUNDNUT SHELL WASTE ON THE GROWTH IMPACT OF PIGEON PEA (CAJANUS CAJAN (L.) MILL SP.)HTML Full Text
EFFECT OF BIOCOMPOSTED VEGETABLE AND GROUNDNUT SHELL WASTE ON THE GROWTH IMPACT OF PIGEON PEA (CAJANUS CAJAN (L.) MILL SP.)
R. Rajashri, A. Vijayalakshmi *, M. Silpa, Pinky Raihing and K. Gnanamani
Department of Botany, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore - 641043, Tamil Nadu, India.
ABSTRACT: Department of Botany, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, conducted a pot culture experiment for analyzing the effect of bio-composted groundnut shell and vegetable waste on the growth impact of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp. Organic wastes and by-products are renewable forms of resources generated all over the world. The present work explores the potential application of eco-friendly compost from groundnut shell and vegetable wastes. The study mainly deals with the physicochemical properties of raw and composted vegetables and groundnut shell Waste, pH and Electric conductivity, Lignin, Total Nitrogen (N), Total Phosphorous (P), Total Potassium (K), and C: N ratio. Composting was carried out with the help of Trichoderma asperelloides, Pleurotus florida, and Eudrilus eugeniae. The experiments consist of four treatments viz., C control, T1- compost 1 (Vermi-composted groundnut shell and vegetable waste (25g)) T2- compost 2 (Vermi-composted groundnut shell and vegetable waste (50g), T3-compost 3 (Vermi-composted groundnut shell and vegetable waste (75g). Chlorophyll, protein, and carbohydrate content were analyzed in the test crop (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) During 15, 35, 55, and 75 days. The treatment T3- compost 3 consisting of vermicomposted groundnut shell and vegetable waste (75 g) shows significantly increased chlorophyll, protein, and carbohydrate content as compared to the control and T1, T2 treatments. The reuse of groundnut shell and vegetable waste compost can be used as an appropriate method of environment management. Hence, from the present investigation, it was clear that bio-composted groundnut shell and vegetable waste enhanced the biochemical parameters in the leaves of pigeon pea.
Biochemical parameters, Eudriluseugenia, DAS-days after Sowing and Lignin, Electric conductivity, Pigeon pea
INTRODUCTION: Organic farming is followed by many people since it produces eco-friendly compost without the use of any chemical fertilizers. Some people opt for chemical fertilizer which might give a good yield, but it affects human health and pollutes the environment. Organic farming produces healthy plants, maintains soil micro-organisms, and reduces environmental pollution.
Organic manure can be used as an alternative measure to improve soil fertility, microbial biomass, major nutrients, and it is also an alternative method of crop production that is safe for the environment and public health 1, 2. We are aware that yearly million tonnes of agricultural wastes are produced in our country, and a major part of wastes untreated leads to environmental pollution.
Intensive use of chemical fertilizers has its side effect on polluting underground water, destroying microorganism and soil fertility in the ecosystem 3. Compost contains a variable amount of N, P, K, and micronutrients for plant growth. Organic manure and biofertilizers such as vermicompost and nitrogen-fixing bacteria give high-quality yield free of harmful chemicals and account for human safety 4, 5. It also supplies an abundant amount of organic matter to improve the chemical and physical properties of soil with less quantity of NPK 6.
India is the second-largest vegetables producing country in the world with 146.55 million tonnes of vegetables during the year 2010-2011 7. Vegetable waste is one kind of municipal solid organic wastes holding very high moisture (88–94%) and %) and slightly acidic pH thus becoming a nuisance to the environment 8. Groundnut is a nutritious leguminous crop grown mainly for seed and oil worldwide. Groundnut shells are the leftover product obtained after the removal of groundnut seed from its pod.
This is the abundant agro-industrial waste product that has a very slow degradation rate under natural conditions 9. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is commonly known as Red gram, belongs to the family Fabaceae.
It is cultivated as human food, and it also has many medicinal properties for the treatment of various diseases and also contains a high level of proteins and important amino acids 10. The present study is to produce eco-friendly vermin-compost from groundnut shell and vegetable wastes and its effect on chlorophyll, protein, and carbohydrate of Pigeon pea.
MATERIALS AND METHOD:
Collection of Seeds: Seeds of Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp. was obtained from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.
Collection of Bio Wastes: The agro-industrial waste groundnut shell and municipal solid waste of vegetables was collected in large amounts from in and around Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. The collected wastes were chopped into small pieces. It was sun-dried and stored in gunny bags.
Composting: Composting was done in 1 meter depth and 4 square feet wide pits. It was filled with 50% of groundnut shell + 50% vegetable wastes, Trichoderma asperelloides, and Pleurotus florida. After pre-decomposition pre-digested material is inoculated with 20 healthy exotic earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). After composting, the samples were taken.
