ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY THE DIFFERENT TRIBAL COMMUNITIES IN NILAKH- SRIPANI AREA OF DHEMAJI DISTRICT, ASSAMHTML Full Text
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY THE DIFFERENT TRIBAL COMMUNITIES IN NILAKH- SRIPANI AREA OF DHEMAJI DISTRICT, ASSAM
Pranab Borah and Mousmi Saikia *
Department of Herbal Science & Technology, A. D. P. College, Nagaon, Assam, India.
ABSTRACT: Due to plentiful wild plant diversity, poor road conditions to connect modern medical facilities, and age-old folk knowledge on medicinal plants, the tribal communities of Dhemaji District, Assam, India, still practice traditional plant-based therapy in the management of primary healthcare. The present investigation aims to represent the ethnobotanical knowledge of different ethnic community peoples of the Nilakh- Sripani area, a fringe area laying the Assam- Arunachal border. The ethnobotanical field survey (2018- 2020) was carried out based on formal and informal semi-structured questionnaires with village headmen, traditional healers, and well-educated persons from 11 villages belonging to Nilakh and Sripanigaon panchayat. Analysis of the demographic profile of informants, local names of plants, parts used, used in ailments, preparation and route of administration was investigated during the survey. The documented data were also quantitatively analyzed by using standard ethnobotanical parameters like Use Value (UV), Fidelity Level (FL) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF). A total of 102 plant species belonging to 57 families were recorded. During the time of the study, 33 plant species having new ethnobotanical potential were recorded. Besides the uses of plant species in different human ailment categories, 8 plant species are reported in managing livestock diseases especially in poultries, pigs and cattle, and 2 species used as a bio-pesticide in the study area. The study further should be helpful for the valid discovery of a new active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) or drug formulation from natural origin.
Keywords: Ethnobotanical, Livestock disease, Medicinal plants, Traditional knowledge
INTRODUCTION: In India, different tribal community people use more than 8000 medicinal plant species and approximately 25,000 folk medicine-based formulations of their traditional healthcare system 1. The majority tribal community peoples of entire North-East India, i.e., more than 200 tribes of different ethnic groups, are inhabited in the forest ecosystem and have their socio-cultural patterns, tradition, and specific food habits 2.
Traditional food items and medicines of plant origin used by the tribes of the north-eastern region are closely connected to virtually all aspects of their socio-cultural, spiritual life, and health care system since ancient times 3. Documentation of traditional knowledge of indigenous communities plays a significant role in reporting about the utilization of medicinal plants in a particular region.
Firstly, it ensures that indigenous cultural heritage is preserved from being lost for the use of both present and future generations. Moreover, ethnobotanical documentation has become a valuable tool for conducting further bio-active studies on the relevant plant species. Documentation of ethnobotanical study can help to discover active pharmaceutical ingredients and new efficacious plant remedies 4, 5. Based on socio-economic status and indigenous plant-based knowledge of the local communities, ethnobotanical research helps investigate and enumerate medicinal plant species' significant roles within the local socio-cultural context 6. Assam is a multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic and multi-religious community inhabitant state of North-East India. They belong to three main language groups: Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic, and Tibeto- Burman. Among the 35 administrative districts of the state, Dhemaji District is situated in the remote corner of North East India on the north bank of river Brahmaputra. The previous ethnobotanical surveys carried out by the researchers in the district revealed that the community people are widely dependent on the traditional medicinal system for managing primary healthcare. Due to the cultural and community diversity of the district, plant species are used in different diseases and purposes, such as religious practices 7, 8, anti-diabetic potential ethnobotanicals 9, reproductive health 10, anti-malarial treatment, etc. 11-15. Besides medicinal plants in human healthcare, they are also used traditionally for ethnoveterinary purposes 16. The main objectives of the present investigation were authentication and enumeration of some unexplored potential medicinal plants used and preserved by different tribal community peoples of the Nilakh- Sripani area of Dhemaji district, one of the major tribal community inhabitant districts of Assam.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Study Area: Geographically, the Dhemaji district is situated between the 94º12/ 18// E and 95º41/32// E longitudes and 27º05/ 27// N and 27º57/16// N latitudes of Assam. The district covers an area of 3237 sq. km and is a plain area that lies at an altitude of 104 meters above sea level. The conducted field survey area i.e., Sripani and Nilakh Gaon Panchyat belong to the Sissiborgaon development block, Jonai sub-division under the Dhemaji District Fig. 1.
FIG. 1: THE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF THE STUDY AREA (NILAKH-SRIPANI) (Source: Prepared by PB, Map not to scale).
Dhemaji is the easternmost district of Assam and is constituted bifurcating Lakhimpur district. It is the homeland of many scheduled d tribes namely Mishing, Deori, Sonowal Kacharis, Bodos, Tiwas, Chutias, Ahoms, Koch and others. A total of 11 village inhabitants of different tribal communities, i.e. Tiwa, Mishing, Deori, Kachari, Ahom, Nepali and Koch under two Gaon panchayat namely Nilakh and Sripani are selected for the study. Most villages of the study area lie near the border region of Arunachal Pradesh which is nearly 20 km distance from Dhemaji town Fig. 1. Due to economic backwardness, poor road communication, inadequate modern medical facilities in the study area, traditional knowledge practices are the only option for the treatment of the primary healthcare system. This ethnobotanical knowledge and practices in the study area are still possible due to plentiful wild plant resources in the Assam-Arunachal border region and old age tradition among tribal communities. Most of the folk knowledge practiced by the traditional healer and medicine man is based on oral tradition which is passed through their family background and particular community belief from generation to generation.
FIG. 2: INTERVIEW WITH TRADITIONAL HEALERS: A) A KONCH MEDICINE MAN PRESCRIBING FRESH POLYHERBAL EXTRACT FOR GASTRIC ULCER; B) AUTHOR INTERACTING WITH A DEORI TRADITIONAL HEALER DISCUSSING THE TREATMENT OF DOG BITE; C) A FEMALE PRACTITIONER SPEAKING ABOUT THE MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN DIFFERENT HEALTH AILMENT; D) AN AHOM TRADITIONAL HEALER TREATING ARTHRITIS USING MATURE LEAVES OF THELYPTERIS OPULENTAAND CHANTING MANTRAS
Ethnobotanical Data Collection and Identification: The extensive ethnobotanical fieldwork was carried out over two years (2018-2020). The first phase of data collection contains the demographic profile of informants including ethnic community groups, gender, age groups, informant’s types (i.e., old age person, traditional healer, local people, well-educated person) and practice experience on traditional medicine. The second phase of data documentation is comprised of information about the plant name, family, local name, habit, parts used, treatment of diseases using plant species, mode of preparation/ administration of the crude drug for particular ailments and quantitative ethnobotanical indices such as use value (UV), fidelity level (FL) and informant consensus factor (ICF) of particular disease type. During the second phase of data documentation, information about the local name of plants was collected based on the informant's knowledge using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended interviews. The plant samples/ parts were collected from the study area during the time of the field survey and collected samples were prepared as herbarium specimens followed by standard methods and voucher specimens were submitted to the Department of Herbal Science and Technology, Anandaram Dhekial Phookan College, Nagaon, Assam for further reference. For validation of the family and scientific name of plant species World Flora online (http://www.worlfloraonline.org), Plants of the World Online (http://www.powo.science.kew.org) and Tropicos (http://www.tropicos.org) were used 17-19.
Quantitative Data Analysis:
Frequency of Citation (FC) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC): The Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) uses for the evaluation of the relative importance and significance of plant species based on the number of informants for each species and the total informants interviewed in study 20-21. It was calculated by dividing “FC” by the total number of informants in the whole survey (N) as followed by
Where FC stands for the frequency of citation and expresses the number of informants interviewed for a species that cite its uses. This index varies from 0 (zero), when nobody refers to the plant species as useful, to 1 (one) in the case when there are a maximum number of informants that consider a plant species useful.
