ETHNO ANTI DIABETIC PLANTS USED BY A FEW TRIBES OF RURAL KAMRUP DISTRICT, ASSAMHTML Full Text
ETHNO ANTI DIABETIC PLANTS USED BY A FEW TRIBES OF RURAL KAMRUP DISTRICT, ASSAM
Jayashree Dutta* and M.C. Kalita
Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati- 781 014, Assam, India
ABSTRACT: Kamrup District of Asasm is bounded by Udalguri and Baksa districts in the north, Meghalaya in the south, Darrang and Kamrup Metropolitan in the east and Goalpara and Nalbari district in the west. The rural part of kamrup district is mostly inhabitated by different tribes such as Boro, Khoronia Kochari, Rajbonghi, and Nepalis. An ethno botanical survey was conducted during the year 2011-2012 in some selected villages to explore the medicinal plants used by the local traditional healers known as ‘bej’ and ‘Ohjha’ for treatment of diabetes mellitus. The data’s were collected using questionnaire and personal interviews with few local healers. The investigation revealed 56 species of plants belonging to 38 families which are used to cure diabetes. These traditional ethno medicinal plants are consumed either in form of juice, powder, or boiled extract of leave, stem, root, seed, fruit, bark, rhizome and flower. In some cases it was found that the whole plant is directly used as potent medicine.
Ethno medicine, Rural Kamrup, Tribes, Bej, Diabetes
INTRODUCTION:India is known for its valuable heritage for herbal medicinal knowledge. Its ethnic peoples living in the remote village area still depend to a great extent on the indigenous system of medicine. The North Eastern part of India signifies a Heritage of herbal remedies. It constitutes the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim. Tribal population of Assam can be broadly divided into hill tribals and plain tribals. Among the hill tribes of Assam, Chakma, Dimasa, Garu, Hazong, Kuki, Karbi Maan, Mizo, Hmar, Naga etc. are common.
The ST Population of Assam is predominantly rural with 95.3% rural and only 4.7% urban population (Census of India, 2001). Among all the schedule tribe, Boro represent nearly half of the total ST population of the state. (40.9%), Miri (17.8%), Mikhri (10.7%), Rabha (8.4%) Sonowal Kachari (7.1%) Lalung (5.2) Dimasa (3.4%) and Deori (1.2%) 1. The major plain tribes of Assam are Rabha, Mising, Deori, Tiwa, Sonowal, Mech, Bodo etc.
Presently, Assam has about 16 scheduled castes and 23 scheduled tribes. Tribal people always showed much interest to ethno medicinal practices.
The North-eastern region is blessed with splendid diversity of ethno medicinal plants and traditional medicines prepared from medicinal plants are widely used in this part of country. The tribal people have been always in a close relationship with nature.
These people have a treasure of knowledge on ethno medicinal plants used for treatment of various diseases including diabetes. Diabetes is a metabolic disease that has become a serious problem of modern society due to the severe long-term health complications associated with it. In particular, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most encountered form of diabetes, which is responsible for more than 80% of the total cases of diabetes 2, 3, 4.
Currently there are more than 30 million people with diabetes mellitus in India and the incidence is increasing. By the year 2024, more than two-thirds of people with diabetes will be in the developing world of which majority would be resident in India and China 5. Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine metabolic disordercharacterized by hyperglycemia, altered lipids, carbohydrates, proteins metabolism and it increases risk of cardiovascular diseases complications. Both the types of diabetes (type 1 and 2) share the common characteristics of hyperglycemia, microvascular and macrovascularcomplications 6.
Patients with diabetes experience significant morbidity and mortality because of microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy) and macrovascular complications such as heart attack, stroke and peripheral vascular disease7. Currently, available therapies for diabetes include insulin and various oral antidiabetic agents such as sulfonylureas, biguanides and glinides. Many of them have a number of serious adverse effects; therefore, the search for more effective and safer hypoglycemic agent is one of the important areas of investigation 8.