Evaluation of Compost Maturity: Physical And Chemical Assays of Composted agro-waste were analyzed based on standard method. The methods have been proposed for estimating the degree of maturity.
- Electric conductivity 11
- Lignin 12
- Organic carbon (%) 13
- 5. Total Nitrogen (%) 14
- Total Phosphorus (%) 11
- Total Potassium (%) 11
Pot Culture Experiment:
Treatment Application and Cultivation: The pots were filled with 7 kg of sandy loam soil. The vermicompost was applied to the respective pots. The treatments used are:
C - Control. T1- Vermicomposted groundnut shell and vegetable waste (25 g). T2 - Vermicomposted groundnut shell and vegetable waste (50 g). T3 - Vermicomposted groundnut shell and vegetable waste (75 g). Viable seeds were selected and sown in each pot with three replications. After germination, three healthy plants were maintained per pot. Plant protection measures were followed.
Biochemical Analysis: Biochemical analysis consists of Chlorophyll, protein, and carbohydrate content in leaves.
Chlorophyll: Estimated the Chlorophyll ‘a’, Chlorophyll ‘b’ and total Chlorophyll in leaves on 15, 35, 55 and 75 DAS 15.
Protein: Estimated on 35, 45, and 75 DAS in leaves 16.
Carbohydrate: Estimated on 35, 45, and 75 DAS in leaves 17.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The experiments conducted in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) using three treatments showed the following results.
Physicochemical Properties of Raw and Composted Vegetables and Groundnut Shell Waste Table 1: The compost's pH indicates the decomposition, degradation, and maturity of the compost. The compost should maintain a neutral value between 6 to 8, which tends to be more acidic on maturation.
The pH value in raw groundnut shell and vegetable waste is 6.5, and as the decomposition started, it increased to 7.2 in composted groundnut shell and vegetable waste. Similarly, an increase in pH was observed 18 in vermicompostedcoirpith + cow dung + panchagavya and composted paddy straw (6.97) as compared to the raw sample (6.35) 19.
Electrical conductivity is used to measure the nutrient in the form of salt in compost. The EC value of raw groundnut shell and vegetable wastes is 2.96 millimhos cm-1 which increased to 16.22 millimhos cm-1.
The present result coincides with the result 20 observed an increase in EC from 2.4 dSm-1 to 7.7 dSm-1 at different maturity stages (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) of Municipal Solid Waste Compost (garbage and sewage). A similar result was observed 21, the EC in peanut shell during composting showed a significant increase of 4.30 dS/m compared to a raw sample of 1.38 dS/m.
The lignin content in raw groundnut shell and vegetable wastes was 8.5, and it gets reduced gradually to 4.1 when composting with Pleurotus florida and Trichoderma asperelloides. The results recorded that lignin content of the raw coirpith was 35.10% and after composting with Pleurotus florida it gets reduced to 12.70% 22. Similar result of increase in total potassium content from 0.61 per cent to 0.81 percent in coirpith composted by Pleurotu sflorida 22.
The Initial nitrogen content of raw groundnut shell and vegetable wastes was 1.20 percent, and there is a slight increase to 1.80 percent in composted groundnut shell and vegetable wastes. A similar result observed an increase in total nitrogen content from 1.40 percent to 2.69 percent in poultry droppings wastes amended with bagasse inoculated with the fungal consortium (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) after 30 days of decomposition 23. Data presented in table-I stated that the total phosphorus content revealed an increasing value from 2.31% to 3.96% in raw and composted groundnut shell and vegetable waste. The present study indicates an increase in total phosphorus content during composting of press mud using bacterial consortium from 0.58% to 1.46% with an incubation period of 49 days 24.
The apparent increase in potassium content might be due to the higher mineralization rate due to enhanced microbial and enzyme activity. As the results are shown in Table 1, the potassium content gradually increases from 0.62% (raw groundnut shell and vegetable waste) to 1.24% (composted groundnut shell and vegetable waste).
C: N ratio in raw and composted groundnut shell and vegetable waste showed a gradual decrease from 59.68:1 to 18:1. This is in accordance with the findings 25 reported a drastic reduction in C: N ratio from 27.58 to 13.33 percent in press mud sample inoculated with Eisenia foetida after 60 days of decomposition. A decrease in the C: N ratio is due to an increase in the humidification of organic matter as the decomposition progresses.
Estimation of Chlorophyll: Chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’, and ‘total’ chlorophyll content of pigeon pea leaves is maximum in T3 (Vermi-composted groundnut shell waste + vegetable waste (75 g) treatment when compared to control (Table-II).