Use Value (UV): The use-value is an ethnobotanical index that shows the relative importance of plant species known locally based on the number of recorded uses (Use report) for each species 22. It was calculated by following the formula
Where UV stands for use-value, and “U” is the total number of use citations by all information for a given species, divided by the total number of informants “n”.
Fidelity Level (FL): Fidelity level determines the specific uses of each plant species and its preference over other species. It expresses the specificity of disease treated by a reported plant species 23.
FL= (Ip/Iu) ×100
Where “Ip” is the number of informants who suggested a given species to treat a specific disease and “Iu” is the total number of informants who mentioned the species for any use.
Informant Consensus Factor (ICF): The informant consensus factor (ICF) expresses informants' consensus about the use of plant species in treating the different types of disease categories 24-25. The following formula calculates it
ICF = Nur – Nt/ Nur - 1
Where “Nur” is the number of use reports (number of conditions of a disease category) of a disease category treated by a plant species and “Nt” is the number of plant taxa used for treating that disease category. The maximum ICF value i.e., close to 1 indicates that well-known species are used by a large proportion of local communities due to their authenticity regarding diseases. However, a low ICF index close to 0 specifies that the informants use this species randomly to treat reported diseases.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Demographic Profile of Informants in the Study Area: A total of 67 informants (i.e., male 44 and female 23) from different ethnic communities were interviewed at their convenience during the study.
Semi-structured questions regarding personal information and information about medicinal plants they used in treating diseases were asked during the time of the study. The information about the demographic profile of the participants, such as ethnic groups they belonged to, gender, age and educational status is shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1: CLASSIFICATION OF INFORMANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES
|Variables||Category||No. of Informants||Percentage (%)|
|Ethnic community groups||Lalung||6||8.96|
|Educational status||No Formal Education||14||20.9|
|High School Level||16||17.91|
|Higher Secondary Level||11||23.88|
Enumeration of Ethnobotanical Data: A total of 102 plant species belonging to 57 families were recorded from the villages of the Nilakh- Sripani area Table 2.
The families Fabaceae and Rubiaceae had the highest number of species (6) followed by Lamiaceae and Solanaceae (each 5), Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Malvaceae (each 4), Acanthaceae, Asteraceae and Zingiberaceae (3), Anacardiaceae, Araceae, Compositae, Cucurbitaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Marantaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae, Sapotaceae, Urticaceae (each 2) and rest families had one species each. The collected plant species recorded different growth forms such as herbs (38.24%), shrubs (24.5%), trees (20.59%) and climbers (16.67%) (Fig. 3).
The medicinal plants were collected mainly from natural vegetation (i.e.,. riverbanks, roadside areas and forests) and home gardens (Fig. 4). (55.88%) were collected naturally and 45 (44.12%) were collected from the home garden.
FIG. 3: LIFE FORMS (PLANT HABITS) OF REPORTED MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES IN THE NILAKH-SRIPANI AREA
Fourteen different plant parts were used to treat diseases in the study. The most cited plant parts used in healthcare treatments are leaves (52 reports) followed by roots (11), fruits (10), rhizomes (9), barks (7), seeds (6), stems, flowers, shoots and aerial parts (5 each), peels (3), mucilage and whole parts (2 each) and latex (1) (Fig. 5). According to the informants, different ways to prepare the medicine from the plants were fresh/raw, decoction, infusion, crushing or pounding and direct application administered orally as well as a topical application (i.e. poultice/ paste form, eye/ear drop). The plant parts used and the mode of preparation of medicinal plants depend on the ailments. The local peoples of the region also consumed some medicinal plants as leafy vegetables in their food items.
FIG. 4: MEDICINAL PLANTS PARTS COLLECTED FROM THE STUDY AREA. A: YOUNG SHOOTS OF MAGNOLIA HODGSONII USED AS A TRADITIONAL LIPSTICK; B: TENDER SHOOTS OF CALAMUS TENUIS EATING AS A VEGETABLE; C: RIPEN FRUIT OF SAPINDUS MUKOROSSI; D: CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS POPULAR SPICY CHILLY; E: RHIZOME OF MARANTA ARUNDINACEA; F: SEED POD OF ENTADA SCANDENS VAR. PURSAETHA; G: DRY STEM OF THUNBERGIA GRANDIFLORA; H: SEEDS AND FRUITS OF DATUA METEL; I: SEEDS OF CAESALPINIA BONDUC
FIG. 5: PERCENTILE DISTRIBUTIONS OF PLANT PARTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
TABLE 2: ENUMERATION OF ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY THE TRIBAL COMMUNITIES IN NILAKH- SRIPANI AREA OF DHEMAJI DISTRICT, ASSAM
|S. no.||Scientific name/ Family/Voucher no.||Local name||Life forms||Habitat||Parts used||Uses||Mode of Preparation and route of administration||FC||RFC||UR||UV||FL|
|1||Acmella paniculata (Wall. ex DC.) R.K. Jansen (Asteraceae) /HST-0117||Ass.-Huhoni bon
|Herb||NV||Leaves, Flower||Sore throat||Fresh flower chewed during the tongue infection and sore throat problem.
Cooked/boiled leaves also prescribed orally to relieve sore throat.
|2||Acorus calamus L. (Acoraceae)/ HST-0001||Ass.- Bos||Herb||HG||Rhizome||Common cold||A piece of rhizome worn as garland.||45||0.67||1||0.02||100|
|3||Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L. (Asteraceae )/ HST-0101||Ass.-Gundhua bon||Herb||NV||Leaves||Cut and wound||Paste or juice applied on the affected area.||55||0.82||1||0.02||100|
|4||Alocasia odora (Roxb. ex Lodd., G. Lodd. & W. Lodd.) Spach (Araceae)/ HST-0111||Ass.- Dohikosu||Herb||HG||Stem||Worm infection*||Stem use as a vegetable.||10||0.15||1||0.1||100|
|5||Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae) /HST- 0003||Ass.-Sotiona||Tree||NV||Bark , Latex
|Malaria, Pneumonia, Rheumatoid arthritis||Decoction of the bark given orally in Malaria & Pneumonia.
Fresh Latex applied topically on the site of Arthritic pain area.
|6||Amaranthus spinosus L. (Amaranthaceae) / HST-0086||Ass.-Hatikhutora||Herb||HG||Root||Kidney stone||Fresh root juice eaten in the empty stomach to remove Kidney stone.
Leaves use as a vegetable.
|7||Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. (Bromeliaceae )/ HST-0104||Ass.- Anaras||Herb||HG||Leaves||Rabies*||Yong tender leaf mixed with molasses and immediately after Dog bite.||2||0.03||1||0.5||100|
|8||Annona reticulata L. (Annonaceae) /HST-0029||Ass.- Atlas||Tree||HG||Seed||Head lice||Seed powder mixed with coconut oil and the mixer paste is applied as poultice and allowed to remain overnight to kill and remove Hair lice.||12||0.18||1||0.08||100|
|9||Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) /HST-0040||Ass.-Kordoi||Tree||HG||Root||Pyorrhea||Dried root are ground to paste or as toothpowder on bleeding gum.||5||0.07||1||0.2||100|
|10||Basella alba L. (Basellaceae )/HST-0005||Ass.- Puroi||Climber||HG||Leaves||Fire burn||Fresh leaves make a paste form and applied as a poultice.||21||0.31||1||0.05||100|
|11||Calamus tenuis Roxb. (Arecaceae) /HST-0009||Ass.-Jati bet
|Climber||NV||Shoot||Malaria*||Cooked tender shoot prescribed orally.||9||0.13||1||0.11||100|
|12||Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand. (Apocynaceae) / HST-0064||Ass.- Akon||Shrub||NV||Leaves||Heel pain||Mature leaves to apply to heat to heel for relieve severe pain.||8||0.12||1||0.13||100|
|13||Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) /HST-0011||Ass.- Bhang||Herb||HG||Leaves,
|Leaves fed to cattle suffering in dyspepsia.