Medicinal plants have potential effectiveness against diabetes and the phyto chemicals play a major role in the management of diabetes9. Plants are the basis of life on earth and are central to people livelihoods. Tribal people are the ecosystem people who live in harmony with the nature and maintain a close link between man and environment10. The hypoglycemic effect of several plants used as anti-diabetic remedies has been confirmed, and the mechanisms of hypoglycemic activity of these plants are being studied. Many traditional plant treatments for diabetes exist, a hidden wealth of potentially useful natural products for Diabetes control 11.
Alternative therapies with anti-diabetic activity have been researched relatively extensively, particularly in India. To date, over 400 traditional plant treatments for diabetes have been reported12. Medicinal plants, since times immemorial, have been used in virtually all cultures as a source of medicine. A study of ancient literature indicates that diabetes was fairly well known and well-conceived as an entity in ancient India. The knowledge of the system of diabetes mellitus, as the history reveals, existed with the Indians since prehistoric age 13.
The ethno botanical information suggests many plants such as Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae), pterocarpus marsupium (Fabaceae), and Trigonelle forenum greacum (Fabaceae), Acacia Arabica (leguminosae), Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae), Allium sativum (Alliaceae) Aleo vera (Liliaceae), Ficus bengalensis (Moraceae) Swertia chirayita (Gentianaceae), Zingiber oficinale (Zingiberaceae) possess antidiabetic potential, and have been reported to be beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes 14. The World Health Organization recommended the search for beneficial use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes mellitus 15.
Medicinal plants have the advantage of having little or no side effects. Till today metformin is the only ethical drug approved for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients, which is derived from a medicinal plant Galega officialis and historically used for treatment of diabetes in medieval Europe 16
This study focuses on the ethno medicinal plant showing anti diabetic potentiality which is commonly used by the people of rural Kamrup district.
The main objective of this study is to document the use of herbs that are generally used for the treatment of diabetes by the people of rural Kamrup district.
This study is aimed at documenting indigenous knowledge which is very much important from the view point of conservation of biological resources and their sustainable utilization in the management of diabetes and its related complications.
MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY:
Study area – Kamrup District is situated between 25.46 and 26.49 North Latitude and between 90.48 &91.50 East Longitude. It is bounded by Udalguri and Baksa districts in the north,Meghalaya in the south, Darrang and Kamrup Metropolitan in the east and Goalparaand Nalbari district in the west. It has a total geographical area of 4, 34,500 acres. Historically, present Assam was referred to as Kamrup in many of the ancient Indian literature. The villages that are studied are under Rangia Subdivision. The Schedule Castes of the state are 16 in number while there are 23 Schedule Tribes in Assam according to Census 1991. Nearly 97.59% of the population lives in villages.
FIG. 1: MAP OF KAMRUP DISTRICT SHOWING STUDY AREA
Selected survey area - Five major villages (Nokul, Hossang , Tetkuri, Jaggikoana, and Khairabari) of rural Kamrup division mainly inhabited by Boro, Rajbonghi, Khoronia Kochari and Nepali were selected for the study (Fig1). The villages were selected on the basis of higher population parameter, economic backwardness, and dependence on medicinal plants. Survey was conducted from June 2011 to August 2012. Tribal people believe in traditional healing of diseases and are so more depended on traditional ethno medicinal plants for treatment of disease like diabetes.
The village Nokul was so named because of the presence of nine different castes of people, where majority are of Boro tribes. The area of village Hossang is covered with more than 60% of tribal population (Boro, Rajbongshi and Khoronia Kocahri).
Tetkuri village have three sub divisions, where more than half a population belong to tribal category. Similarly Jaggikoana and Khairabari villages have a major part of tribal population. While collecting information on ethno – medico botanical aspects, standard approaches and methodologies have been followed 15, 16, 17, 18.The ethno botanical data were collected using questionnaire, interviews and discussionswith some well-known Herbalists and the local healer commonly known as ‘Bej’ and ‘Ohjha’ of these five selected Villages.