The treatment T3 (Vermicomposted groundnut shell waste + vegetable waste (75 g) showed the maximum chlorophyll content from 15 DAS to 75 DAS, which ranged from 0.026, 0.028, 0.029, and 0.033 mg/g tissue, followed by T2 (Vermi-composted groundnut shell waste + vegetable waste (50 g) treatment which have 0.019, 0.022, 0.025 and 0.028 mg/g tissue (Chlorophyll ‘a’), 0.019 to 0.024 mg/g tissue of T3 treatment followed by T2 treatment of 0.011 and 0.016 mg/g tissue (Chlorophyll ‘b’) on 15 DAS and 35 DAS.
The equal value of maximum chlorophyll ‘b’ content is observed in T3 treatment of 55 DAS and 75 DAS, which is 0.029 mg/g tissue, respectively. The chlorophyll ‘b’ content in T2 treatment is slightly increased (0.028 gm/g tissue) in 55 DAS and it decreased (0.022 gm/g tissue) on 75 DAS. The ‘total’ chlorophyll content increased significantly in T3 treatment (0.045, 0.052, 0.058 and 0.062 mg/g tissue) followed by T2 treatment (0.031, 0.036, 0.045 and 0.049 mg/g tissue) on the 15, 35, 55 and 75 DAS. A similar result showed an increase in chlorophyll ‘a’ and ‘total’ chlorophyll content of 4.44 and 7.55 mg gm-1 tissue with soil of 10.5 pH + sand + farmyard manure at 2:1:1 ratio 26. Chlorophyll ‘b ‘content of 3.53 mg/g tissue was maximum with soil pH 9.0. The result reported a remarkable increase in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll from 30 to 60 DAS in cowpea, due to the application of efficient micro-organism Sewage (80t ha-1) incorporated treatment 27.
The finding was positively correlated with an increase in chlorophyll content (0.725 mg / g tissue 0.800 mg /tissue, 0.846 mg / g tissue and 0.635 mg / g tissue) as compared to the control (0.531 mg / g tissue, 0.606 mg / g tissue, 0.708 mg / g tissue and 0.497 mg / g tissue) on 25, 50, 75 and 100 days in groundnut 28.
The study supported 29 that the maximum content of chlorophyll ‘a’ (0.865, 2.150, 2.850 and 1.750 mg/g fresh weight), chlorophyll ‘b’ (0.513, 1.433, 2.550 and 0.985 mg/g fresh weight) in groundnut is due to the application of vermicompost (5 t/ha) and Arbuscular mycor rizhal fungi at 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAS. A remarkable increase was observed in chlorophyll content in rice variety MR 219 with the application of 50% chemical fertilizer NPK+ Bacillus spaericus (UPMB 10) + Pseudomonas spp. as compared to the control (no fertilizer) 30. The maximum increase in T3 treatment might be due to the solubilisation of plant nutrients due to the application of vermicomposted groundnut shell and vegetable wastes.
Estimation of Protein Table 3: The highest protein content of red gram was noted in treatment T3 (44.96mg/g, 62.90 mg/g, 74.80 mg/g and 92.93 mg/g) on 15 DAS, 35 DAS, 55 DAS and 75 DAS respectively when compared to the control (37.33 mg/g, 55.86 mg/g, 67.30 mg/g and 83.66 mg/g). The results show that coir pith compost increases the protein (8.81 mg/g) content in Bauhinia purpurea 31. Vermicompost increases the protein content (3.25 mg/g) on 30 DAS in chilli plant 32 and the different fertilizers andcycocel increases the protein (39.179) in mustard 33. Increased protein (15.28) in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is reported in vermicompost 34. The combined application of biofertilizers, inorganic fertilizers and vermicompost increases protein (2.58) in chilli plant 35. The present findings coincide with the results of 36 theyfound that the application of composted T6 - compost 6 (Raw coir pith predigested by using Pleurotus sajorcaju and Eudrilus eugeniae (5 t/ha) registered maximum protein content in Glycine max L. Protein was significantly enhanced due to the application of groundnut shell and vegetable wastes.
Estimation of Carbohydrate: An increase in carbohydrate content was achieved in T3 treatment (43.100mg/g, 57.90 mg/g, 77.90 mg/g, 92.00 mg/g) on 15 DAS, 35 DAS, 55 DAS and 75 DAS when compared to the control (12.98 mg/g, 37.46 mg/g, 49.56 mg/g and 69.16 mg/g) Table 4.
The similar results were observed vermin-composted coir pith and garden soil enhanced the carbohydrates content in the leaves of Andrographis paniculata 35. The application of biofertilizers, inorganic fertilizers and vermicompost increases carbohydrates (3.38) in chilli plant 36. Vermicomposted Ipomea increases the carbohydrate (3.75) 37 in ladies finger and the application of vermicompost increased carbo-hydrate content (37.80 mg/g) in chillies 38.