1-2 teaspoonful of raw juice from dried flowers mixed with fresh milk and eaten in empty stomach in Dog bite.
|14||Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Solanaceae) /HST-0010||Ass.-Bhutjolokia
|Herb||HG||Fruit||Gastric Ulcer, Dyspepsia||Fresh fruit eaten with fermented rice (boiled rice steeped in cold water.||37||0.55||2||0.05||100|
|15||Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae)||Ass.- Kon jolokia||Herb||HG||Fruit||Tonsillitis,
|Fresh Ripe fruit prescribed orally in tonsillitis.
Fresh Ripe fruit given orally in diphtheria problem in cattle.
|16||Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold (Apocynaceae)/HST-0013||Ass.-BogaKorobi||Shrub||HG||Root||Snake Bite*||Fresh root bark ground to paste and applied locally in Snake bite.||2||0.02||1||0.5||100|
|17||Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Apiaceae) /HST-0028||Ass.- Bormanimuni||Herb||FL||Aerial part||Jaundice||Fresh juice from leaves prescribed orally in jaundice problem.||11||0.16||1||0.09||100|
|18||Centipeda minima (L.) A. Braun & Asch. (Asteraceae)||Ass.- Hachiyoti bon||Herb||NV||Aerial part||Cough, Asthma||DryAerial part mixed with seed powder of P. nigrum and mixer is prescribed in Cough and Asthma.||3||0.01||2||0.67||66.67|
|19||Chrysophyllum roxburghiiG. Don (Sapotaceae)||Ass.- Bonpitha||Tree||HG||Seed||Tonsillitis*||2-3 drops of decoction prepared from of mature seed applied orally in tonsillitis.||4||0.06||1||0.25||100|
|20||Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm. (Lauraceae) /HST-0034||Ass.-Tejpat||Tree||HG||Leaves||`Eczema||Fresh juice of leaves mixed with water is prescribed for washing infected parts.||13||0.19||1||0.08||100|
|21||Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. (Rutaceae)/HST-0105||Ass.- RobabTenga
|Shrub||HG||Fruit||Worm infection||Fresh juice from mesocarp portion given orally in empty stomach (morning) on round worm infection.||7||0.1||1||0.14||100|
|22||Clematis zeylanica (L.) Poir. (Ranunculaceae) /HST-0049||Ass.-Gopsoroi lota||Climber||NV||Root
Cut & Wounds
|Decoction or raw juice from roots prescribed orally in gastric ulcer.
Leaves are crushed and paste is applied in Cut & wounds.
|23||Clerodendrum glandulosum Lindl. (Lamiaceae) /HST-0015||Ass.-Nefafu||Shrub||NV||Leaves||Hypertension||Cooked young tender leaves used as vegetable.||29||0.43||1||0.03||100|
|24||Clerodendrum infortunatum L. (Lamiaceae) /HST-0016||Ass.-Dhopattita||Shrub||NV||Leaves
|Leaves powder made into pills. 3-5 pills prescribed orally two times a day.
Fresh leaves paste locally applied as a poultice on anus.
|25||Commelina benghalensis L. (Commelinaceae) /HST-0017||Ass.- Kona Simalu||Herb||NV||Mucilage||Eye acne||2-3 drops fresh mucilage from stem applied externally once a day.||27||0.4||1||0.04||100|
|26||Croton caudatus Geiseler (Euphorbiaceae) /HST-0018||Ass.-Lota Mahudi||Climber||NV||Leaves||Dyspnea*||A cup of infusion prescribed orally one times a day for 4-5 days continuously.||17||0.25||1||0.06||100|
|27||Croton tiglium L. (Euphorbiaceae)||Ass.- Konibih||Tree||HG||Leaves||Pesticide||Fresh leaves sowing into paddy filed to control pest.||4||0.06||1||0.25||100|
|28||Cryptolepis dubia (Burm.f.) M.R.Almeida (Apocynaceae) /HST-0022||Ass.- Kola anatamul||Climber||NV||Leaves,
|Fresh leaves juice mixed with wine in 3:1 ratio (60 ml) and prescribed orally in the morning three doses at 3 days interval.
Paste prepared from leaves applied as a poultice and tied with stem locally on bone fracture site.
|29||Curcuma caesia Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) /HST-0113||Ass.- Kola haldhi
|Herb||NV||Rhizome||Cut & Wound, Rheumatoid arthritis||Paste prepared from fresh rhizomes applied as poultice locally on Cut & Wound and arthritic pain.||52||0.79||2||0.03||76.92|
|30||Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae) /HST-0024||Ass.-Tiyoh||Climber||FL||Fruit||Anti-leech||Fresh fruit eaten immediately to repel out leech from the body.||5||0.07||1||0.2||100|
|31||Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Convolvulaceae) /HST-0091||Ass.- Akashi lota||Climber||NV||Stem||Poultry disease*||Raw juice mixed with rice and kept for overnight. Then the rice is prescribed orally in the morning in common chick diseases.||19||0.28||1||0.05||100|
|32||Cynodonda ctylon (L.) Pers. (Poaceae) / HST-0039||Ass.-Dubori bon||Herb||NV||Leaves||Leucorrhea||A cup of fresh juice mixed with equal amount of fresh cow milk and adequate amount of sugar and prescribed orally empty stomach in the before 8.00 AM for three days continuously.||6||0.08||1||0.17||100|
|33||Datura metel L. (Solanaceae) /HST-0025||Ass.- Dhatura||Shrub||NV||Leaves,
|2-3 leaves are crushed to make paste and heated over fire, and then the paste is applied as a poultice locally for 2 hours in arthritic pain.
Infusion of the seeds of D. metal, leaves of C. sativa and stem of T. grandiflora mixed with fresh cow milk is given orally (two-three teaspoonful) in empty stomach on Dog bite.
|34||Dendrocnidesinuata (Blume) (Urticaceae) Chew/HST-0026||Ass.-Borsurat
|Shrub||NV||Shoot||Eczema*||Young tender leaves eaten as a vegetable.||14||0.21||1||0.07||100|
|35||Dillenia indica L. (Dilleniaceae) /HST-0061||Ass.- Ou-tenga
|Tree||NV||Fruit, Mucilage||Dandruff||Mucilage from fruit of D. indica is prescribed for washing hair to remove dandruff.||57||0.85||1||0.02||100|
|36||Drymaria cordata (L) Willd. ex Schult(Caryophyllaceae)||Ass- Laijabori||Herb||NV||Leaves||Oral thrush*||1-2 drops fresh juice given orally to children in oral thrush problem.||23||0.34||1||0.04||100|
|37||Ecliptaprostrata(L.) L. (Compositae) /HST-0021||Ass.-Kenhraj||Herb||NV||Leaves||Epistaxis*
Cut & Wound
|2 spoonful of fresh juice immediately given orally in nasal bleeding (Epistaxis).
Aerial parts grind make into pills and prescribed orally 4-5 pills twice a day.
Paste pre pared from leaves locally applied as a poultice.
|38||Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. (Poaceae) /HST-0023||Ass.-Bobosabon||Herb||NV||Root||Headache*||Paste is applied on forehead in Headache.||5||0.07||1||0.2||100|
|39||Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae)||Ass.- Borghila||Climber||NV||Seed||Appendicitis*||One seed embryo mixed with chicken egg and makes an omelet and prescribed orally in appendicitis.||3||0.04||1||0.33||100|
|40||Euphorbia antiquorum L. (Euphorbiaceae)||Ass.- Hiju||Shrub||HG||Leaves||Leucorrhea
|3 nos. of Slightly smoked leaves mixed with cow milk and prescribed orally in the morning.