The Herbalists were interviewed within their localities. Samples of all the medicinal plants cited by the Herbalist were collected and further identification and authentication was done in the Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Assam. The data forms were later analyzed, collated and tabulated to give the botanical names, common names, families and the part of the plants used. The results are presented in Table 1.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The data obtained during the investigation period is summarized in Table 1. A total of 56 medicinal plants belonging to 38 families were cited by the herbalists as being used in the region for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
TABLE I: ANTI DIABETIC ETHNO MEDICINAL PLANTS SPECIES USED BY THE LOCAL INHABITANTS OF NOKUL, HOSSANG, TETKURI, KHAIRABARI, AND JAGIKONA VILLAGES OF RURAL KAMRUP DISTRICT
|Botanical name||Family||Local nameAssamesses (Ass)
|Parts||Method to use|
|Adhatoda vasica Nees||Acanthaceae||Bogabahok (Ass)Bahekagakha (B)||Root||Root powder taken 2 times a day in empty stomach with water|
|Aegle marmelos (L) Corr Roxb.||Rutaceae||Bael (Ass, )Bahel fithai (B)||Leaves, fruits||3-4 fresh leaves are ground to extract the juice, which is taken with cow’s milk daily|
|Albizia procera (Roxb) Benth.||Mimosaceae||Siris (Ass, B)||Leaves||Leaf juice diluted with water and consumed.|
|Allium cepa L.||Liliaceae||Piyaz (Ass,)Sambram (B)||Fruit part||Rhizome paste taken with honey.|
|Aloe Vera. L.||Liliaceae||Ghrita kumara (Ass)Salkuwari (B)||Leaves||Leaf juice consumed with small amount of lemon juice|
|Alstonia scolaris R.Br.||Apocynaceae||Satiana (Ass)||Leaves, bark||Leave paste and bark extract taken in empty stomach.|
|Andrographis paniculata Nees||Acanthaceae||Kalmegh (Ass)Sorai gukha (B)||Leave||Leaf juice is administered once a day .|
|Annona reticulate L.||Annonaceae||Atlas (Ass)Balam phithai (B)||Leaves, fruits||Leaf, fruit juice is taken orally|
|Areca catecheu Linn||Arecaceae||Tamul (Ass)Goi (B)||Fruit, leaves||Nuts are dried and powdered, that is consumed once a day|
|Argyreia speciosa Linn. F||Convulaceae||Takoria alu (Ass)||Stem, leaves||Stem and leaf paste used.|
|Artocarpus lokoocha Roxb.||Moraceae||Diwatenga (Ass)Dawa bifang (B)||Bark||Bark is dried, powdered often mixed in curry or taken directly with water|
|Azadirachta indica A.Juss||Meliaceae||Neem (Ass)Neem Gwkha (B)||Leaves||Leaf juice is taken in early morning on daily routine.|
|Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Penn.||Scrophulariaceae||Brahmi haag (Ass)Bami- Belai(B)||Whole plant||Whole plant juice taken or made curry with fish|
|Beta vulguris L.||Chenopodiaceae||Beet (Ass, B)||Root||Root juice taken with milk|
|Brassica juncea (L) Czern.||Brassicaceae||Sorioh (Ass)Besor (B)||Leaves, seed||Seed powder consumed with milk|
|Butea monosperma (Lam) Taubert.||Fabaceae||Polash (Ass)||Fruit leaves||Fruit is dried and powdered, and leaf juice is consumed.|
|Calotropis gigantean (L) W Aiton.||Asclepidaceae||Akon (Ass, B)||Leaves||Leaf and flower paste is consumed.|
|Cannabis sativa Linn||Cannabaceae||Bhang (Ass)Aphing/Khani (B)||Leaf, stem, flower||All parts are dried and consumed in powder form with milk|
|Cassia fistula L.||Caesalpinaceae||Sunara (Ass)Dhandeleka(B)||Bark||Bark powder is consumed twice a day|
|Cassia tora L.||Caesalpinaceae||Sarumadelua (Ass)Sobai Sindang (B)||seed||Seed paste is consumed with curry|
|Catharanthus roseus (L) G. Don||Apocynaceae||Nayantara (Ass)Phanga(B)||Whole plant||Boiled extract of leaf and flower taken orally. Leave juice often consumed directly|