A similar result was observed by 39 who reported that the carbohydrate content in Amaranthus viridis L. was found to be more in T2 on the 30th day and T3 on the 45th day. The increase in carbohydrates content might be due to the enormous amount of nutrients in the vermicomposted groundnut shell and vegetable waste which would have enhanced the carbohydrates content in red gram.
TABLE 1: PHYSICO-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE RAW AND COMPOSTED VEGETABLE AND GROUNDNUT SHELL WASTES
|Electrical Conductivity (%)||2.96||16.22|
|Total nitrogen (%)||1.20||1.80|
|Total phosphorus (%)||2.31||3.96|
|Total potassium (%)||0.62||1.24|
TABLE 2: EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOSTED GROUNDNUT SHELL AND VEGETABLE WASTE ON CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF CAJANUS CAJAN (L.) MILL SP. (15, 35, 55 AND 75 DAS)
|C||0.015 ± 0.001||0.015± 0.004||0.017± 0.002||0.018± 0.001||0.003 ± 0.001||0.00± 0.002||0.0± 0.002||0.01± 0.003||0.020± 0.006||0.022± 0.002||0.027± 0.001||0.037± 0.001|
|T1||0.018 ± 0.003||0.019 ± 0.002||0.022± 0.003||0.022 ± 0.004||0.005 ± 0.003||0.012± 0.004||0.020± 0.005||0.019± 0.004||0.024± 0.001||0.032± 0.001||0.038 ±0.003||0.042± 0.003|
|T2||0.019 ± 0.004||0.022 ± 0.001||0.025± 0.004||0.028 ± 0.001||0.011 ± 0.002||0.016 ±0.003||0.028± 0.001||0.022± 0.005||0.031± 0.002||0.036± 0.004||0.045± 0.004||0.049±
|T3||0.026 ± 0.005||0.028 ± 0.003||0.029± 0.001||0.033 ± 0.003||0.019 ± 0.004||0.024± 0.006||0.029± 0.003||0.029± 0.001||0.045± 0.004||0.052± 0.003||0.058± 0.002||0.062± 0.005|
TABLE 3: PROTEIN (MG/G TISSUE) CONTENT IN LEAVES OF CAJANUS CAJAN (L.) MILL SP.
|Treatments||15 DAS||35 DAS||55 DAS||75 DAS|
|C||37.33 ± 0.208||55.86 ± 0.231||67.30 ± 0.200||83.66 ± 0.252|
|T1||40.10 ± 0.265||57.63 ± 0.306||69.46 ± 0.351||86.00 ± 0.200|
|T2||43.96 ± 0.208||60.30 ± 0.361||71.26 ± 0.252||87.70 ± 0.200|
|T3||44.96 ± 0.252||62.90 ± 0.300||74.80 ± 0.200||92.93 ± 0.208|
TABLE 4: CARBOHYDRATE (MG/G TISSUE) CONTENT IN LEAVES OF CAJANUS CAJAN (L.) MILL SP.
|Treatments||15 DAS||35 DAS||55 DAS||75 DAS|
|C||12.98 ± 0.227||37.46 ± 0.115||49.56 ± 0.306||69.16 ± 0.306|
|T1||24.66 ± 0.551||47.13 ± 0.252||61.36 ± 0.153||76.86 ± 0.208|
|T2||37.300 ± 0.200||54.20 ± 0.265||67.00 ± 0.300||86.80 ± 0.200|
|T4||43.100 ± 0.173||57.90 ± 0.200||77.90 ± 0.361||92.00 ± 0.200|
CONCLUSION: Bio-compost of vegetable and groundnut shell waste provides a good alternative source to chemical fertilizers, which might also provide an eco-friendly environment. It avoids pollution, improves water holding capacity and soil fertility. The overall goal of waste management is to collect, treat and dispose of the waste using the most economical means available. The present investigation clearly indicates the positive effects of vermicomposted groundnut shell and vegetable waste which reflects an enhancement in the soil nutrients and thus resulted in the increase of biochemical parameters of test crop. The study concludes that among the four treatments, T3 (75 g vegetable + groundnut shell waste) gave the best results.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors wish to express their sincere and heartfelt gratitude to Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, for providing all necessary facilities to carry out the study.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: Authors have no conflicts of interest regarding this article.
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How to cite this article:
Rajashri R, Vijayalakshmi A, Silpa M, Raihing P and Gnanamani K: Effect of biocomposted vegetable and groundnut shell waste on the growth impact of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp.). Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2021; 12(3): 1566-72. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.12(3).1566-72.
All © 2013 are reserved by the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
R. Rajashri, A. Vijayalakshmi *, M. Silpa, P. Raihing and K. Gnanamani
Department of Botany, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
16 March 2020
19 June 2020
28 June 2020
01 March 2021