Fresh leaves are crushed and paste is applied as a poultice and tied locally on nail (infected area).
|41||Euphorbia hirtaL. (Euphorbiaceae)||Ass.-Gakhiroti bon||Herb||NV||Aerial part||Increase breast milk||Fresh aerial part helps to increase milk.||21||0.31||1||0.05||100|
|42||Garcinia Morella (Gaertn.) Desr. (Clusiaceae)/HST-0032||Ass.-Kujithekera
|Tree||HG||Fruit||Hypertension, Dysentery||Infusion prepared from 2-3 years old dry stored fruit pulp is given in Hypertension and Dysentery.||28||0.39||2||0.05||85.71|
|43||Grewia serrulata DC. (Malvaceae) /HST-0033||Ass.-Kukurhuta||Shrub||NV||Bark||Leucorrhea*||A cup of fresh juice from the stem bark mixed with equal amount fresh cow milk and adequate amount of sugar candy prescribed orally once a day (morning) in Leucorrhea.||3||0.04||1||0.33||100|
|44||Guilandina bonduc L. (Fabaceae )/HST-0068||Ass.-Letaguti||Climber||HG||Seed, Leaves||Malaria, Pneumonia||Decoction of the leaves or seeds taken orally two times a day.||27||0.4||2||0.07||74|
|45||Hellenia speciosa (J. Koenig) S.R. Dutta (Costaceae)/ HST-0085||Ass.-Jomlakhuti||Herb||HG||Rhizome||Urinary problem||A cup of fresh juice from rhizome is prescribed orally in the morning to clear obstruction.||19||0.28||1||0.05||100|
|46||Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern (Malvaceae) /HST-0035||Ass.-RongaTengamora||Shrub||HG||Leaves||Dysentery||Decoction or salad administered orally in blood dysentery.||37||0.55||1||0.03||100|
|47||Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae) /HST-0054||Ass.-Joba||Shrub||HG||Leaves
|Paste prepared from fresh leaves applied on hair and allowed to remain 1-2 hour and wash hair to remove Dandruff.
5-7 immature flower buds mixed with sugar candy and prescribed orally in irregular menstrual cycle problem.
|48||Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Sauruaceae) /HST-0007||Ass.-Mosondori||Herb||HG||Whole part||Piles||Pills prepared from the plants prescribed orally in piles.||3||0.04||1||0.33||100|
|49||Hydrocotyles ibthorpioidesLam (Araliaceae) /HST-0036||Ass.- Horumanimuni||Herb||FL||Whole part||Diarrhea||Raw juice/salad prepared from plants given orally in Diarrhea and Indigestion.||29||0.43||1||0.03||100|
|50||Hygrophila ringens (L.) R. Br. Ex Spreng (Acanthaceae)||Ass.- Ikhyogandhi||Herb||NV||Leaves||Pneumonia||Leaves mixed with powder of P. nigrum and juice is prescribed in pneumonia.||3||0.04||1||0.33||100|
|51||Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) /HST-0006||Ass.-Duportenga||Herb||HG||Leaves||Kidney stone||Fresh leave juice taken orally in the empty stomach (morning).||33||0.49||1||0.03||100|
|52||Kaempferia angustifolia Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)||Ass.- Gathiyon||Herb||HG||Leaves
|Smoke from dry leaves repels mosquito.
Fresh juice prescribed in Asthmatic cough in children.
|53||Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae)||Ass.- Gu Phool||Shrub||NV||Leaves||Mosquito||Smoke from dry leaves repels mosquito.||15||0.22||1||0.06||100|
|54||Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites (Araceae) /HST-0037||Ass.-Sengmora||Herb||NV||Leaves
|A piece of rhizome cooked with eel fish and small amount of fruit powder of P. nigrum eaten in Piles.
Rhizome ground and mixed with mealand given orally to pigs in common flu.
|55||Lawsonia inermis L.(Lythraceae) /HST-0058||Ass.-Jetuka||Shrub||HG||Leaves||Onchomycosis,
|Leaf paste applied as a poultice form externally on infected nail.
Raw juice mixed with cow milk and prescribed orally in the early morning.
|56||Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link. (Lamiaceae) /HST-0020||Ass.-Durun||Herb||FL||Leaves||Sinusitis
|One drop fresh juice applied as nasal drops in sinusitis.
Leaves eaten as vegetables in piles.
3-4 Fresh leaves mixed with 5 Piper nigrum seeds and prescribed orally in tonsillitis.
|57||Litseasalic ifolia (J. Roxb. ex Nees) Hook. f. (Lauraceae)||Ass.-Dighlati||Shrub||NV||Leaves||Anti-mites||Fresh leaves juice sprayed on skin to removal of mites found in cattle’s.||39||0.58||1||0.03||100|
|58||Magnolia hodgsonii (Hook. f. & Thomson) H. Keng. (Magnoliaceae) /HST-0129||Ass.- Borhomthuri||Tree||NV||Shoots||Traditional Lipstick, Pyorrhea||Young shoots/leaves are chewed to produce color on lips and to treat pyorrhea.||35||0.52||2||0.06||85.71|
|59||Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) /HST-0038||Ass.-Aam
|Tree||NV||Leaves||Menstrual disorder||Raw juice of leaves taken orally in the early morning to treat menstrual disorder.||3||0.04||1||0.33||100|
|60||Marantaarund inacea L. (Marantaceae) /HST-0042||Ass.-Toraalu||Herb||HG||Rhizome||Worm infection*||Rhizome warmed over fire and eaten in empty stomach on round worm infection.||17||0.25||1||0.09||100|
|61||Melastomamala bathricum L. (Melastomataceae) /HST-0043||Ass.-Futkola||Shrub||NV||Leaves||Piles, Cough, Pneumonia*||Raw or infusion mixed with fruit powder of black pepper is taken orally in piles, cough and pneumonia.||19||0.28||3||0.16||84.71|
|62||Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae)||Ass.- Ghura neem||Tree||NV||Leaves||Pesticide
|Leaves juice sprayed in agriculture field to control pest.
Smoke from dry leaves repels mosquito.
|63||Meynala xiflora Robyns. (Rubiaceae)||Ass.- Kutkura||Shrub||NV||Leaves, Fruit||Dandruff *||Paste prepared from leaves applied on hair for removal of dandruff.||27||0.4||1||0.04||100|
|64||Mikania micrantha Kunth (Compositae) /HST-0044||Ass.-Premlota||Climber||NV||Leaves||Diarrhea||3-4 teaspoonful of raw juice given orally in Diarrhea.||12||0.2||1||0.08||100|
|65||Mimosa pudicaL. (Fabaceae) /HST-0128||Ass.-Nilaji bon||Herb||NV||Root||Hysteria*||Fresh root juice prescribed orally after dinner to treat hysteria.||5||0.07||1||0.2||100|
|66||Mimusopselengi L. (Sapotaceae) /HST-0046||Ass.-Bokul||Tree||HG||Bark||Dental pain*||Decoction prepared from bark is prescribed for gargling, two times a day for three days in Dental pain.||3||0.04||1||0.33||100|
|67||Morinda angustifolia Roxb. (Rubiaceae) /HST-0047||Ass.-Achu||Tree||NV||Leaves||Epistaxis||3 drops raw juice prepared from leaves prescribed as nasal drops in epistaxis.||4||0.06||1||0.25||100|
|68||Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) /HST-0060||Ass.-Chajina||Tree||HG||Bark||Rheumatoid arthritis||Soup prepared from stem bark of M. oeifera and fruit powder of P. nigrum with squab meat is prescribed in arthritic pain.||3||0.04||1||0.33||100|
|69||Musa balbisiana Colla (Musaceae)||Ass.- Vimkol||Herb||HG||Peel
|Cut & Wounds,
|Ash prepared from peel prescribed locally in Cut & Wounds.
