ETHNOMEDICINAL EXPLORATION OF ORNAMENTAL FLORA OF ARAVALLI HILL RANGES OF REWARI DISTRICT OF HARYANA, INDIAHTML Full Text
ETHNOMEDICINAL EXPLORATION OF ORNAMENTAL FLORA OF ARAVALLI HILL RANGES OF REWARI DISTRICT OF HARYANA, INDIA
Bansal, A. S. Rao, S. S. Yadav *, M. S. Bhandoria, B. Narasimhan and S. S. Dash
Department of Botany, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
ABSTRACT: Ornamental plants (OPs) are used for intensifying, glorifying surroundings, adding a positive attitude towards life, enhancing estate value, and developing a feeling of well-being and happiness. This research aimed to record the ornamental plants and ethnomedicinal document usage of the plants by the local people of the Rewari district of Haryana State. The data was collected through field surveys and in-depth interviews organized with 219 local informants from the region during 2019-21. A total of 80 different locations were visited during the study. 91 OPs belonging to 83 genera and 42 families were identified and documented from the Rewari district. The documented plants showed a diversity of habit ranging from herbs (43.96%), trees (24.18%), shrubs (24.18%), twines (3.30%), and climbers (3.30%) and creepers (1.10%). The majority of ornamental plants were utilized as garden plants (25.50%) followed by pot (25.19%), bouquet/ cut flower/ cut foliose (11.41%), avenue (9.44%) road dividers (7.87%), religious and cultural (7.87%). Families Leguminosae (11.95%) and Asteraceae (7.60%) were the dominant families. Maximum no. of ethnomedicinal uses were reported for skin disease (17) followed by wound, boils (13), constipation (12), piles, cough and cold (10), jaundice, asthma (09), swelling, pimples, and intestinal worms (07) respectively out of documented 135 routine maladies. It was concluded that the locals use a blend of wild and cultivated ornamental plants for various aesthetic, recreational, and ethnomedicinal purposes.
Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Ornamental plants, Home gardens, Aravalli Hills
INTRODUCTION: Human beings have always been fascinated by the diversity of natural surroundings. Their fascination has led to the exploration of plants for food, fuel, shelter, medicine, floriculture, aesthetic, recreational, and ceremonial purposes.
They have explored the endless possibilities of their utilization in numerous ways. Over the decade’s fast-paced lifestyles, growing urbanization and industries in our surroundings have led the masses to revisit the utilitarian purposes of plants and forced them to connect with nature to maintain their well-being.
For ages, plants have been used for their showy flowers, attractive foliage, medicinal, culinary, fruits, aesthetics, and various other purposes. Plants are also used to intensify and glorify our surroundings, add a positive attitude towards life, enhance estate value, and develop a feeling of well-being and happiness; such plants are termed Ornamental plants (OPs) 1. OPs are primarily grown in our homes, kitchen, offices, educational institutes, hospitals, homesteads, public, private and institutional gardens for beautification, recreation, and enlightenment 2. These plants not only intensify and glorify our surroundings but also add a positive attitude towards life, enhance estate value, and develop well-being and happiness. These are termed Ornamental plants (OPs) 1. A large number of herbs, shrubs, avenue plants, hedges, ground covers, cacti, succulents, bonsai, palms, bulbs, cones, hanging plants, epiphytes, decorative foliage, showy floral plants, sweet-scented and grasses are grown as OPs across the countries 3, 4, 5.
Plants suitable for indoor or outdoor beautification and decorations are known as ornamentals 6. These OPs play an important role in climate change adaptation by being an integral part of urban green packages. They are often used to beautify our gardens, private and public parks, buildings, homes, cities, towns, highways, shopping malls, factories, hospitals and educational institutions 7. Indoor OPs are also utilized to maintain freshness and a positive environment inside homes, classrooms, hospitals, etc. It has been noticed that patients having plants inside their wards recuperate quicker 8. Indoor air toxins are miniature particles that are difficult to mitigate; however, indoor plants can do this dreary occupation proficiently 9.
The expanding interest in OPs has led to the opening of new avenues for OPs utilization. Ethnomedicinal utilization of OPs is one of the emerging domains which is gaining popularity worldwide. Ethnomedicine refers to health practices incorporating plant, mineral, and animal sources to treat illnesses or maintain well-being 10. It is estimated that around 80% of economically distressed people of the world depend on different conventional medical services 11, 12. These traditional and home remedies have exponentially increased and have been praised in developing and developed countries, particularly after the SARS COVID-19 13. The majority of OPs grown in our surroundings also have medicinal properties and have been utilized for curing various routine ailments for ages.
Some of them are also developed for their therapeutic use in modern herbal medicine as they synthesize numerous bioactive compounds, like phenolic accumulates, carotenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, cancer preventive agents, essential oils, and other auxiliary metabolites 14. OPs like Basil, Ixora, Aloe, Agave, Rose, Hibiscus, Sunflower, Marigold, Polianthes, Calendula etc., are normally grown in homes for their multipurpose applications 15, 16. Some of such multipurpose plants have also been documented in different traditional systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani, besides their uses by various vaidyas and folk healers of India 10. OPs are used in the form of garlands, beverages, decoction, infusion, juices, flavorings, paste, etc., by different sections of the society 17, 18.
Their traditional preparations are used to cure numerous ailments like skin disease, wounds, boils, constipation, piles, cough, jaundice, asthma, swelling, pimples, etc. In developing countries like India, much of the family income is spent on medicines and essential medical services 19. The appropriate use of conventional and ethnomedicinal information about such plants can be a useful advance toward further developing family well-being and strengthening the nation. In this context, the current research was organized in two parts; the first part of the study included documentation of ornamental plants and their uses, while the second part of the study included documentation of ethnomedicinal uses of ornamental plants in the Rewari district of Haryana state, which has been ignored from this perspective in the state. Further, an attempt was also made to provide vernacular, scientific names, and ornamental purposes for the plants in the area. Efforts were also made to report the method of preparation, administration, dose, duration, and ailments treated.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Study site Description: The present study on OPs and their ethnomedicinal uses was conducted in the Rewari district of Haryana state, India. It lies between 28.18°N latitude and 76.62°E longitude at an average elevation of 245 meters (803 feet). Rewari district came into existence on November 1, 1989, before that, it was part of the Mahendergarh district of Haryana. The district has a geographical area of 1594 Sq. Km and it shares a boundary with Jhajjar in North, Mahendergarh district in the West, Gurugram in east and north-east directions, further it shares state boundary with Rajasthan state in the south-east. It is a part of NCR (National Capital Region) and is situated at a distance of 84 KM from the National Capital, New Delhi, and 332 Km from the state capital Chandigarh. The district is divided into three sub-divisions, Bawal, Kosli, Rewari, and five community development blocks viz. Rewari, Jatusana, Khol, Bawal, Nahar Fig. 1. It consists of 412 villages with a population of 900332 and an average literacy rate of 80.99%.
FIG. 1: STUDY SITE MAP
The region is dominated by serving and retired armed forces personnel. The district is also home to the traditional brass market. The region has faced a dynamic shift from the traditional brass market to multinational automobile and auto ancillary industries now being established in the region. The hilly terrains of Aravalli ranges represent the topography of the district. The district's landscape is peculiar with varied topography comprising valleys, undulating lands, sand dunes and alluvial plains. The Aravalli ranges, the oldest folded mountain ranges of the world, are situated in the southern and western parts of the district. The region observes extreme temperature variations in summers and winters, where temperatures may reach upto 46°C and 0-2°C, respectively. The region also observes frequent dust storms in summers. The overall climate of the district is dry. The average rainfall ranges from 300-500mm, and July, August, and September are the months of heavy rainfall for the region. Aravalli ranges greatly influences the agro-climatic conditions and constitute a unique blend of flora and fauna in the region. The area is predominated by xerophytic vegetation with prickly trees like Indian gum Arabic tree, Acacia, Janti, Ziziphus, Opuntia, Caper along with Margosa, Prosopis, Shami tree, Peepal and other species. The region also harbors a diversity of OPs owning to numerous industries, multinational companies, educational institutions, and Government and Private nurseries which try to blend and integrate native and exotic flora. Most of the area's rural population relies upon agribusiness and animal husbandry for primary income. Millet, cotton, sorghum is the major summer season crops, while wheat, mustard, and gram are the significant winter season crops grown in the district.
