ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED FOR DISINFECTION OF PREMISES AND SURFACES IN THE FEZ-MEKNES CITIES (CENTRE OF MOROCCO)HTML Full Text
ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED FOR DISINFECTION OF PREMISES AND SURFACES IN THE FEZ-MEKNES CITIES (CENTRE OF MOROCCO)
S. Jaouhar 1, 2, K. Bekhti * 1, J. El Oualidi 3, J. Bouzid 4, 5 and A. El Ouali Lalami 1, 2
Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnology 1, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University. PB 2202, Fez, Morocco.
Hassan First University of Settat 2, Higher Institute of Health Sciences, Laboratory of Health Sciences and Technologies, 26000, Settat, Morocco.
Department of Botany and Plant Ecology 3, Herbarium National Rabat responsible, Scientific Institute. Avenue Ibn Battota PB 703 Agdal 10090 Rabat, Morocco.
Laboratory of Environment and Health 4, Faculty of Sciences Moulay Ismail University, PB 11201 Zitoune Avenue, Meknes, Morocco.
Higher Institute of Health Sciences 5, Hassan first University, Road of Casablanca km 3, 5 PB 555 Settat - Morocco.
ABSTRACT: The irrational and repetitive use of synthetic chemical disinfectants can contribute to the emergence of resistant strains and represent a risk to health and the environment. The aim of this ethnobotanical survey, a first innovative study, is exploring for plants with disinfecting power. An ethnobotanical study was conducted among herbalists in Fez and Meknes cities located in the center of Morocco. Information covered includes the vernacular and scientific name of plants, used part, mode of preparation, and administration. A total of 13 species belonging to 8 families has been described. Lamiaceae and Asteraceae (23%) were the most representative with three species every one, followed by the Myrtaceae (14%) with two species. The other families (Cupressaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, and Brassicaceae), were represented with the same percentage (8%), a specie for each family. The most recommended species are Lavandula spp. (61%), Origanum elongatum (33%), Arteminisia herba-alba (23%), Rosmarinus officinalis (17%), Eucalyptus spp (17%), Atractylis gummifera L. (16%), Citrus limon (8%), Anastatica hierochuntica (6 %), Myrtus communis L. and Rosa damascena ( % for each), Artemisia absinthium and Corrigiola telephiifolia (2% for each) Tetraclinis articulata (3%). Leaves and flowers establish the most used parts. The incense was the most quoted mode of preparation. The disinfection by air contact was the recommended mode. This work would be of great interest to solve the problem of resistant strains and to develop effective biological disinfectants that respect the environment.
Ethnobotanical survey, Medicinal plants, Bio-disinfectants, Hospital environment, Health risks, Fes-Meknes City, Morocco
INTRODUCTION: The hospital environment is a place to risk; air and surfaces may be contaminated by different microorganisms from patients 1.
The consequence of the contamination can lead to Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) 2. So, adequate measures are necessary to reduce the risk of cross-contamination between the patients, the hospital environment, and the caring staff.
As a result, surfaces and medical equipment must be disinfected regularly once or several times a day 3, 4. However, the effectiveness of disinfectants remains variable from application to another. Indeed, the massive and repetitive use of the same disinfectant with the same concentration can contribute to the emergence of resistant strains 5. In addition, several have shown the emergence of bacterial resistance against different disinfectants 6. On the other hand, these products represent a chemical risk for health professionals and the environment and are aggressive for medical devices 7, 8, 9. Indeed, various authors have shown that health care professionals routinely exposed to disinfection products used to control healthcare-associated infections 10, 11. For this purpose, several studies have shown that exposure to disinfectants generates serious health risks, especially respiratory disorders 12-13, cutaneous infection, and cancers. It is reported that this risk has been associated with the use of quaternary ammoniums and bleach, products used for the disinfection of surfaces and medical instruments 14, 15.