Warm rice taken on leaves and it helps to kill round worms.
|70||Mussaenda roxburghii Hook. f. (Rubiaceae) /HST-0048||Ass.-Hunarupa
|Shrub||NV||Leaves||Post natal care||Cooked or boiled leaves prescribed orally to mothers post delivery to stop internal bleeding.||7||0.1||1||0.14||100|
|71||Neonauclea purpurea (Roxb.) Merr. (Rubiaceae)||Ass.- Kodom/Raghu||Tree||NV||Leaves||Winter dysentery in cattle’s||Fresh leaves or juice given orally to cattle’s in dysentery.||27||0.4||1||0.04||100|
|72||Oldenlandia corymbosa L. (Rubiaceae) /HST-0050||Ass.-Bonjaluk||Herb||FL||Aerial Part||Increase breast milk*||Aerial parts fried with mustard oil and prescribed to increase breast milk for 3 to 7 days.||3||0.04||1||0.33||100|
|73||Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. ex Kurz (Bignoniaceae)||Ass.- Bhatghila
|Flower eaten as vegetables for relive worm infection.
Ash prepared from seeds mixed with coconut oil and given as ear drop in otorrhea.
Fresh bark juice given orally in pneumonia.
|74||Phlogacanthus pubinervius T. anderson (Acanthaceae) /HST-0012||Ass.-RongaBahok||Shrub||HG||Leaves||Fever, Malaria, Pneumonia,
|Decoction of leaves with fruit powder of P. nigrum given orally in fever, malaria and pneumonia.
Fresh juice from leaves mixed with coconut oil and 3-4 drops applied as ear drops in otorrhea.
|75||Phrynium pubinerve Blume (Marantaceae)||Ass.-Koupat
|Herb||NV||Leaves||Worm infection*||Rice boiled by wrapping in leaves. The aroma of leaves mixed in rice prescribed 2-3 days which helps repel out round worm.||12||0.18||1||0.08||100|
|76||Piper betle L. (Piperaceae)||Ass.- Pan||Climber||HG||Leaves||Diarrhea||Juice prepared from 3 mature leaves and mixed with garlic prescribed orally in diarrhea problem.||7||0.1||1||0.14||100|
|77||Plumbago zeylanica L. (Plumbaginaceae) /HST-0051||Ass.-Agiachita||Herb||HG||Root||Edema,
|A piece of root worn around the arm in Edema or root bark is cooked with Channa punctatus fish and juice is orally prescribed in Edema.
Root bark crushed and mixed with one 1 chicken egg to make an omelet and prescribed orally once a day for 3 days in liver disorder.
|78||Pogostemon benghalensis (Burm. f.) Kuntze (Lamiaceae) /HST-0056||Ass.- Hukloti||Shrub||HG||Leaves||Edema, Hypertension||Leaves twigs used as vegetables once a day for 7-10 days in Edema and hypertension.||21||0.31||2||0.09||76.19|
|79||Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) /HST-0008||Ass.- Madhuri
|Shrub||HG||Leaves||Diarrhea, Cough||Raw juice prepared from young leaves given orally in Diarrhea, whereas juice mixed with fruit powder of P. nigrum is prescribed in Cough.||46||0.68||2||0.04||54.34|
|80||Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae) /HST-0055||Ass.-Dalim
|Shrub||HG||Leaves, Peel, Root||Worm infection||Raw Juice prepared from leaves or peel or stem and root bark given orally in empty stomach to repel out pork tapeworm infection.||18||0.27||1||0.06||100|
|81||Portulaca grandiflora Hook (Portulacaceae) /HST-0052||Ass.-MalvugKhutora||Herb||HG||Aerial part||Fire burn
|Leaves are made into paste and applied as poultice locally in Fire burn.
Cooked/boiled aerial parts given orally in jaundice.
|82||Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Blume (Orchidaceae) /HST-0053||Ass.- Kopouful||Herb||NV||Flower||Anti-Lice*||Fresh flower wearing on hair knot of women to remove head lice.||31||0.46||1||0.03||100|
|83||Rubus alceifolius Poir. (Rosaceae) /HST-0057||Ass.-Jetulipoka||Climber||NV||Leaves
Female puberty disorder*
|Fresh leave juice given orally in piles.
Decoction of stem bark is prescribed orally in female puberty disorder.
|84||Sarcochlamys pulcherrima Gaudich. (Urticaceae) /HST-0070||Ass.-Mesangi
|Shrub||NV||Leaves||Diarrhea, Worm infection||Cooked/boiled leaves eaten as vegetables.||14||0.21||2||0.14||71.42|
|85||Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (Sapindaceae)||Ass.-Haitha/Monisal||Tree||HG||Peel||Tonsillitis*||Decoction prepared from fruit peel gargling 5-6 times per day to relive tonsillitis.||10||0.15||1||0.1||100|
|86||Scoparia dulcis L. (Scophulariaceae) /HST-0071||Ass.-Senibon||Herb||NV||Leaves||Diabetes||50-100ml of raw juice prepared from leaves given orally once a day for one week in Diabetes.||20||0.3||1||0.05||100|
|87||Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae) /HST-0059||Ass.-Khorgos||Shrub||NV||Leaves||Ringworm||Leaves are crushed and paste is externally rubbed on ring worm affected area.||48||0.72||1||0.02||100|
|88||Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) /HST-0098||Ass.-Borhunborial||Herb||NV||Root||Fever||A piece of root is worn as a garland on neck in night.||2||0.03||1||0.5|
|89||Smilax ovalifolia Roxb. Ex. D. Don (Smilacaceae) /HST-0063||Ass.-Tikoniborua||Climber||NV||Shoot||Hair fall||Cooked/boiled young shoots prescribed as vegetables to treat hair fall and repel out tapeworm.||18||0.28||2||0.11||72.22|
|90||Solanum anguivi Lam. (Solanaceae) /HST-0064||Ass.-Titabhekuri
|Shrub||NV||Fruit||Asthma||Fruit eaten as vegetables and salads.||25||0.37||1||0.04||100|
|91||Solanum americanum Mill. (Solanaceae)||Ass.- Loskosi||Herb||NV||Root||Rabies||Fresh root juice prescribed orally in dog bite.||7||0.12||1||0.14||100|
|92||Solena heterophylla Lour. (Cucurbitaceae) /HST-0065||Ass.- Belipoka/Ghukusmoi||Climber||NV||Rhizome,||Sinusitis*||Fresh raw juice from rhizome locally applied on sinus with the help of cotton bud in nasal cavity in Sinusitis problem.||3||0.1||1||0.33||100|
|93||Spondia smombin L. (Anacardiaceae) /HST-0045||Ass.- Amara||Tree||HG||Fruit||Diarrhea||A little amount of fruit preserved in salt is given orally in Diarrhea.||22||0.33||1||0.05||100|
|94||Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae) /HST-0041||Ass.- Teteli||Tree||HG||Fruit||Hypertension||Infusion prepared from ripens fruits prescribed orally in the morning in Hypertension problem.||16||0.24||1||0.06||100|
|95||Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight &Arn. (Combretaceae) /HST-0066||Ass.- Arjun||Tree||HG||Bark||Heart attack||Infusion prepared from stem bark prescribed as tea in
the empty stomach (morning) in Heart disease.
|96||Thelypterisopulenta (Kaulf.) Fosb.in Fosb. & Sachet (Thelypteridaceae) /HST-0002||Ass.- Bihlongoni||Herb||NV||Leaves||Rheumatoid arthritis*||Mature leaves and bitten topically on the affected area of patients.||15||0.22||1||0.07||100|
|97||Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Acanthaceae) /HST-0067||Ass.-Kaurithutialota||Climber||NV||Stem||Rabies*||Infusion prepared from stem mixed with fresh cow milk is given orally (2-3 teaspoonful) in empty stomach on Dog bite.||8||0.12||1||0.12||100|
|98||Uncariarhynchophylla Miq. (Rubiaceae)||Ass.- Borokhi lota||Climber||NV||Rhizome||Bone fracture*||Boiled rhizome topically applied as a poultice.||4||0.06||1||0.25||100|
|99||Vachellia farnesiana (L). Wight & Arn. (Fabaceae)||Ass.-Toruakodom||Shrub||HG||Bark||Menstrual pain*||2 spoonful of infusion prepared from bark given orally in the morning.||4||0.06||1||0.25||100|
|100||Vitex negundo L. (Lamiaceae) /HST-0019||Ass.-Posotiya||Tree||HG||Leaves||Malaria,
|Decoction of leaves with fruit powder of P. nigrum prescribed as a tea for Malarial fever.