Data Collection and Organization: The study was divided into two parts, the first part of the study included documentation and uses of OPs, which was carried out by organizing field surveys and in-depth interview schedules with nursery owners, gardeners, residents, temple priests and observations made during visits to schools, colleges, hospitals, research centers, factories, university campus, public parks, nurseries and judicial complex of the district. The second part of the study included documentation and gathering of ethnomedicinal knowledge harbored by the local people of the region about OPs. Ethnomedicinal knowledge was collected by conducting in-depth interview schedules with local residents of villages, temple priests, gardeners, traditional medicine practitioners, and nursery owners from Bawal, Jatusana, Khol, Nahar, and Rewari blocks of the district. The entire study was designed and completed during 2019-2021.
The information concerning OPs was collected by visiting different socioeconomic and cultural fractions of the society. A total of 80 locations were visited for information collection which included Hospitals (2.5%), Nurseries (16.2%), shopping malls (1.2%), Industrial factories (2.5%), Schools (6.2%), Colleges (6.2%), University (1.2%), Research institute (1.2%), Judicial complex (1.2%), Temples (18.87%), Wild life century (1.2%), Villages (38.7%) and Public gardens (3.7%). Different locations and places visited during the study tenure have been tabulated in Table 1.
TABLE 1: LIST OF PLACES VISITED FOR DOCUMENTATION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS AND THEIR ETHNOMEDICINAL KNOWLEDGE
|Community Block||Places visited||Place|
|CCS, HAU Regional Research center, Bawal||Research center|
|Harley Davidson motorcycles||Factory|
|Minda Furukawa electric Pvt. Ltd.||Factory|
|Baba Devnarayan mandir, Gujar Majri||Temple|
|Bala Ji Mandir, Rajgarh||Temple|
|Ompal Garden Services, Bagthala, Banipur||Nursery|
|Amit Vatika Nursery, JAI Singh Pura, Khera Bawal||Nursery|
|Thakur Ji Mandir, Lilodh||Temple|
|Canal Valley Public School, Berli Kalan||School|
|Nursery Berli, Berli Kalan||Nursery|
|Shanti devi college of law and Management, Saharanwas||College|
|Baba Udhodas mandir, Saharanwas||Temple|
|Nai Wali Bagachi and mandir||Temple|
|Plants Nursery, Dharuhera||Nursery|
|Sanatan park, Dharuhera||Public park|
|M2K Country Park, Dharuhera||Public park|
|Baba Bhairav Temple, Dehlawas||Temple|
|Old Shiv Mandir, Bodia Kamalpur||Temple|
|Old Saini Nursery, Kayasthwara Mohalla||Nursery|
|Hanuman Mandir lake , Jadra Village||Temple|
|Shri Gangaram Nursery, Jainabad||Nursery|
|Shiv Temple, Asiaki Gorawas||Temple|
|Hanuman Temple, Kundal||Temple|
|Nursery Hut Shri Ganga Ram Nursery, Dahina, Zainabad||Nursery|
|Saini Nursery, Kayasthwara Mohalla||Nursery|
|Holy child public school, Madhu vihar||School|
|Jain Public School||School|
|Tagore Public School, Jadra||School|
|Madhu Sudan public school, Mahavir nagar||School|
|I G University, Meerpur||University|
|District Court, Subash nagar||Judicial complex|
|Shri Shyam Nursery, Dahina||Nursery|
|Lavishka Plants Nursery, Lisana||Nursery|
|BMG Mall||Shopping mall|
|Jhal Nahar forest, Nahar||Wildlife century|
|Mata Mandir, Nahar||Temple|
|Government College, Kosli||College|
|DAV Girls College, Kosli||College|
|Shiv Mandir, Kosli||Temple|
|Vandana Nursery, Bhakli, Kosli||Nursery|
|We for nature Nursery, Palhawas||Nursery|
|Baba Gopal Das mandir, Nandha||Temple|
|Near Hanuman Mandir, Manethi||Temple|
|Baba Nimriwala Temple, Pali||Temple|
|Pali Herbal park, Pali||Public park|
|Sonam Nursery, Pithrawas||Nursery|
A total of 219 informants were randomly selected and interviewed for information collected from the five community development blocks of the district. The informants were selected from different backgrounds to incorporate a diverse knowledge set, which included traditional practitioners (1.8%), gardeners (14.6%), residents (70.7%), nursery owners (5.3%), and temple priests (6.8%). In-depth interview schedules were conducted with informants, preferably elders and women of the region. Further, it was attempted to visit at least 5 villages from each community block and interview with at least 5 houses from each village. Moreover, the gardeners, nursery owners, and workers of the different locations visited were questioned and interviewed about different plants grown in the region for ornamental purposes and their ethnomedicinal uses, if any. The demographic information of the informants was also collected with their permission, including educational background, age, sex and profession. The details of demographic information have been tabulated in Table 2. It was attempted during the study's tenure to conduct interviews in local languages. The information collected was tabulated into ornamental purposes, vernacular names, plant Family, plant part used, method of preparation/administration, dosage, and diseases treated. Further, Microsoft spread sheets were utilized to categorize the OPs into A (Avenue plants), B (Bouquet/ Cut flower/ Cut foliose), C (Lawn covers), G (Garden plants), H (Hedge/fencing), HP (Hanging pots), P (Pot plants), RC (Religious, cultural and ceremonial), R (Road divider) and plant habit was categorized into herbs, shrubs, trees, climbers, twiners and creepers. Plant parts used in ethnomedicine were categorized into leaves, root, bark, seed, fruits, flowers, bulb, gum, latex, petal, rhizome, stem, thorn, wood, and whole plant. The vast majority of the ornamental plant were identified in their natural surroundings. At the same time, uncertain specimens were brought to the Ecology Lab of the Department of Botany, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (Haryana), India for additional ID and affirmation from the accessible literature20. The voucher specimens of the documented plants were deposited in the Ecology and Biodiversity lab of Department of Botany, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak. Botanical names and family were authenticated from the web source “The Plant List” (http://www.theplantlist.org/), plants of the world online (http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org), and renowned taxonomists of the region.
TABLE 2: DEMOGRAPHIC DATA OF THE INFORMANTS
|Variables||Categories||No. of informants||Percentage (%)|
|Graduation and above||98||44.7|
Informant Consensus Factor (ICF): The homogeneity of the OPs ethnomedicinal knowledge was assessed by using the informant consensus factor (ICF).
ICF for each documented plant species was calculated using the formula Nur-Nt/(Nur-1), where Nur was the number of use reports in each category and Nt was the number of species used for a particular category by all informants 21.
Socioeconomic Status: All of the 219 respondents interviewed were having diverse ethnomedicinal knowledge and belonged to different social backgrounds Table 2.
The informants were randomly selected from different locations, including schools, shopping malls, public parks, factories, hospitals, judicial complexes, university, Temple, colleges, villages, wild life century, nurseries and factories. The majority of respondents interviewed were male (68.03%), and maximum participation was observed from the age group of 40-60 (68%). The informant categories varied from traditional practitioners (1.8%), gardeners (14.6%), local residents (70.7%), nursery owners (5.3%) and priests (6.8%). Amongst the local residents, only those individuals were selected who had home gardens or few OPs were growing nearby their houses. It was observed educationally, the region is developed, and the majority of informants had graduate degrees and higher education (44.7%) only 4.1% of informants were illiterate and belonged to 60-80 age group. The region is dominated by farming (35.6%) individuals followed by employment in private sector (23.7%).