Currently, scientists are looking for alternative products to synthetic chemicals such as herbal products. In fact, Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (AMPs) are often used as a source of bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical and agrochemical interest 16. AMPs contain an amalgam of secondary metabolites, like terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds whose antimicrobial activities have been demonstrated 17. In the whole world, numerous scientific works relating to plants and their extracts (essential oils or aqueous extracts) have demonstrated their antifungal, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties 18. In Morocco, different research works on AMP, and several ethnobotanical studies have been conducted. These studies have often focused on the use of AMP to treat diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, diseases of the digestive system or cutaneous infection 19, 20, 21, 22.
Thereby, AMP can also be used as herbal ecological bio-disinfectants for the hospital environment, especially as an alternative to synthetic chemical disinfectants used for air, surfaces, and materials. In this context, the aim of this first innovative study is to document and to explore disinfectant medicinal plants used by the Morocco population in the cities of Fes-Meknes (center of Morocco). To our knowledge, no study has focused on the use of AMP as bio-disinfectants. This work would be of great interest to health professionals to solve the problem of resistant strains and for the pharmaceutical industry so as to develop an eco-friendly disinfectant.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Study Site: The city of Fez is the capital of the Fez-Meknes administrative region, Fig. 1. The prefecture of Fez covers an area of 332.1 km2. It is located in Saïs Plain, halfway between north and south of the Kingdom of Morocco. The population of the prefecture is about 1 150 131 inhabitants; it represents 27% of the population of the region Fez-Meknes 23. The city of Meknes is located in North-western, Morocco. It is the former capital of the Meknès-Tafilalet administrative region and currently one of the two urban centers’ of the Fez-Meknes region. It is located about 500 meters above sea level, on Saïs Plain between the Middle Atlas Mountains to the south and the Pre-Riff Hills to the north. The population of the prefecture of Meknes is about 835 695 23, 24. The climate of the studied area is a temperate type of the Mediterranean undergrowth, undergoing the continental influences during summer and winter. However, the geographical diversity of the region means each of its natural areas has particular climatic nuances 24. Note that, owing to its Mediterranean bioclimates and its geographical position, Morocco occupies the first place among the south of the Mediterranean because of its treasure-trove of endemic plants 25.
FIG. 1: MAP OF FEZ-MEKNES REGION
Source: High Commissioner for Planning, regional Direction of Fez-Meknes.
Conduct of the Study: In order to document local knowledge regarding the exploitation of medicinal and aromatic plants as a bio-disinfectant, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted over a period of 4 months (from October 2018 to January 2019). To carry out this survey, we went around the most popular areas of two main cities in the study area, Fez and Meknes (central Morocco). The number of people questioned was 63 herbalists. A preliminary interview was conducted with herbalists to get and to provide an overview of the purpose of the survey to obtain their consent to participate in the study. The conduct of the survey was based on semi-structured interviews with herbalists (pre-established interview guide) in the Moroccan dialect. The time spent with each herbalist varied from 30 to 45 min. The herbalists included in this study are not only sellers of plants, but they are also traditional healers.
The interviews were conducted with the help of a survey sheet which includes the following sections: i) the identity of the herbalist: age, sex, years of experience and level of study, ii) Plants that can be used for disinfection, iii) Plant information: Local name, Scientific name, Origin and Harvest period, iv) Directions for use: Part used disease, dose, preparation, and use methods, precautionary use, v) other uses of the plant. The identification of the scientific name of plants was realized at the scientific institute in Rabat by the Chief of Department of Botany and Plant Ecology who is responsible of Herbarium National of Rabat (The capital of Morocco).
Data Processing: The analysis of the data was performed by using the Excel software 2010 version and by the calculation of the frequency index (FI) according to the formula below:
FI = Ʃ N / n × 100
Where ΣN = number of times the plant is cited, n = number of herbalists surveyed
Information of Interviewed Herbalists: In the present survey, a total of 63 traditional herbalists and healers were interviewed for 45 min Table 1. All of the traditional herbalists were men more than 50 years (n = 24). The majority of herbalists had a Secondary level (n = 22); 18 had no education.