Fresh juice or decoction prepared from leaves mixed in water and prescribed for bathing in Psoriosis.
Leaves kept in poultry nest during the time of incubation period to protect from mites.
|101||Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) A. Dietr. (Zingiberaceae) /HST-0075||Ass.-Borahu||Herb||HG||Rhizome||Paralysis||2 teaspoonful juice prepared from rhizome is given orally in paralysis
Oil prepared from rhizome prescribed to massage topically at the site of paralysis.
|102||Zanthoxylum nitidum DC. (Rutaceae) /HST-0073||Ass.-Tejmui||Climber||NV||Stem
|Stem is used as a tooth brush in pyorrhea.
Decoction of leaves with fruit powder of P. nigrum and small amount of salt prescribed orally in Pneumonia.
Juice prepared from root bark given orally in Piles.
N.B. – Ass. - Assamese, Deo. - Deori, Mis. - Mishing, Cach. - Cachari, Nep. – Nepali; NV- Natural vegetation, HG- Home garden, *- New ethnobotanical report.
Quantitative Ethnobotanical Data Analysis:
The Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and use Value (UV): The RFC and UV indicate the relative importance of medicinal plant species based on the number of informants who reported a species and the number of uses reported for each species respectively. In the present investigation, the RFC ranged from 0.01 to 0.85. The highest RFC value found for Dillenia indica L (0.85) while lowest value was found for Centipeda minima (L.) A. Braun & Asch (0.01). Besides Dillenia indica L on the basis of RFC, the most important plant species in the study area were Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L., Musa balbisiana Colla., Melia azedarach L. (0.82 each), Curcuma caesia Roxb (0.79), Cryptolepisdubia (Burm.f.) M. R. Almeida (0.73), Senna alata (L.) Roxb (0.72) and Zanthoxylum nitidum DC(0.7). The reason behind the maximum RFC values of these medicinal plants is that most people use herbal remedies in the study area.
The use-value results of the study area varied from 0.02 to 0.67. The lowest use value found Senna alata (L.) (L.) Roxb, Dillenia indica L., Acorus calamus L. and Ageratum conyzoides L. (0.02 each), while the highest value reported for Centipeda minima (L.) A. braun & Asch (0.67). Other important species having the highest use-value were Hygrophila ringens (L.) R. Br. Ex Spreng, Solena heterophylla Lour., Oldenlandia corymbosa L., Moringa oleifera Lam., Mimus opselengi L, Mangifera indica L, Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Grewia serrulata DC, and Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. The use-value significantly indicates the usage tendency of plant species in the study area.
Fidelity Level (FL): In the present study, the plants' fidelity levels (FL) were calculated based on the use reports that had been cited highest informants for use with a given ailment. In the present study, the FL ranged from 46.8 to 100. Out of 102 plant species, 67 plant species were found highest FL (100). The lowest FL was reported for Zanthoxylum nitidum DC (46.8). Plant species having highest FL value indicate the good healing potential against a specific disease. So, FL is an important parameter that helps to carry out further study related to clinical practices.
Informant Consensus Factor (ICF): The informant consensus factor indicates the consensus between medicinal plant species and informants regarding the treatment of diseases. In the study, the treatments of the different diseases using medicinal plants were classified into 23 ailment categories Table 3. In our present investigation, the IFC value of different ailment categories was found in the range from 0.67 to 1. The highest IFC 1 is found in diabetes, eye disease, nail disease and toxicity complaint category. Neurological seizure and smooth muscle relaxants are the only disease category having the lowest ICF value (0.67). The highest ICFs represent the common occurrence of reported diseases in the study area and particular plant species treated. Otherwise, the main fact for the lowest ICF may be due to the unavailability of information on study participants.
TABLE 3: INFORMANT CONSENSUS FACTOR (ICF) VALUES FOR THE CATEGORIZED AILMENTS MENTIONED BY THE INFORMANTS
|Ailment category||Common disease||Number of use reports (Nur)||Number of taxa (Nt)||% of plant species||ICF Value|
|Bone problem||Bone fracture||51||2||1.96||0.98|
|Cardiovascular diseases||Hypertension, Heart attack||89||5||4.9||0.95|
|Contagious viral disease||Rabies, Whitlow||31||6||5.88||0.83|
|Dental problem||Dental pain, Pyorrhea||30||4||3.92||0.89|
|Dermatological problem||Cut and wound, Burn, Eczema, Ringworm, Lipstick, Psoriasis||261||12||11.76||0.95|
|Eye disease||Eye acne||27||1||0.98||1|
|Fever and Respiratory disorder||Fever, Malaria, Common cold, Asthma, Cough, Dyspnea, Pneumonia||226||22||21.57||0.90|
|Gastrointestinal disorder||Dyspepsia, Piles, Gastric ulcer, Oral thrush, Dysentery, Diarrhea, Sore throat, Appendicitis||335||23||22.54||0.93|
|Gynecological and sexual disorder||Menstrual disorder, Menorrhagia, Postnatal care, Puberty loss, Increase breast milk, Leucorrhea, Hysteria||39||11||10.78||0.73|
|Hair problem||Dandruff, Hair fall||121||4||3.92||0.97|
|Inflammation and pain||Rheumatoid arthritis, Headache, Heel pain, Tonsillitis||107||11||10.78||0.9|
|Liver problem||Jaundice, Liver dysfunction||21||3||2.94||0.9|
|Nasal disease||Epistaxis, Sinusitis||24||4||3.92||0.86|
|Neurological seizure and smooth muscle relaxant||Epilepsy, Paralysis||4||2||1.96||0.67|
|Parasitic infection||Worm infection, Leech infection, Lice infection||135||11||10.78||0.92|
|Toxicity complaints||Snake bite||2||1||0.98||1|
|Urinary disorder||Edema, Kidney, Urine obstrucle||74||5||4.9||0.94|
|Livestock diseases||Diphtheria, Increase breast milk, Winter dysentery in cattle, Parasitic infection (ectoparasite), Pig disease, Poultry disease||183||7||6.86||0.96|
|Bio pesticides||Control pest in agriculture||27||2||1.96||0.96|
New Ethnobotanical Report Finding: Out of the 102 plant species, 33 plants had new ethnobotanical reports found during the study. Information about the new ethnobotanical importance of the plants was given by the highest number of traditional healers from the Ahom community (16), followed by Deori (7), Mishing (5), Konch (4) and Kachari (1). The plant species Rubus alceifolius Poiris reported for the first time in the treatment of two diseases i.e. female puberty loss and piles (Table 4).