Diversity of Ornamental Plants: The study identified and documented 91 OPs belonging to 83 genera and 42 families Table 3. Dominant families of ornamental plants of the Rewari district are depicted in Fig. 2. Most commonly represented OPs families were Leguminosae (11.95%), Asteraceae (7.60%), Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae (6.53% each), Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae (4.34% each), Bignoniaceae, Convolvulaceae, Nyctaginaceae and Solanaceae (3.26% each). Furthermore,11 families contributed 2.17%; these were Acanthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae, Capparaceae, Combretaceae, Crassulaceae, Liliaceae, Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, Phyllanthaceae, and Verbenaceae, while 20 families contributed 1.08% and had one species each. The documented plants showed a diversity of habits ranging from herbs (43.96%), trees (24.18%), shrubs (24.18%), twines (3.30%), climbers (3.30%), and creepers (1.10%). Fig. 4 depicts the habit distribution of documented plants. The OPs were categorized into A (9.44%), B (11.41%), L (2.36%), G (25.50%), H (5.51%), HP (4.72%), P (25.19%), RC (7.87%) and R (7.87%) based on observations and interviews with local respondents. Figure 3 provides an overview of the Ornamental utilization of documented plant species in the region.
FIG. 2: FAMILY DISTRIBUTION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM THE REGION
Ethnomedicinal Utilization of Ornamental Plants: The present study revealed utilization of 91 OPs as ethnomedicine for curing different kinds of routine maladies Table 3. Different ailments were categorized into 21 broad categories Table 4. The ailment categories were gastrointestinal, gynecological, bacterial, viral, neurological, aesthetic, ear nose throat (ENT), fungal, respiratory, urinogenital, dermatological, dental, arthrolical, poisoning, veterinary, calculus, hepatic, inflammation, cardiovascular, general and parasitic ailments. Maximum ailments were generally categorized by dermatological, urinogenital, gastrointestinal and gynecological Table 4.
Fever, diabetes, diarrhea, inflammation, arthritis, snake bite, dysentery, poisoning, dengue, heatstroke, agalactia, dysmenorrhea, epistaxis, cryptorchidism, nocturnal emission, anorexia, dental maladies, and kidney stones were the frequently encountered ailments. They were treated using various traditional home remedies.
TABLE 3: ETHNOMEDICINAL USES OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS OF SOUTH HARYANA
|S. no.||Botanical name||Ornamental
|Vernacular name||Family||Habit||Part used||Method of preparation/ application||Doses||Disease||I.C.F.|
|1||Abrus precatorius L.
|P, G, RC||Rati,
|Twiner||S||Massage oil is prepared by mustard oil and seed powder||25-50 ml of oil is massaged 3-4 days a week till cure||Psoriasis, Eczema||1.00
|R||Paste is applied externally on affected area||10-15 gms on affected area for 5-7 days||Skin diseases||0.86|
|R||Decoction taken orally||25 ml per day for 5 days||Cough, Cold||0.94|
|S||Powdered seeds taken orally with water||3gms twice a day till cure||Nervous disorder||1.00|
leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd.
|A, H||Ronj, Shami||Mimosaceae||Tree
|B||Bark boiled water and cloth dipped in this mixture is applied externally.||Once in a day for 7 to 10 days||Boils||0.92|
|3||Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult.
|P, B||Bui||Amaranthaceae||Herb||WP||Paste is prepared tied over the affected area externally||Paste applied for 5-7days||Inner injury||1.00|
|WP||Plant is boiled in water and cloth dipped in this mixture is applied externally over affected area.||Twice a day for 5-7 days||Swelling||0.86|
|4||Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L.
|P, G, B||Jangli pudina,||Asteraceae||Herb||L||Fresh juice taken orally||50 ml twice a day for 5-7 days||Snake bite||0.85|
|L||Decoction taken orally||50 ml twice a day for 2-3 weeks||Diarrhoea, Dysentery||0.88
|L||Seed are crushed with leaves and applied on affected area||2-3 gms per day for 5 days||Piles,
|5||Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.
|Powder seeds are taken orally with water.||08-10g twice a day till cures||Arthritis||0.99|
|L||Aloe vera gel is mixed with Leaf is used as eye drop.||2 drops twice a day for 3-5 days||Eye infection||0.97|
|B||Paste of bark is applied on affected area||2-3 gms for 3 days or till cure||Insect bite, Scorpion bite||1.00
|6||Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.
|L||Leaf gel applied over the wound externally.||2-3 days
|L||Leaf gel is taken orally before breakfast.||10-15ml for a 1-2 week||Constipation
|L||Gel of leaf kept overnight and taken with milk in morning before breakfast.||1 glass for 3-4 weeks||Menorrhagia
|L||Fresh leaf gel with turmeric is applied in breast externally||2gms twice a day for 8-10 days||Early breast swelling||1.00|
|7||Argemone mexicana L.
VSN; Bansal: 165
|ST||Latex of stem is used as eye drop.
|1-2 drops for 3-4 days||Eye infection||0.96|
|WP||Sits bath in water boiled with whole plant.||5 to 7 days||Muscular pain||0.96|
|S||Crushed Seeds are mixed with desi khand (open pan sugar) and ghee and taken orally.||40-50g per day for a week||Menorrhagia||0.93|
|S||Crushed Seeds paste is applied over the boils.||4-5 days||Boils||0.92|
|WP||Fresh juice taken orally||2 tbs daily till cures||Jaundice||0.76|
|Fresh leaf juice is applied over affected area externally||Twice a day for 5-7 days||Wound healing||0.92|
|8||Asparagus racemosus Willd.||P, B, G, HP||Satavar||Liliaceae||Herb||R||Powdered roots taken orally with water||5-10 g per day||Agalactia||0.97|
|VSN; Bansal:223||R||Powdered root is mixed with honey and taken orally||5 gms a day before breakfast for 2 months||Epilepsy||0.97|
|9||Barleria prionitis L.
|P, H, R||Pila Bansa||Acanthaceae||Shrub||R||Root ash and leaf ash mixed with equal amount of honey and taken orally||5 gms for 5-7 days||Cough||0.94|
|L||Leaf paste is applied externally over feet||5-10 gms per day for 10 days||Cracking feet||1.00|
|ST||Thin stem is used as tooth brush||6” stem for one month||Tooth problems||0.98|
|10||Bauhinia purpurea L.
|A, G||Khairwal, Kachnar||Leguminosae||Tree||FL||Raw flowers are used to make curry||50 gms per day for 5 days||Constipation Interstitial worms||0.91
|B||Decoction taken orally||25 ml twice a day for 1-2 weeks||Diarrhoea
|B||Decoction taken orally||20 ml a day till cures||Blood purifier, Skin disease||0.95
|L||Fresh juice applied directly on affected area||5-10 per day for one week||Skin disease||0.89|
|11||Boerhaavia diffusa L.
|L, P, HP||White saati||Nyctaginaceae||Herb
|R||Root juice taken orally||10ml juice for 5-7 days.||Jaundice||0.95|
|WP||Pills prepared from powdered plant is taken orally||2-3 pills twice a day for a month||Skin disease||0.95|
|WP||Plant juice taken orally.||10-15ml per day for two week||Constipation||0.91|
|WP||Decoction taken orally||10 ml per day for 3-4 months||Rejuvenating cells||1.00|
|B||Fine powdered bark is taken orally with warm Luke water||5gms per day till cure||Respiratory diseases||0.96|
|12||Bombax ceiba L.||A||Kapok,
|B||Powdered bark paste applied externally over affected area||2-5 gms twice a day for till cures||Pimples,
|VSN; Bansal:157||FL||Fresh flower juice taken orally||10 ml twice a day for 1-2 months||Blood purifier
|S||Powdered seeds taken orally||2-3 gms per day for 5-7 days||Small pox, Chicken pox||1.00
|13||Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.||G, P, H, R, B||Bougainvillea||Nyctaginaceae||Shrub
|L||Fresh extract given orally||50 ml per day for 1-2 months||Impotency in males and females||0.95|
|VSN; Bansal:204||L||Paste applied externally over affected area||10 ml per day for 5-7 days||Inflammation Boils||0.84
|14||Bryophyllum daigremontianum (Raym.-Hamet&Perrier) A. Berger
|L||Fresh leaves chewed before breakfast.||3-4 leaves till cure||Kidney Stones||0.99|
|Gently warmed leaf with mustard oil tied over boils||Piece of leaf for 2-3 days||Boils||0.93|
|15||Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub.