The average of years of experience was, the majority were between 11 and 20 years (n = 24). However, 22 of the herbalists had experienced between 21 and 30.
TABLE 1: CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS (N=63)
|• 20–30 years||02|
|• 31–40 years||13|
|• 41–50 years||18|
|• 51–60 years||24|
|• 61-70 years||04|
|• >71 years||02|
|• No education level||18|
|• Primary level||10|
|• Secondary level||22|
|• Higher level||13|
|Years of experience between|
|• 1–10 years||13|
|• 11–20 years||24|
|• 21–30 years||22|
|• 31–40 years||03|
|• 41–50 years||01|
Inventory of Plants: In this study, 13 aromatic and medicinal plants were listed by herbalists as bio-disinfectants in Table 2. They belong to 8 botanical families with a predominance of the Lamiaceae family (23%) and Asteraceae (23%), followed by the Myrtaceae family (14%). The other families (Cupressaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, and Brassicaceae), were represented with the same percentage (8%), a specie for each family Fig. 2.
According to the calculated frequency index (FI), the most recommended species are Lavandula. spp (FI = 61 %), Origanum elongatum (FI = 33 %), Arteminisia herba-alba (FI = 23 %), Rosmarinus officinalis (FI = 17 %), Eucalyptus. spp (FI=17 %), Atractylis gummifera L. (FI=16 %), Citrus limon (FI=8 %), Anastatica hierochuntica (FI = 6 %), Myrtus communis L. and Rosa Damascena (FI = 5 % for each), Artemisia absinthium L. and Corrigiola telephiifolia (FI=2 % for each) Tetraclinis articulata (FI = 3 %) Fig. 3.
TABLE 2: THE ETHNOBOTANICAL INFORMATION OF 13 EFFECTIVE HERBS USED
|Local name*||Nomenclature Scientifique||Families||Used part||Mode of
|Mode of administration|
|Zaater الزعتر||Origanum elongatum||Lamiaceae||Leaves||Decoction/Incense/Hydrolate||Contact with air or surface|
|Khzama الخزاما||Lavandula. sp||Lamiaceae||Leaves and
|Decoction/Incense/ without preparation/ Aqueous Extraction|
|Laraar العرعار||Tetraclinis articulata||Cupressaceae
|Leaves||Incense||Contact with air|
|Rayhan الريحان||Myrtus communis L.||Myrtaceae||Leaves||Decoction/infusion||Contact with surface|
|Azir, Yazir أزير||Rosmarinus officinalis L.||
|Leaves/ All the aerial part||Decoction||Contact with air or surface|
|Chih الشيح||Artemisia herba-alba||Asteraceae||All the aerial part/the whole plant||Decoction/incense/
|Contact with air|
|Chiba شيبا||Artemisia absinthium L||Asteraceae||Leaves/ All the aerial part||Decoction/Hydrolate|
|Lcalitus لكالبتوس||Eucalyptus sp||Myrtaceae||Leaves||Decoction/Essential oil|
|Dad ou Addad الداد||Atractylis gummifera||Asteracea||Roots/Rhizome||Incense|
|Sarghina سرغينة||Corrigiola telephiifolia||Caryophyllaceae||Roots/Rhizome||Incense|
|Louard الورد||Rosa Damascena||Rosaceae||Flowers||Essential oil/ without preparation||Contact with air or surface|
|Lhamed الحامض||Citrus limon||Rutaceae||Fruit||Essential oil||Contact with air|
|Kaf Maryam كف مريم||Anastatica hierochuntica||Brassicaceae||All the aerial part||Hydrolate/ Aqueous Extraction|
FIG. 2: PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENT FAMILIES USED OF PLANTS
FIG. 3: FREQUENCY INDEX OF PLANTS
Used Part of Plants: In the study area, the most used parts of plants were leaves (37%), flowers (28%), leaves and flowers (14%) roots (7%), whole plant (6%), fruit (4%), the aerial part of the plant (3%) and rhizome (2%) Fig. 4.