|Carica papaya||Carricaceae||Aomita (Ass)Muduful fithai (B)||seed||Seeds are shade dried, Powdered and consumed 2 times a day|
|Cenntella asiatica (L) Urban.||Apiaceae||Manimuni (Ass)Phisa Manamuni (B)||Whole plant||Whole plant is cook with fish|
|Centella asiatica Linn.||Apiaceae||Bormanimuni (Ass)Geder manamuni (B)||Whole plant||Whole plant paste is directly consumed|
|Cinnamomum tamala fr. Nus||Lauraceae||Tezput (Ass, B)Sa – belai (B)||Stem, root leave, and bark.||4-5 fresh or dried leaves are simply crushed by hand and kept dipped in a glass of water over-night. Next morning, the filtrate extract isAdministered in empty stomach.|
|Clerondendrum infortunatum L.||Lamiaceae||Vetetita (Ass A)Vate gakha (B)||Leaves||Leaf paste is taken orally|
|Cocos nucifera L.||Arecaceae||Narikol (Ass)Narengkhol (B)||Fruit||Oil is taken out and consumed|
|Colocasia esculenta(L) Scholl||Araceae||Kolakachu (Ass)Thasoo (B)||Roots||Root powder and stems are taken|
|Cucumis melo Roxb.||Cucurbitaceae||Sal kumura (Ass)Khumra (B)
|Seed||Seed powder is used|
|Cucumis trigonus Roxb.||Cucurbitaceae||Gorokhia tioh(Ass)Thaibeng (B)||Fruit||Fruit juice is taken thrice a day.|
|Cynodond actylonPer||Poaceae||Dubori(Ass)Dubori hagra (C)||Whole plant||Whole Plant juice is taken|
|Dalbergia sissoo L.||Fabaceae||Sisu (Ass, B)||Pods||Pods taken directly|
|Dillenia indica Linn.||Dilleniaceae||Outenga (Ass)Thaigir phithai (B)||Fruit leaves||Fresh are cut into Small pieces and properly sun dried. It is then powdered and regularly taken with water to cure diabetes|
|Enhydra fluctuansLour||Asteraceae||Haleshi (Ass)Alengchi megong (B)||Stem||Plant juice taken. Stems are just boiled and consumed|
|Ficus religiosa L.||Moraceae||Bot Goss (Ass)Fahkhri (B)||Leaves, fruit||Leaf , fruit taken orally|
|Garcinia padunculata Roxb.||Clusiaceae||Borthekera(Ass)Thaikha (B)||Fruit||Fruit taken orally|
|Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.||Convulaceae||Kalmou(Ass)Maande Maigon (B)||Leaves||Dried leaf powder mixed with Piper nigrum and taken orally twice a day|
|Ipomoea batata (L) Lam.||Convulaceae||Mitha alu (Ass)Tha guna (B)||Leaves||Leaf boiled and juice taken orally|
|Lantana camera L.||Verbenaceae||Guphul (Ass)Ghorphool (B)||Leaves||Leaf paste is consumed.|
|Lawsonia inermis L.||Lythraceae||Jetuka(Ass)Jenthuka (B)
|Leaves||Leaf juice mixed with cow’s milk taken once a week.|
|Leucas apera Spreng.||Lamiaceae||Doron (Ass)Dhumkhu (B)||Whole plant||Whole plant juice taken directly.|
|Mangifera indica L.||Anacardiaceae||Aam (Ass)Thaiju (B)||Leaves||Dry kernel powder is taken with cow’s milk or consumed with curry,|
|Mimosa pudica Linn.||Mimosaceae||Nilazibon(Ass)Dowsa mukhreb (B)||Whole plant||Whole plant paste is used|
|Mirabilis jalapa L.||Nyctaginaceae||Gopal godhuli (Ass)||Root||Root juice is taken|
|Moringa olefira Lam.||Moringaceae||Sajina (Ass)Sojona (B)||Leaves||Leaf juice is taken directly|
|Morus indica Linn||Moraceae||Nuni (Ass)Thai kunsap (B)||Tender leaf||Leaf juice taken orally|
|Murraya koeningii (L) Spreng.||Rutaceae||Norosingha (Ass)Narasingha belai (B)||Leaves||Leave paste and powder is taken, dry powder often used in curry.|
|Nyctanthes arbor tristis L.||Oleaceace||Sewali (Ass)Sepali (B)||Leaves, flower||Young leaf juice is consumed and flower paste is taken orally|
|Ocimum sanctum L.||Lamiaceae||Tulsi (Ass)Thulungsi (B)||Leaves||Leaf powder taken with honey|
|Oxalis corniculata L.||Oxalidaceae||Tengesi (Ass)Sengrimekhi (B)||Aerial part||Aerial part of the plant is consumed with fish|
|Phyllanthus emblica Linn||Euphorbiaceae||Amlakhi (Ass)Amlai (B)||Fruit||Fruit juice taken twice a day|
|Swertia chirata L.||Gentianaceae||Chirata (Ass)Nagadona (B)||Whole plant||Whole plant extract is consumed.|