|A, G, RC, B||Palash, Dhaak||Leguminosae||Tree||B||Powdered bark is soaked on water overnight and paste is applied externally||25-50 gms of paste as per size of infected area for 2-3 weeks||Skin disease||0.81|
|G||Plant gum is soaked in water overnight mixed with sugar||50 ml twice a day for a week||Diarrhoea||0.89|
|FL||Hot floral extraction in water taken orally||10 ml twice a day for 1-2 week||Intestinal worms||0.82|
|Leaves and flower paste applied over affected area||2-5 gms twice a day for 1-2 week||Pimples||0.93|
|G||Dry roasted gum taken orally with milk||5-10gms twice a day till cure||Impotency
|L||Leaves genteelly warmed and tied externally over affected area||3-5 leaves till cures||Rheumatoid||0.91|
|Fresh juice is applied externally over affected area||3-5 ml for one week||Ringworms||0.62|
|16||Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb||G, P||Kalimarak||Leguminosae||Climber||S||Decoction take orally||10ml thrice a day for 5 days||Malarial fever||0.95|
|VSN; Bansal:202||S||Powdered seed taken with water before sleeping||5gms per day for one month||Joint pain||0.92|
|17||Calendula officinalis L.||P, G, B||Guldawadi||Asteraceae||Herb
|FL||Floral extract applied externally to burnt skin||10-20 ml twice a day till cures||Skin burn||0.98|
|VSN; Bansal:159||FL||Floral extract applied externally to wound, boils||5-10 ml twice a day for 7 day||Wound healing
|18||Canna indica L.
|P, G, RC, B||Keli||Cannaceae||Herb
|RH||Decoction of Rhizome and root is and taken orally||25 ml twice a day for 1-2 weeks||Gonorrhea Diuretic||0.87
|19||Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold
|A, G, R, H, P||Pili Kaner||Apocynaceae||Shrub||L||Fresh juice taken orally||10 ml twice a day for 5-7 days||Constipation Cough and cold Bronchitis||0.50
|B||Stem bark with dry leaves decocted and taken orally before breakfast||20 ml per day for 2-3 months||Menstrual problems||0.80|
|S||Powdered seeds taken orally by pregnant ladies||10gms per day for 3-5 days||Foeticidal||1.00|
|L||Leaves chewed directly||2-3 leaves once||Induce vomiting||0.94|
|20||Cassia fistula L.
|A, G, R, B||Amaltash||Leguminosae||Tree||F||Decoction from ripe fruit taken orally||10-15 ml twice a day for 1-2 weeks||Jaundice, upset Stomach||0.93
|F||Decoction from ripe fruit taken orally||25 ml twice a day for 5-7 days||Cough Asthma||0.95
|F||Decoction from ripe fruit applied||2-3 gms for a week||Tooth ache||0.97|
|S||Seeds eaten directly||5-10 seeds per day for one week||Constipation||0.94|
|L||Leaves chewed directly||3-5 leaves for one week||Pus drying||1.00|
|B||Decoction taken orally||25ml twice a day for one week||Leucoderma||1.00|
|21||Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don||P, G||Sadabahar
|L||Fresh juice taken orally||5-10 ml twice a day for till cures||Diabetes
|VSN; Bansal:114||FL||Dried flowers mixed with leaves and taken orally with water||2 gms twice a day till cure||Anti cancerous||0.99|
|22||Cestrum nocturnum L.
|P, G||Rat Ki Rani||Solanaceae||Shrub||FL||Floral extraction taken orally||5ml per day for one month||Immunity booster||1.00|
|L||Fresh leaf juice applied on wounds externally||5-10 ml twice a day for 5 days a week||Wound healing||0.73|
|23||Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty
|P, G||Vativeria, Khus-Khus
|Poaceae||Herb||R||Oil is extracted from root and applied externally over infected area||3-5 ml per day for one week||Ring worms, Skin disease||0.81
|R||Root extract is used in sweetened drinks 10 ml per litter of Sugar solution||300 ml Sharbat per day for 10-15 days||Cooling Effect||0.99|
|S||Powdered seeds mixed with Almond, Black pepper powder and used to take with milk before sleeping||5 gms per day for 1-2 months||Eyesight improvement||0.99|
|24||Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.
|P, G, B||Barhmdandi||Asteraceae||Herb||WP||Whole plant powder is taken orally with water||2-3 gms daily for 2 months||Diabetes
|F||Fruit with roots of plant is used to make decoction||10 ml per day for 5-7 days||Intestinal worms||0.96|
|25||Cissus quadrangularis L.
|P, G, HP||Hadjod||Vitaceae||Shrub||ST||Stem fried in desi Ghee and power of this mixer with turmeric powder taken with milk||5gms twice a day for 1-2 weeks||Bone Fracture||1.00|
|ST||Powdered stem taken orally||5 gms per day for one week||Piles, Skin disease||0.92
|26||Cleome viscosa L.
|L||Leaves juice is used as eardrop.||2-3 drops twice a day till cure||Earache||0.98|
|L||Crushed leaves taken orally with water.||15-20 leaves for a week||Piles||0.95|
|S||Powdered seeds taken orally with water.||10g for 2-3 days||Diarrhea||0.94|
|27||Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f.
|H, R, P||Arno||Lamiaceae||Shrub
|L||Fresh leaves paste is applied over burnt skin externally||1-2 gms for 3-5 days
|L||Cotton cloth is soaked in the hot leaves extract and applied externally.||500ml of hot water mixture for 5-7 days
|R||Root powder, khand, ghee, and wheat flour is boiled and taken orally.||30-50 g for 2 weeks||Muscular pain||0.97|
|28||Clitoria ternatea L.
|P, G, B, HP||Aparajita||Leguminosae||Twiner||L||Leaves paste applied over affected area||10 ml per day for 5-7 days||Swelling||0.90|
|R||Decoction taken orally before sleeping||20 ml per day for 3-5 days||Stomach ache||0.99|
|29||Combretum indicum (L.) Defilipps||P, G, B, HP||Rangoon ki bel||Combretaceae||Climber||S||Seed decoction taken orally||3-5 gms per day for a week||Intestinal worms||0.90|
|VSN; Bansal:327||L||Paste applied externally over affected area||3-5 gms per day for 3-5 days||Wound healing, Skin disease||0.84
|30||Crateva religiosa G.Forst.||A, G||Sacred Burna||Capparaceae||Tree||B||Dried root decoction taken orally||20 ml per day for 2-3 months||Rheumatic pain||0.96|
|VSN; Bansal:231||B||Decoction taken orally||20ml twice a day for 2-3 weeks||Kidney stone, Gall bladder stone||0.95
|31||Crinum asiaticum L.