Preparation and Administration Mode of Plants: In order to facilitate and make effective the administration of the active ingredients of plants, several methods of preparation are employed.
In the study area, most of the plants cited by herbalists, as disinfectants, should be prepared according to the following modes: incense (40.8%), decoction (28%), no preparation (14.4%), extract liquid (8%), essential oil (4%), infusion (3.2%) and hydrosol (1.6%) Fig. 5. The results of this study show that the disinfection of rooms and surfaces can be achieved by contact with air (68%) or by direct contact with surfaces (32%) Fig. 6.
FIG. 4: PARTS OF PLANTS USED
FIG. 5: MODE OF PREPARATION OF PLANTS
FIG. 6: MODE OF ADMINISTRATION OF PLANTS
DISCUSSION: Given the lack of studies on PAMs used as bio-disinfectants, we compared our results only with ethnobotanical surveys conducted on the "medical use of PAMs" aspect. In this study, 63 herbalists participated in the survey are male. This result could be explained by Moroccan culture, which does not encourage women to do this type of work. Thereby, our results are similar with ethno-botanical studies in Africa 26, 27 and in Morocco 28. The average age was 46 years old, the majority were between 41 and 50 years old (n=24).
This result corroborates with the study of Bekalo et al., 29. The majority of the herbalists had a Secondary level (n=21), while 18 of them are illiterate. Only 13 of the interviewed had a higher level. These results are not similar with those reported by Boufous et al., 30 The predominance of Lamiaceae in Morocco and its high biodiversity has been reported in several studies 31, 32. Moreover, Lamiaceae and Asteraceae family's were also the most reported in Moroccan ethno-pharmacological studies 33, 34. Indeed, the Lamiaceae are used by the Moroccan population for treatment of various pathologies 36, 37. The chemical composition of Lamiaceae is endowed with antimicrobial activity 38, 39. As noted above that we have not found ethnobotanical studies conducted, either nationally, about the use of medicinal plants as bio-disinfectants.
Most ethnobotanical studies have reported plant use as a treatment for parasitic diseases, respiratory and digestive infections, diabetes, heart disease and cancer 40, 41, 42. However, some plants inventoried in this study have been reported in the literature as a disinfectant. Indeed, in India and China eucalyptus is cited as a disinfectant plant 43, 16. This plant has shown a potential effect as a disinfectant of surfaces and hospital environments 44. Further-more, many previous investigations have confirmed the antimicrobial activity of eucalyptus against various bacterial species, fungi and virus 45, 46. The good antibacterial activity of eucalyptus essential oil correlates with the amount of 1, 8-cineole, p-cymene, acinene or cryptone 47, 46.
Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts from 26 Eucalyptus species against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis) has been proven, however, they have not shown any strong antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria 48. The antibacterial and antifungal of lavender oil has been widely demonstrated 49, 50. The antimicrobial activity of this essential oil is probably triggered by its active compounds like Linalool acetate and β-linalool 51. The extract of Rosmarinus officinalis showed antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis and capacity to disinfect guttapercha cones contamined with it 52. Antibacterial activity of essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis against pathogenic bacteria isolated from hospital environment 53. The anti-microbial activity of Artemisia herba-alba against various bacterial species has been confirmed 54, 55. In addition, the essential oil of this plant exhibited much higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC and Lactobacillus sp 56.
About Atractylis gummifera, it has been cited in several ethnobotanical studies conducted in Morocco and it is used by the population as an antiseptic for skin 57, 58. However, this plant was found characterized by production of two highly toxic metabolites (atractyloside and carboxyatra ctyloside) responsible for frequent and fatal poisoning 59. The leaves’ extract of Origanum elongatum showed also the most effective against the Escherichia coli 60. The other plants, that are rarely cited by the herbalists in the studied region (FI <10%), are recognized as well in several studies as antibacterial agents against nosocomial micro-organisms. Indeed, the antimicrobial activity of topical formulation containing the essential oils of Eugenia caryophyllata and Myritus communis were evaluated on selected skin disease, results indicated that the formulations have shown antimicrobial activity 61.