|Terminalia chebula Roxb.||Combretaceae||Selekha(B)Hilikha (Ass)||Fruit||Dried fruits are grind properly to powder, mixed with lemon juice and taken once daily in empty stomach for 3 days|
|Trigonella foenum graceum Linn||Papilionaceae||Mithi (Ass, B)||Seed||Seed powder is consumed|
|Piper betle Linn.||Piperaceae||Paan (Ass)Fathwi (B, )||Leaves||Leaf powder and paste directly consumed.|
|Riccinus communis||Euphorbiaceae||Era gos (Ass)Endibelai (B)||Seeds||Seed powder consumed with milk.|
Among all the plants as cited by the herbalists, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa L., Azadirachta indica A.Juss ,Catharanthus roseus (L) G. Don, Dillenia indica Linn, Clerondendrum infortunatum L, Swertia chirata L. Mangifera, indica L. Mirabilis jalapa L., Trigonella foenum graceum Linn, and Cinnamomum tamalafr Nus were ranked highest.From the study (Fig. 2) it has been observed that the leaf part is used maximum for medicinal purposes followed by the fruit and whole plant. But the individual parts of plants such as root, seed, stem and bark have significant importance in ethno medicinal practices. It has been found that different parts of a single species are also used to cure the disease. The plants parts are used either in powdered or paste form or consumed with different cuisine.
FIG. 2: UTILIZATION PATTERN OF PLANT PARTS
CONCLUSION: There are various constraints associated with studies related to information collection about medicinal plants from traditional sources as some of the herbalist interviewed refused to answer questions for fear of being investigated later by government agencies while others did not wish to divulge their professional secrets.
Mutual contacts, patience, explanation of objectives, respect and financial help were found useful in overcoming such obstacles. A wide range of plants with ethno botanical value against some very important diseases have been reported but much larger number of folk medicine have remained endemic to certain tribal pockets in North East India.
Therefore, the present study was to assess the diversity of ethno medicinal plants used by villagers basically by the tribal community in rural Kamrup district of Assam and to document the traditional medical practices followed in healing complications associated with diabetes. This study has documented 56 medicinal plants mainly used by the tribe of rural Kamrup district for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Further detailed studies on the ethno botanical aspects in the region will provide a meaningful ways for the promotion of traditional herbal medicinal practices and scientific validation.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors are thankful to the respective Gaon Burahs (Chief of the villages), local herbalist and healers like Mr. Rajan Sharma, Mr. Dhorni Deka, Mr. Ratul sharma Mr. Bhoban Kalita, and Mr. Mithinga Daimary for sharing their valuable knowledge on medicinal plants.
Authors are also thankful to Krishna Khanta Handique Library of Guwahati University for providing adequate information on ethno medicinal plants, collected.
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How to cite this article:
Dutta J and Kalita MC: Ethno anti diabetic plants used by a few tribes of rural Kamrup district, Assam. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013: 4(9); 3663-3669. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR. 0975-8232.4(9).3663-69
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Jayashree Dutta* and M.C. Kalita
Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati- 781 014, Assam, India
14 April, 2013
10 June, 2013
14 August, 2013
01 September, 2013