|P, G, B, RC||Sukhdarshan||Amaryllidaceae||Herb
|L||Juice is used as ear drop||2 drops twice for 1-2 weeks||Ear-ache||0.98|
|BL||Bulb is roasted and crushed then mixed with mustered oil||3-5 drops of preperation per day till cure||Ear- ache||0.98|
|32||Croton bonplandianus Baill. VSN; Bansal:227||P, G||Ban tulsi
|Euphorbiaceae||Herb||S||Seed oil orally||3-5 ml for 3-5 days||Constipation
|L||Decoction applied in hairs||50 ml per day in interval of 5 days for one month||Dandruff||1.00|
|L||Dry leaf powder mixed with Amla and Ritha soaked in water over night and used for hair wash in next morning||50 ml per day in interval of 5-7 days for one month||Hair growth, dandruff||1.00|
|33||C. citratus (DC.) Stapf||P, G||Lemon grass||Poaceae||Herb||L||Leaf juice is taken empty stomach||10 ml twice a day for 1-2 weeks||Digestive problems||1.00|
|VSN; Bansal:136||L||Leaves with tea leaves boiled in water and then milk is added to it and taken orally||Half leaf in 300 ml water milk and tea mixture||Stress relief||1.00|
|34||Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
|L||Leave juice, onion juice and khand are taken orally||20 ml twice a day for 3-4 days||Diarrhea||0.96|
|L||Leaves juice is used as nasal drops.||2 drops twice a day for 3-5 days||Nose bleeding||0.97|
|R||Decoction is taken orally||Half cup for 10-15 days for a week||Urinary tract infection||1.00|
|R||Root juice is taken with honey||50 ml per day for 10-15 days||Hiccup||1.00|
|L||Leaves paste mixed with curd is applied externally||2-3 gms paste for 8-10 days||Piles||0.89|
|35||Datura metel L.||P, G, RC||Kala datura||Solanaceae||Herb||L||Leaf are roasted and mustard oil is applied over it and tied externally||2-3 leaves per day for 10-15 days||Enlarged testicles||1.00|
|VSN; Bansal:124||S||Dry seed powder taken orally with water||5gms per day till cure||Skin disease, Piles||0.44
|S||Powdered seeds taken orally||2gms twice a day for 1-2 weeks||Asthma, Cough||0.75
|S||Oil from seeds is mixed with mustered oil and heated for 10 minutes on mild flame||2 drops twice a day for 2-3 days||Ear-ache||0.88|
|36||Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf. VSN; Bansal:230||A, B, G||Gulmohar||Leguminosae||Tree||L||1-2 leaf decoction taken orally||25 ml per day for one month||Rheumatic pain||0.95|
|37||Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf.
|L||Ash made from leaves is applied over the burnt skin.||Twice a day till cure||Burnt skin||0.98|
|R||Decoction taken orally||50 ml daily for 10-15 days||Jaundice, Asthma||0.93
|38||Echinops echinatus Roxb. VSN; Bansal:302||P||Oontkanteli||Asteraceae||Herb||R||Powdered root is mixed with Acacia gum and applied on hairs||20 gms once a week for 1-2 months||Hair lice||0.99|
|R||Root paste applied on affected area||5gms per day for 3-5 days||Wound healing||0.91|
|R||Paste taken with honey and milk||5gms per day for 1-2 weeks||Male sexual tonic||1.00|
|39||Ehretia laevis Roxb.||A, G||Chhara||Boraginaceae||Tree||B||Decoction used to gargle||25-30 ml per day for 5-7 days||Throat infection||0.97|
|Leaf paste mixed with mustard oil and massaged over affected area||20 ml per day for 10-15 days||Joint pain||0.93|
|L||Paste applied over affected area||5-10 gms twice a day for 5-7 days||Wound healing||0.89|
|40||Epipremnum aureum (Linden& Andre)
G.S.Bunting VSN; Bansal:336
|P, G, HP, RC||Money Plant||Araceae||Herb||L||Paste applied on cotton bandage and tied over affected area||5 gms per day for one week||Skin disease||0.51|
|41||Euphorbia milii var. splendence (Bojer ex Hook.) Ursch&Leandri
|P, G, HP||Milli||Euphorbiaceae||Shrub||L||Paste applied externally on affected area||5-10 gms per day for 5-7 days||Warts, bolis||0.95
|WP||Plant ash taken orally with water||2gms per day for 15-20 days||Asthma||0.80|
|L||Leaves of the plant are boiled in luke warm water and applied directly to affected area||50-100 ml par day till cure||Swelling,
|42||Euphorbia neriifolia L.
|P, G, H||Thor||Euphorbiaceae||Shrub||WP||Plant extraction is mixed with sugar and taken orally||10 ml twice a day for 5-7 days||Tooth ache, General Pain||0.96
|WP||Plant ash taken orally||5gms per day for one month||Infertility||0.96|
|WP||Fresh juice taken orally||10 ml twice a day for 10-15 days||Intestinal worms, Blood purifier||0.82
|43||Euphorbia royleana Boiss.
|P, G, H||Danda Thor||Euphobiaceae||Shrub||LT||Latex from stem is applied on affected area||25 ml daily till cure||Skin diseases||0.65|
|T||Thorn is inserted in tooth cavity pain relief||One thorn in jaw for 5-7 days||Dental cavities||0.98|
|44||Euphorbia tirucalli L.
|P, G||Barasinga||Euphorbiaceae||Shrub||ST||Latex in minute quantity taken orally with water||1gm per day ofr 2-3 days||Purgative||0.95|
|WP||Whole plant decoction taken orally||10 ml per days till cure||Jaundice, spleen enlargement, leprosy||0.63
|R||Poultice of root with stem applied directly on affected area||5 gms per day for 3-5 days||Nose bleeding, swelling, warts||0.96
|45||Fernandoa adenophylla (Wall. ex G.Don) Steenis VSN; Bansal:221||A, G||Marodphali||Bignoniaceae||Tree||R||Wood from root boiled with Mustard oil and massaged over affected area||20-30 ml per day for 3-5 days||Muscular pain, Joint pain||0.95
|46||Helianthus annuus L.
|P, G, B||Sunflower, Suraj
|S||Oil extracted from seeds given to cattle orally||50 ml per day before delivery for 10 days||Easy delivery in cattle||1.00|
|FL||Flower tea taken orally||100 ml tea per day for one month||Respiratory diseases||0.90|
|47||Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.
|P, G, H, R, RC, B||Gudhal, China rose||Malvaceae||Shrub
|F||Powdered fruit taken with water orally||10 gms per day till cure||Menorrhagia fever
|FL||Dried powder taken orally||5gms per day till cure||Gall bladder stone||0.98|
(Linn.) Sweet VSN; Bansal:110
|P, G, HP||Neeli bel||Convolvulaceae||Creeper||WP||Plant extract taken orally||25ml twice a day till cure||TuberculosisAsthma||0.98
|WP||Decoction taken orally||50 ml a day for 15 days||Hepatitis B, Jaundice||1.00
|49||Ipomoea carnea Jacq.
|P, R||Vilyati Ak||Convolvulaceae||Shrub||WP||Decoction taken orally||25 ml twice a day for a week||Pain killer||0.99|
|L||Fresh juice taken orally||25 ml twice a day till cures||Anti cancerous||0.97|
|L||Leaves gently warmed with mustard oil and tied over affected area||3-5 leaves per day till cure||Skin disease||0.64|
|50||Ipomoea pes-tigridis L.||P, G||Bili keladoo||Convolvulaceae||Herb||WP||Decoction of plant applied on affected area||20-30 ml per day for one week||Swelling||0.88|
|VSN; Bansal:170||L||Poultice of leaves is applied directly on affected area||5-10 gms per day till cure||Pimples, boils, carbuncles||0.90
|WP||Fresh juice taken orally||5-10 ml twice a day for 2 weeks||Rabies||1.00|
|L||Paste prepared from leaves and seed is applied externally on effected region||5-10 gms per day till cure||Wound healing, snake bite||0.87
|L||Leaves are smoked before sleeping||3-5 leaver per day till cure||Bronchial spasm||1.00|
|51||Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton||P, G, B, RC||Motia||Oleaceae||Shrub||R||Root boiled in water and extract mixed with rice applied as facial powder||25 gms for 2-3 days a week||Pimples||0.96|
|VSN; Bansal:150||L||Decoction from fresh leaves taken in empty stomach.||20 ml for 10-15 days||Gall bladder stones||0.95|
|FL||Powder made from dried flowers is taken after meal||5-10 gms for 7-10 days||Skin diseases Itching||0.75
|52||Jatropha integerrima Jacq.||A, R||Euphorbiaceae||Tree||LT||Latex is applied externally over affected area||2-5ml per day for 5-7 days||Pimples||0.90|
|VSN; Bansal:155||WP||Few drops of latex from the plant taken orally||2-3 drops per day till cure||Induce vomiting, mouth infections||0.98
|53||Justicia adhatoda L.