TABLE 4: NEW ETHNOBOTANICAL REPORT BY THE TRIBAL COMMUNITIES IN NILAKH- SRIPANI AREA OF DHEMAJI DISTRICT, ASSAM
|S. no.||Plant species||Disease treated||Reported by community|
|1||Vachellia farnesiana (L). Wight &Arn.||Menstrual pain||Konch|
|2||Thelypteris opulenta (Kaulf.) Fosb.in Fosb. & Sachet||Rheumatoid arthritis||Ahom|
|3||Alocasia odora (Roxb. ex Lodd., G. Lodd. & W. Lodd.) Spach||Worm infection||Mishing|
|4||Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.||Rabies||Konch|
|5||Calamus tenuis Roxb.||Malaria||Deori|
|6||Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold||Snake bite||Deori|
|7||Chrysophyllum roxburghii G. Don||Tonsilitis||Deori|
|8||Croton caudatus Geiseler||Dyspnea||Deori|
|9||Cryptolepisdubia (Burm.f.) M.R.Almeida||Epilepsy||Ahom|
|10||Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.||Poultry disease||Kachari|
|11||Dendrocnide sinuate (Blume) Chew||Eczema||Ahom|
|12||Drymaria cordata (L) Willd. ex Schult||Oral thrush||Ahom|
|13||Eclipta prostrata (L.) L||Epistaxis||Ahom|
|14||Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn||Headache||Deori|
|15||Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr.||Appendicitis||Ahom|
|16||Grewia serrulata DC.||Leucorrhea||Ahom|
|17||Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites||Pig disease||Mishing|
|18||Maranta arundinacea L||Worm infection||Mishing|
|19||Melastoma malabathricum L.||Pneumonia||Deori|
|20||Meynalax iflora Robyns.||Dandruff||Ahom|
|21||Mimosa pudica L.||Hysteria||Ahom|
|22||Mimus opselengi L||Dental pain||Konch|
|23||Oldenlandia corymbosa L.||Increase breast milk||Ahom|
|24||Meyna laxiflora Robyns.||Otorrhea||Ahom|
|25||Phlogacanthus pubinervius T. Anderson||Otorrhea||Ahom|
|26||Phrynium pubinerve Blume||Worm infection||Mishing|
|27||Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Blume||Anti-lice||Ahom|
|28||Rubus alceifolius Poir||Female puberty loss, Piles||Konch|
|29||Sapindusmu korossi Gaertn.||Tonsilitis||Ahom|
|30||Solena heterophylla Lour||Sinusitis||Ahom|
|31||Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.||Rabies||Deori|
|32||Uncariarhyn chophylla Miq.||Bone fracture||Mishing|
|33||Hygrophila ringen s(L.) R. Br. Ex Spreng||Pneumonia||Ahom|
Local Knowledge of Medicinal Plants found in Previous Literature: The plant Cryptolepis dubia (Burm.f.) M.R. Almeida is the most widely used plant species recorded in the bone fracture problem in the study area. The plant species also used by different tribal peoples of East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh 26-27.
In the cardiovascular disease category, the plant species Clerodendrum glandulosum Lindl is popularly used to treat hypertension 28. Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr. and Tamarindus indica L. both show potential hypotensive activity in rat and human models (in-vivo) respectively 29-30. An experimental study has revealed the bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. exerting significant inotropic and hypotensive effects increases coronary artery flow and protects myocardium against ischemic damage. It has also been detected to have mild diuretic, antithrombotic, prostaglandin E2 enhancing and hypolipidaemic activity 31, 32.
In the contagious viral disease category, in vitro anti-rabies activities of the Datura metel L were screened by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and molecular method. As the result, Datura fruit and seed (Soxhlet and cold) extracts showed 50% inhibition of rabies virus challenge virus standard (RV CVS) at 2.5 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]), respectively 33. Traditional healers of the Deori community alone reported 3 plant species out of 5 as anti-rabies potential. Dog bite is one of the most severe infectious diseases in the study area due to ignorance about urgency of dogbite wound management, vaccine administration and misconceptions associated with it. Whitlow is another less known viral infectious disease in the study area. Euphorbia antiquorum L is the only plant species used in the treatment of whitlow, which is also reported in the tribal peoples of Thrissur, Kerala 34.
Pyorrhea is a common dental problem recorded in the study area. The peoples of the study area use locally available plant species in the pyorrhea problem. According to the previous ethnobotanical literature, there are three plant species viz., Averrhoa carmabola L., Magnolia hodgsonii (Hook. f. & Thomson) H. Keng. And Zanthoxyllum nitidum DC used in the treatment of pyorrhea by Tai Ahom, Dimasa, Kachari, Bodo and Deori community of state respectively 35-38.
In dermatological problems, there are a total of 12 plant species used in the different skin problems. Five plant species Ageratum conizoides L., Curcuma caesia Roxb, Eclipta prostate L, Musa balbisiana Colla and Clematis zeylanica (L.) Poir were reported as antiseptic potential commonly used in cuts & wounds 39-45. Senna alata (L.) Roxb. in ringworm infection, Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm. in eczema and Vitex negundo L in psoriasis were widely used which is also recorded in our study area 46-47.
Scoparia dulcis L is the only plant species used in diabetes. Recent studies revealed that the extracts of Scoparia dulcis L can reduce blood glucose fasting level, increase the plasma insulin level and stimulate insulin secretion 48-49. In the eye disease category, Commelina benghalensis L is used in eye acne treatment. According to a previous report, it is useful in various eye diseases like night blindness, cataract and acne problems 50. In fever and respiratory diseases category, malarial fever and pneumonia are one of the most serious diseases in the border region of the study area. Malaria is an endemic and a major public health problem in India's north-eastern region (NER). Assam is highly receptive to malaria transmission and accounts for more than 50% of reported malaria cases in NER. Here malaria transmission is perennial and persistent, with a seasonal peak during April-September corresponding to months of rainfall 51.
The people of the study area use smoke of Lantana camara L., Kaempferia angustifolia Roscoe and Melia azedarach L. to control mosquitoes. Recent experimental studies proved that the essential oil and bioactive compound from the above plant species showed potent larvicidal and mosquito repellant properties 52-54. A total number of 6 plant species are used in Malaria. Among them, 3 plant species namely, Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Guilandina bonduc L., and Phlogacanthus pubinervius T. Anderson were used in both malaria and pneumonia 55.
The pharmacological studies by different researchers revealed that in-vivo anti-malarial activity of bark of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.N 56, in-vitro and anti-plasmodial properties of Guilandina bonduc L.57 and the larvicidal of Vitex negundo L. 58. Clerodendrum infortunatum L., traditionally used by Tani tribes of Arunachal Pradesh in malaria 59. In Ayurveda, root decoction of Sida cordifolia L used in the intermittent fever 60. Decoction of rhizome of Acorus calamus L is used for the intermittent fever which is also reported by Ahom community peoples of the study area 61. They treated infants infected by the common cold and asthma with Solanum anguivi Lam, Melastoma malabathricum L. and Centipeda minima L 62-64.
Among the 21 ailment categories, the highest numbers of medicinal plants (23 species) are recorded in gastrointestinal disorders. There is a total of 8 plant species used in the treatment of piles. According to the previous ethnobotanical survey reported that Clerodendrum infortunatum L, Eclipta prostata L,. Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites and Leucas aspera (Willd.) are used different communities of Kamrup district, Assam for curing piles 65 while two species Houttuynia cordata Thunb also found as the remedy of piles in China 66 and Melastoma malabathricum L leaves having potential wound healing and anti-hemorrhoids activity 67. Hydrocotylesi bthorpioides L, Mikania micrantha Kunth, Piper bettle L, Psidium guajava L. and Spondia smombin L. in diarrhea and Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr., in dysentery problems, is traditionally used among the tribes of Assam 68-70.
The Mishing people use the leaves of Sarcochlamys pulcherrima Gaudich also called ‘Ombe’ to prepare an ethnic dish with pork, which is very popular in their society with anti-diarrheal property 7. Previous reports on plant species i.e. Capsicum chienense J acq and Clematis zeylanica (L.) Poir in dyspepsia and anti-ulcer potential is similar to our present report 71-73. Acmella paniculata (Wall. ex DC.) R.K. Jansen is widely used as a vegetable to relieve sore throat in the study area 74.
In gynecological and sexual disorders, similar ethnobotanical data were found on Hibiscus rosa sinensis L and Mangifera indica L. in menstrual cycle disorder, Lawsonia inermis L. in menorrhagia, Mussaenda roxburghii Hook. f. in postnatal care and Euphorbia antiquorum L. and Cynodonda dactylon L. in Leucorrhea which are well known in Ayurveda 75-76. People in the study area also used herbal remedies to the treatment of the dandruff problem. Out of 3 plant species, mucilage of Dillenia indica L. is widely used to wash hair in dandruff problem and whereas polyherbal oil prepared with a combination of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. has shown potent anti-dandruff activity 77-78.