The leaves’ extract of Myrtus communis showed the most effective against the Escherichia coli 62. The antibacterial activity of Citrus Limon against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella spp has been demonstrated by Oikeh et al., 63 Regarding Rosa damascena, Tofighi et al., 64 have confirmed the antimicrobial activity of the extract of this plant against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, essential oil of R. damascena showed antioxidant and antibacterial properties 65. All parts of Anastatica hierochuntica were reported to possess antimicrobial activity 66. Its freshly prepared decoction is commonly used as local disinfectant 66. The Tetraclinis articulata essential oil presents, in-vitro, a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli 67. The methanol extracts of Corrigiola telephiifolia revealed antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus) 68. All previously cited and studied bacteria were identified and found in the hospital environment of Fes city especially at surfaces and materials 69, 70. In the study area, the most used parts of plants were leaves. Our results are similar with several studies which clearly demonstrated that the leaves were the most used by population 71, 37. The use of leaves can be explained could be explained by the abundance of phyto-chemical compounds responsible for the plant's biological properties 72. Leaves are the place of synthesis of vegetal secondary metabolites 72.
In order to facilitate and make effective the administration of the active ingredients of plants, several methods of preparation were employed. The finding reveals that incense is the most dominant method of preparation followed by the decoction. The incenses are mostly used for air disinfection to prevent respiratory infectious diseases like common cold and flu 44. Incense of plants had a good antimicrobial activity against airborne microbes and also this method was easy to prepare, economical and did not lead to health hazards 73. While the decoction remains the easiest and most effective way to inactivate or mitigate the harmful and toxic effect of certain plants but can destroy active substances 74. Many studies have reported that decoction is the most used method for preparing plants 71, 75. This result could be explained by the fact that the method of preparation remains linked to the expected objectives of plants. In Morocco, the preparation of plants as against diseases consists mainly of decoction, pasta of herbal, infusion and maceration 76, 77.
The results of this study showed that disinfection of rooms and surfaces can be achieved by contact with air or by direct contact with surfaces. These results are corroborate with the French hygiene society which reports that the disinfection of premises, surfaces and medical devices can be done by air (outside or in the presence of humans), by immersion or by direct contact with disinfectant 78. The antimicrobial effect of Chinese herbal air disinfectant has been demonstrated 44.
CONCLUSION: This study conducted with herbalists in the cities of Fez and Meknes has identified plants used as bio-disinfectants. These are 13 species belonging to 8 families: Lavandula. sp, Origanum elongatum, Arteminisia herba-alba, Rosmarinus officinalis, Eucalyptus.sp, Atractylis gummifera L, Citrus limon, Anastatica hierochuntica, Myrtus communis L, Rosa damascena, Artemisia absinthium L, Corrigiola telephiifolia et Tetraclinis articulata. Leaves and flowers are the most used part of plants while incense is the most formulated mode. As for the instructions for use, the study showed the dominance of aerial disinfection. This result would be of great interest to health professionals to solve the problem of resistant strains and for the pharmaceutical industry to develop effective biological disinfectants that respect the environ-ment. It would be very interesting to continue this work in other Moroccan regions to expand the list of bio disinfectant plants as well as to study of their antimicrobial activities.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: We thank the herbalists for their collaboration
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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How to cite this article:
Jaouhar S, Bekhti K, El Oualidi J, Bouzid J and El Ouali Lalami A: Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for disinfection of premises and surfaces in the fez-meknes cities (centre of Morocco). Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2020; 11(9): 4433-41. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR. 0975-8232.11(9).4433-41.
All © 2013 are reserved by the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
S. Jaouhar, K. Bekhti *, J. E. Oualidi, J. Bouzid and A. E. Ouali Lalami
Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco.
13 September 2019
08 March 2020
21 April 2020
01 September 2020