|P, G||Safed bansa||Acanthaceae||Herb||FL||Floral powder taken orally with water||5gms twice a day for 10-15 days||Respiratory disease, Tuberculosis||0.97
|R||Fresh paste applied over affected area||25 gms par day in 3 day interval for one month||Skin allergy, Scabies||1.00
|R||Root Powder taken orally with water||5 gms twice a day for 2 weeks||Malarial fever||0.97|
|L||Paste is applied on joints externally||20-25 gms per day till cure||Joint pain||0.96|
|Fresh juice taken orally||10ml 3-4 times a day for 5-7 days||Cough and Cold, Asthma||0.95
|54||Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln.||G, P, H||Kalanchoe||Crassulaceae||Herb
|L||5-7 leaves chewed directly with common salt||5-7 leaves per day for 2 months||Kidney stone||0.98|
|VSN; Bansal:220||L||Fresh juice taken orally||25 ml per day for 5-7 days||Upset stomach||0.97|
|55||Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.
|A||BalamKheera||Bignoniaceae||Tree||F||Dried and powdered fruit taken orally before breakfast||5 gms per day||Dysentery
|F||Rubbing paste prepared from fresh fruit applied locally||20 gms twice a day till cure||Leprosy, Skin cancer
|F||Dried fruit is used as bathing sponge||Once a day during bathing till cure||Inflammation||0.95|
|56||Lantana camara L.
|H, R, B, P, G||Lantana, Nilgiri, Saptrangi||Verbenaceae||Shrub||L||Leaf decoction is taken orally||50 ml a day for 2-3 months||Rheumatic pain||0.96|
|WP||Decoction taken orally||50ml per day till cure||Tetanus, Wound healing||1.00
|WP||Decoction of flowers, stem and root given orally||50ml 3-4 times a day for 5-7 days||Snake bite||0.70|
|57||Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook.f.
|WP||Plant juice mixed with 250 gms desi ghee taken orally||50ml daily for 5-7 days||Piles||0.94|
|L||Fresh juice taken orally||50 ml per day for 3-5 days||Constipation||0.88|
|58||Lawsonia inermis L.||H, RC, R, B||Mehandi||Lythraceae||Shrub||L||Dried powdered leaves are soaked in water for 3-5 hours and then applied on hands and feet||50 gms a day at interval of 5-7 days for one month||Burning sensation||1.00|
|VSN; Bansal:217||L||Decoction of leaves and sugar syrup mixture given to children orally||5 ml thrice a day for one week||Jaundice||0.87|
|R||Root bark decoction taken orally||20ml twice a day for 1-2 weeks||Leucorrhoea||0.94|
|59||Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng.||P, G||Dadgal
|WP||Decoction taken orally||50 ml twice a day for 3-5 days||Malaria||0.90|
|VSN; Bansal:247||L||Freshly squeezed leaves juice taken orally.||20ml 5-7 times a day for a week||Snake bite||0.77|
|WP||Fresh juice taken orally||20 ml per day for one week||Jaundice Fever||0.89
|60||Melia azedarach L.||A, RC||Baikan||Meliaceae||Tree
|S||Powdered seeds are taken orally with water before sleeping.||8-10 gms once for 7 days||Piles
|VSN; Bansal:137||L||Ear drops made from leaves boiled in mustard oil||1-2 drops twice a day for 2-3 weeks||Earache||0.98|
|B||Decoction from stem bark is taken orally||50 ml twice a day for 2 weeks||Skin diseases||0.91|
|B||Root bark Decoction is taken orally||20-30 ml per day for 7 days||Constipation||0.91|
|L||Paste of leaf of and Custard apple is applied in hairs||50 ml a day in interval of 4-5 days for a month||Hair lice||0.99|
|61||Mimosa pudica L.
|G, P, HP||Touch-me-not||Leguminosae||Climber
|Fresh juice of leaves taken orally||20 ml per day till cure||Diabetes||0.88|
|Decoction taken orally before sleeping||20 ml per day for 2 months||Uric acid level normalization||1.00|
|WP||Decoction taken orally||20ml per day for 3 days||Painful menses||1.00|
|Dried leaves with Mishri
(Sugar crystals) taken with water
|5 gms twice a day for one month||Sexual potency in male||1.00|
|Root powder soaked in water for one week and extract taken orally||20ml twice a day of 3-5 days||Epilepsy||0.85|
|WP||Fresh juice taken orally||10 ml twice a day for 2 weeks||Intestinal worms, Blood purifier||0.80
|62||Mimusops elengi L.
|A, G||Bullet Tree||Sapotaceae||Tree||S||Dried seed powder soaked in water and paste applied on anus ring in children||2 ml per day for 5-7 days||Anal infection||1.00|
|B||Dried powder is mixed with mustard oil and paste applied over affected area||3-5 gms per day for one week||Ulcer, wound healing||0.88
|63||Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth.||A, G, RC||Chota Kadam||Rubiaceae||Tree||B
|Decoction taken orally||10ml a day for 5-7 days||Cough and cold||0.94|
|VSN; Bansal:143||B||Decoction of bark mixed with sugar or honey||20 ml twice a day for 3-4 weeks||Gynaecological disorder||1.00|
|64||Morus alba L.||A, RC||Mulburry||Moraceae||Tree||L||Tender leaves are chewed before breakfast||5-7 leaves per day for one week||Dysentery
|VSN; Bansal:180||F||Ripened fruits are taken directly||100 mgs for 5-7 days||Throat infection||0.98|
|65||Nerium oleander L.||P, B, H, R, G||Lal Kaner||Apocynaceae||Shrub||R||Paste of fresh root applied over affected area||5 gms twice a day for 2 weeks||Ring worm, Ulcer||0.88
|VSN; Bansal:207||L||Leaves boiled in water and bathed in this water after cooling||8-10 gms of leaves per day till cure||Leprosy||0.78|
|L||Paste applied on affected area externally||5gms per day till cure||Wound healing||0.74|
|FL||Extract of flowers put in eyes||2 drops per day for 10-15 days||Eye Infection||0.85|
|66||Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.
|G, P, RC||Harsingaar, Night Jasmin||Nyctaginaceae||Shrub
|L||Decoction of 2-3 leaves in 100 ml of water taken orally||25 ml per day for 1-2 months||Joint pain slip disc problem||0.97
|B||Decoction taken orally||10 ml twice a day for 1-2 weeks||Malarial fever||0.94|
|67||Opuntia dillenii (KerGawl.) Haw.||P, G||Nagfhani||Cactaceae||Shrub
|ST||Turmeric powder meshed with leaves pulp tied over affected area.||2-3 times a week for a month||Arthritis||0.98|
|VSN; Bansal:235||F||Baked fruit powder taken orally with lukewarm water||3gms twice a day for 5-7 days||Cough||0.97|
|F||Baked fruit juice mixed with honey taken orally||50 ml per day for 2 weeks||Gonorrhoea||0.95|
|ST||Latex applied directly around anus and rectum internally||5ml per day for 10-15 days||Fistula||1.00|
|68||Oxalis corniculata L.||P, G, L||Khatti butti||Oxalidaceae||Herb||L||Fresh leaf juice mixed with honey||50 ml twice a day for 5-7 days||Dysentery
|VSN; Bansal:222||L||Fresh juice taken orally||50 ml per day for one week||Upset stomach, Fever||0.97
|L||Fresh juice taken orally||50 ml twice for 3-5 days||Datura poisoning||1.00|
|L||Leaves juice given to children orally||3-5 ml twice a day for 3-4 weeks||Unequal testis||1.00|
|69||Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene||P, B||Jal Buti||Verbenaceae||Herb
|WP||Fresh juice applied externally over affected area||50 ml per day for 2-3 weeks||Boils||0.85|
|VSN; Bansal:195||WP||Fresh juice is massaged on gums||10 ml per day till cure||Bleeding gums||1.00|
|70||Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. &Thonn.