Inflammation and pain, Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Datura metel L. and Moringa oleifera Lam and Curcuma caesia Roxb were used in rheumatoid arthritis. The earlier Ethnobotanical study suggests that these plant species are traditionally used in the treatment of rheumatic pain among different communities 79-80. The leaves of Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand and used in heel pain. Local application of Calotropis gigantea flowers are efficacious as well as safe in patients with painful heel syndrome locally applied in heel pain 81.
Tonsilitis is a common inflammatory disease in the study area. There are four plant species reported in tonsillitis. Out of them, two species have been reported earlier i.e. ripe fruit of Capsicum frutescens L. and leaves of Leucas aspera (Willd.) link used in the treatment of tonsillitis 82-83. In the liver disease category, Plumbago zeylanica L. was used for the treatment of dysfunction in the liver. Root crude powder of Plumbago zeylanica L. showed the hepato-protective effect 84-85. Injaundice, Centella asiatica (L.) Urb is a common medicinal plant used by the Mising community in jaundice, which is also used in the indigenous communities of the Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand 86.
Lawsonia innermis L. is a common plant species used traditionally for coloring nails. This plant also helps to prevent onychomycosis. A previous study reported that leaves of Lawsonia innermis L. showed potent against Non-dermatophyte molds which are related to onychomycosis 87.
In nasal diseases, raw leave juice of Morinda angustifolia Roxbis applied as a nasal drop in epistaxis, which is also reported in a previous ethnobotanical study in Myanmar 88. Another plant species-Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link is used in sinusitis which is well known in the Siddha system of medicine. In the Neurological seizure and muscle relaxant disease category, healers from the Deori community prescribed the rhizome of Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) A. Dietr. in paralysis which has smooth muscle relaxant activity 89.
In the parasitic infection category, 8 plant species out of 11 reported as anthelmintic property. Among themCitrus maxima (Burm.) Merr, Musa balbisiana Colla, Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. ex Kurz, Punica granatum L. and Sarcochlamys pulcherrima Gaudich. have potent anthelmintic property. Curcumis sativus L. is the only plant used in the management of leech, which is also used by Karbi tribes of Assam 90-95. In urinary problems, urinary obstruction is most prevalent, followed by a kidney stone and a few cases are related to edema. In urinary obstruction, juice prepared from the rhizome of Hellenia speciosa (J. Koenig) S.R. Dutta is prescribed 96. For the treatment of kidney stone problems, two plant species Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (leaf extract) and Amarnthus spinosus L. (root extract) are used by the tribes, which shows a similar record found in previous studies 97-99. Another two species Plumbago zeylanica L and Pogostemon benghalensis (Burm. f.) Kuntze was reported in the treatment of edema 100-101. Besides the use of plant parts in different ailment categories, the tribes of the study area also used other natural resources. Fresh cow milk is commonly used in two urinary diseases (kidney stone and urinary obstruction), two gynecological disorders (leucorrhea and menorrhagia), one gastrointestinal disease (gastric ulcer) and one formulation prescribed in dog bite. In all polyherbal formulation, raw or fresh juice from respective medicinal plants was mixed with fresh milk and prescribed orally on an empty stomach in the morning. The sugar candy is also used to formulate kidney stones, urinary obstruction and leucorrhea.
As an important ingredient, they also added fish species in the formulations like Channa punctatus in edema and Anguilla bengalensis in piles. A traditional healer from the Konch community reported that the flesh (squab meat) of Columbia livia domestica (pigeon) is an important ingredient used for rheumatoid arthritis formulation. The traditional healers from the Ahom and Konch communities of the study area treat rheumatoid arthritis with the help of mantra therapy in combination with medicinal plants.
The healer takes the mature leaves of Thelypteris opulenta (Kaulf.) and hits topically on the affected area of the patient chanting sacred mantras. The healers who treated patients with the help of mantras are referred to as ‘Bej’. They practice these healing powers of Mantra as a successor from their forefather. Plant parts of two species viz., Acorus calamus L, and Sida cordifolia L. prescribed for wearing as a garland in common cold and fever respectively. One rare plant species was reported as a traditional lipstick plant in the study area. In ancient times, Magnolia hodgsonii (Hook. f. & Thomson) H. Keng (‘Borhomthuri’ in Assamese) was widely used as a natural lipstick among Assamese women.
The young shoots of Magnolia when chewed with betelnut or even alone, lips and tongue turn a blackish-red color. It was imagined to be a symbol of love in Assamese culture. The village youths caringly gifted the Borhomthuri to daub at the lips of their beloved and thus expressed their heart's love. The Bihu dancing girl used to daub a layer of Borhomthuri on their lips. But, due to modern civilization and habitat loss, the use of Borhomthuri is almost nil nowadays in the Assamese society.
Medicinal Plants used in the Management of Agriculture and Livestock diseases: All people in the study area organically engaged in paddy cultivation. They practice their indigenous methodologies to control pests and insects without using chemical pesticides. During the study, there are two plant species viz., Melia azedarach L. and Croton tiglium L. reported as bio-pesticides which were also previously reported 102-103. Besides using plant parts as a bio-pesticide, fermented cow dung solution and introducing insectivorous birds in paddy fields are also widely used. Livestock farming in the study area includes cattle, pigs, goats and poultry farming. Due to poor veterinary practices poultry farming in the study area is highly affected by the common flu.
The Mising community of the study area is highly engaged in pig farming than other communities. There are 8 plant species viz., Cannabis sativa L. in dyspepsia in cattle, Capsicum frutescens L. in Diphtheria, Cuscutareflexa Roxbin poultry disease, Euphorbia hirta L. in increased milk of cattle, Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites used in common flu of pigs, Litsea salicifolia (J. Roxb. ex Nees) Hook. f. in removing of ectoparasites of cattle, Neonauclea purpurea (Roxb.) Merr. in winter dysentery of cattle and Vitex negundo L. in removing mites of poultries were recorded in the study area. Previous ethnobotanical studies suggest that Cannabis sativa L, Capsicum frutescens L., Euphoribiahirta L., Litsea salicifolia (J. Roxb. ex Nees) Hook. f., Neunauclea purpurea (Roxb.) Merr., and Vitex negundoL were found similar reports 104-111. Cuscuta reflexa Roxbis only and first reported in the study area for treating livestock diseases.
CONCLUSION: The present investigation reveals that the Nilakh- Sripani of the study area has sound knowledge of traditional medicine for different human ailments, livestock and healthcare management. Most of the information is based on oral tradition passing from generation to generation without written literature. Due to the socio-cultural diversity of the tribes, traditionally important plant species were collected and authenticated.
This documentation will help the new generation find the scripted literature on the ethnomedicinal plants and their traditional knowledge that could ignite the conservation strategies of the endangered species. Thus, the present study on the ethnomedicinal plants could be an important source for further phytochemical studies which may lead to the discovery of new active pharmaceutical compounds or drugs from natural resources.
Authors’ Contributions: PB conducted the ethnobotanical survey and analyzed the field data under the supervision of MS. Both the authors participated in writing and giving feedback on the manuscript.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: The authors would like to thank Rajen Borah, Nityanada Deori, Jiba Konwar, Bhuban Chandra Dutta, Koneswar Gogoi, Bhadra Konwar and Sunil Doley for sharing their ethnomedicinal knowledge and bestowing immense help in communicating with the informants of the study area. This research did not receive any specific grant from the public, commercial or not for-profit funding agencies.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Borah P and Saikia M: Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the different tribal communities in Nilakh- Sripani area of Dhemaji district, Assam. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2022; 13(11): 4586-07. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.13(11).4586-07.
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Pranab Borah and Mousmi Saikia *
Department of Herbal Science & Technology, A. D. P. College, Nagaon, Assam, India.
26 March 2022
04 May 2022
18 June 2022
01 November 2022