|P||Bhumi amla||Phyllanthaceae||Herb||R||Powdered root is boiled with rice boiled water and taken orally after cooling||50 ml per day for 3-4 months||Menstrual problems||0.95|
|71||Phyllanthus emblica L.||A, G, RC||Amla||Phyllanthaceae||Tree||F||Powdered fruit is taken with water before sleeping||4-5 gms a day for 2 weeks||Constipation||0.94|
|VSN; Bansal:123||F||Powdered fruit is mixed with Mishri (Crystal sugar) soaked overnight and taken in next morning||75-100 ml of mixture per day for 3-4 months||Eye sight improvement||0.99|
|F||Mixture of fruit Juice with Sugar and lime taken orally||25 ml twice a day for 4-5 days||Dysentery||0.96|
|L||Decoction taken orally||10 ml twice a day for 2-3 days||Mouth ulcer||1.00|
|72||Physalis angulata L.
|P, G||Ground cherry,Pilpotan||Solanaceae||Herb||WP||Juice is extracted by crushing the plant||25 ml twice a day till cure||Diabetes||0.97|
|F||Ripe fruits eaten directly||100 gms per day for a week||Upset stomach||0.98|
|L||Decoction given to cattle orally||250 ml per day for 8-10 days||Foot and mouth disease||1.00|
|73||Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.||A, R, RC, H||Jungle jalebi||Leguminosae||Tree||S||Seed pulp eaten directly||10-15 Fruit seeds per day for one week||Cooling effect||0.99|
|VSN; Bansal:128||FL||Floral extraction taken orally||10 ml a day of 10-15 days||Leprosy||0.92|
|74||Plumbago zeylanica L.||P, G||Chitrak, Chita||Plumbaginaceae||Herb||R||Root extract/decoction taken orally||50 ml twice a day 4-5 days||Snake bite||0.92|
|VSN; Bansal:117||R||Root extract applied externally over affected area||25-50 ml per day till cure||Inflammation||0.93|
|R||Fresh paste applied over affected area||2-3 gms a day for 10-15 days||Piles||0.74|
|Decoction taken orally||50ml thrice a day for 3-5 days||Abortion||1.00|
|Mixture of leaf juice with coconut oil and little camphor is applied on affected area before sleeping||10-15 ml per day for 5 days||Itching||0.97|
|75||Polianthes tuberosa L.||P, G, B, RC, HP||Rajnigandha||Asparagaceae||Herb||BL||Mixture of bulb powder with turmeric and butter applied externally over affected area||2-3 gms per day till cure||Pimples, sores||0.73
|VSN; Bansal:352||BL||Infusion prepared from bulbs and tubers is applied externally on affected area||2-3 gms per day till cure||Inflammation in groin Acne||1.00
|76||Portulaca oleracea L.
|P, G, L, B, HP||Bichubuti,
|S||Seed powder with seeds of cumin, coriander mixed with common salt taken orally with water||5 gms per day for 15 days||Night Discharge||1.00|
|S||Decoction of seeds taken orally||25ml twice for 40-50 days||Cardiovasc
|Fresh juice taken orally||10 ml twice a day for 2 weeks||Blood purifier||0.95|
|77||Putranjiva roxburghii Wall.||A, R, RC||Putranjeva||Putranjivaceae||Tree||S||Seeds given to one month pregnant lady to have male baby||3-5 seeds per day for one month||Pregnancy determination||1.00|
|VSN; Bansal:121||S||Powdered seeds taken with water orally||5 gms per day for one month||Infertility||0.98|
|78||Rosa indica L.
|P, G, RC, B, H, R||Gulab||Rosaceae||Shrub
|P||Petals are mixed with sugar syrup and allowed to kept airtight if 3-4 months and then given orally||250 gms per day for 4-5 days||Uterus cleaning in cows and buffalo||1.00|
|P||Gulkand (Petals and sugar) given to lactating cattle||250 gms per day for 10-15 days||Increases lactation||1.00|
|P||Extract of petals mixed with Aloe vera gel applied directly over skin before sleeping||3-5 ml per day for one month||Skin disease, Pimples||0.91
|P||Gulkand (Petals and sugar) are mixed with Withania somnifera powder taken with warm water||25-30 gms thrice a day for 3 months||Asthma||0.94|
|79||Saccharum bengalense Retz.||B, R||Jhunda, sarkanda||Poaceae||Herb
|Roots boiled with milk and taken orally||7 days
|VSN; Bansal:115||R||Decoction of root taken orally.||50 ml daily for 3-5 days||Typhoid
|80||Saccharum spontaneum L.||B, R||Kaans||Poaceae||Herb
|R||Root decoction taken orally.||50ml twice a day for 5-7 days||Cough, Cold||0.95|
|VSN; Bansal:112||R||Root with equal amount root of doob taken and decoction is orally||50 ml twice a day for 5-7 days||Heat stroke
|81||Salvia splendence Sellow ex Schuil.||P, G, B||Lamiaceae||Herb||L||Leaves and stem decoction taken orally||10 ml twice a day for 1-2 months||Diabetes||0.88|
|Dried leaves warmed in mustard oil and applied locally||5-10 ml twice a day till cures||Wound healing||0.75|
|L||Leaves are used by locals for dressing wounds in urgent cases to stop bleeding||5-10 leaves per day till cure||Wound healing, Skin disease||0.75
|82||Sansevieria trifasciata Prain VSN; Bansal:361||P, G, B, R||Snake Plant||Asparagaceae||Herb||L||Sap from leaves is applied directly on affected area||10-20 ml twice a day till cure||Fungal infection, scabies, skin rashes||1.00
|83||Senna occidentalis (L.) Link||P, G||Ritwa||Leguminosae||Shrub||L||Leaves paste is applied over affected area.||For 2 weeks||Vitiligo
|VSN; Bansal:184||L||Water boiled with leaves used for bathing.||Twice a day till cure||Boils||0.93|
|L||Leaf Decoction oaken orally||100 ml per day for 1-2 months||Respiratory diseases||0.87|
|L||Warn leaf is put over eyes||One leaf for 3-5 days||Conjunctivitis||1.00|
|F||Freshly prepared paste is applied externally over affected area||2 gms for 3-5 days||Scorpion bite||0.85|
|84||Senna tora (L.) Roxb.||P||Pawad||Leguminosae||Shrub||R||Past applied over affected area||2-3 gms twice a day for 5 days||Snake bite, scorpion sting||0.86
|VSN; Bansal:134||R||Paste with equal amount of lime juice applied on affected area||2 gms per day for 10-15 days||Ring worms||0.88|
|L||Dried powder taken orally with water before sleeping||5 gms per day for one week||Constipation||0.93|
|85||Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. &Schult.
|A, G, P, B, R||Chandani||Apocynaceae||Shrub||WP||Latex obtained from plant is applied directly on the affected region||5-10 gms per day till cure||Swelling, Inflammation||0.75
|L||Leaves infusion mixed with water and taken orally||5 ml twice a day for 3-5 days||Fever, cough, purgative||0.80
|R||Roots are chewed||2-3 cm long till cure||Tooth ache||0.77|
|FL||Floral paste mixed with mustard oil and used as eye drops||2 drops per day till cure||Sore eyes||1.00|
|86||Tagetes erecta L.
|P, G, B, RC||Gainda||Asteraceae||Herb
|L||Extract from leaves applied on affected area||10-20 ml per day for 5-7 days||Piles, boils||0.87
|FL||Fresh floral juice taken orally||25 ml per day for 5-7 days||Piles||0.87|
|FL||Decoction of fresh flowers is prepared and given to children||5ml twice a day for 5-7 days||Loss of appetite, Intestinal worms||1.00
|L||Leaf powder applied directly on affected area||5-10 gms per day till cure||Scores, ulcers||1.00
|L||Juice from fresh leaves is applied directly on affected region||10-20 ml per day till cure||Eczema||0.92|
|FL||Powder prepared from dried flower and leaves is used (faki) with Luke warm water before bed||5 gms per day for one week||Gastric troubles constipation||1.00
|87||Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem.||A, G, RC||Roheda||Bignoniaceae||Tree
|W||Wood oil applied over affected area.||Twice a day till cures||Skin disease||0.90|
|VSN; Bansal:408||ST||Decoction taken orally||20 ml per day for one week||Stomach ache||0.98|
|88||Tectona grandis L.f. VSN; Bansal:347||A, G||Sangwan||Lamiaceae||Tree||B
|Bark powder mixed with Luke warm water to prepare paste and applied locally in morning||5gms per day for 10-15 days||Astringent||1.00|
|89||Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight &Arn.||A||Arjun||Combretaceae||Tree||B||Decoction taken orally||10 ml per day till cure||Blood pressure control||1.00|
|Fresh leaves chewed directly||3-5 leaves per day for 3-5 months||Blood cholesterol||1.00|
|Decoction taken orally||10 ml per day for 5-7 days||Abdominal pain||1.00|
|Dried powdered paste mixed with papaya fruit taken orally||5gms powder with 100 gms of papaya thrice a day for 5 days||Jaundice||0.91|
|90||Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr.
|L||Leaves boiled in water and kept overnight, Extract taken in morning before meal.||150 ml for 5-7 days||Fever, Dengue||0.98
|L||Leaves decoction taken orally.||50ml twice a day till cure||Diabetes||0.97|
|ST||Stem paste is applied externally over affected area||10 gms per day for one week||Boils||0.92|
|91||Trianthema portulacastrum L.
|L, P, HP||Satta||Aizoaceae||Herb
|WP||Juice taken orally.||20-30 ml twice a day for 1-2 weeks||Swelling||0.96|
|R||Decoction taken orally||25 ml twice a day for 1-2 weeks||Constipation Asthma||0.94
|L||Fresh juice taken orally||5ml twice a day for 5-7 days||Typhoid||0.98|
|Fresh juice mixed with equal amount of honey and applied externally||10 ml twice a day for 2 weeks||Joint pain||0.88|
Ornamental Use: A: Avenue plant, B: Bouquet/ Cut flower/ Cut foliose, C: Lawn covers, G: Garden plant, H: Hedge/fencing, HP: Hanging Pots, P: Pot plant, R: Road divider, RC: Religious, ceremonial and cultural
Part Used: WP: Whole plant, S: Seed, L: Leaf, F: Fruit, B: Bark, G: Gum, FL: Flower, R: Root, BL: Bulb, LT: Latex, ST: Stem, RH: Rhizome, W: Wood, T: Thorn, P: Petals
TABLE 4: DIFFERENT AILMENT CATEGORIES
|S. no.||Ailment category||Ailments|
|1.||Gastrointestinal||Abdominal pain, Anal infection, Constipation, Diaorrhea, Dysentery, Interstitial worms, Spleen enlargement, Stomach ache, Purgative|
|2.||Gynecological||Abortion, Agalactia, Early breast swelling, Foeticidal, Increases lactation, Leucorrhoea, Menorrhagia, Pregnancy determination|
|3.||Bacterial||Leprosy, Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Tetanus|
|4.||Viral||Foot and mouth disease, Chicken pox, Cough and cold, Hepatitis B, Rabies, Small pox, Dengue|
|5.||Neurological||Epilepsy, Nervous disorder|
|6.||Aesthetic||Hair growth, Cracking feet, Astringent, Dandruff, Hair lice|
|7.||Ear Nose Throat (ENT)||Ear- ache, Eye infection, Eye sight improvement, Nose bleeding, Throat infection|
|8.||Fungal||Ringworms, Fungal infection|
|9.||Respiratory||Bronchitis, Asthma, Bronchial spasm|
|10.||Urinogenital||Menorrhagia, Diuretic, Gonorrhea, Piles, Uric acid level normalization, Urinary tract infection, Enlarged testicles, Impotency in males and females, Night Discharge, Unequal testis|
|11.||Dermatological||Skin rashes, Burnt skin, Eczema, Boils, Leucoderma, Pimples, Psoriasis, scabies, Scores, Vitiligo, Carbuncles, Skin cancer, Warts|
|12.||Dental||Dental cavities, Bleeding gums, Mouth infections, Mouth ulcer, Tooth ache, Tooth problems|
|13.||Arthrolical||Rheumatoid, Arthritis, Bone Fracture, Slip disc problem, Muscular Pain, Rheumatic pain|
|14.||Poisoning||Snake bite, Datura poisoning, Insect bite, Scorpion bite, Snake bite|
|15.||Veterinary||Easy delivery in cattle, Uterus cleaning in cows and buffalo|
|16.||Calculus||Gall bladder stone, Kidney stone|
|17.||Hepatic||Jaundice, Liver disease|
|18.||Inflammation||Conjunctivitis, Fistula, Inflammation, Inflammation in groin Acne|
|20.||General||Diabetes, Blood purifier, Burning sensation, Blood pressure, Blood cholesterol, Fever, Wound healing, Swelling, Stress relief, Sore eyes, Pus drying, Loss of appetite, Itching, Induce vomiting, Inner injury, Immunity booster, Heat stroke, Hiccup, Cooling effect, Eyesight improvement, Rejuvenating cells|
FIG. 3: ORNAMENTAL UTILIZATION OF DOCUMENTED SPECIES IN THE REGION
FIG. 4: HABIT OF THE ORNAMENTAL PLANTS DOCUMENTED FROM REWARI DISTRICT
Maximum number of ethnomedicinal uses were reported for skin disease (17) followed by wound, boils (13), constipation (12), piles, cough and cold (10), jaundice, asthma (09), swelling, pimples and intestinal worms (07) respectively Fig. 5. Among the plant parts, leaves (36.50%) were the most commonly used followed by roots (13.69%), whole plant (11.41%), seed (9.13%), bark (7.98%), flower (6.46%), fruit (6.08%), stem (3.42%), petal (1.52%), bulb (1.14%) gum and latex (0.76%).
FIG. 5: DIFFERENT DISEASES TREATED BY ETHNOMEDICINAL UTILIZATION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS
Various plant parts used of the abovementioned ethnomedicinal ornamental plants are mentioned in Fig. 6. Freshly gathered plant parts were overwhelmingly utilized in preparation, followed by dried powder, latex and gel from therapeutic plants. Numerous methods were used for the preparation of herbal remedies, such as decoction, poultice, powder, paste, fomentation, juice, infusion, latex, tea, etc.. These were used in combination with other plants or singly used. Oral applications followed by external were the most well-known method of administration.
The vast majority of the homemade preparations taken by the patients needed appropriate normalized portions. Notwithstanding, surmised measurements were taken depending on the patients' age, sexual orientation, and appearance. It was observed that the treatment method utilized by individuals generally relies upon the ailment. Skin issues were generally treated by applying topically juice or decoction of therapeutic plants, while wounds and ulcers were treated by applying gel, juice, latex, or paste. For internal issues, natural preparations were mostly regulated orally in various portions, contingent upon the seriousness of the issue
FIG. 6: DIFFERENT PLANT PARTS USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF DIFFERENT MEDICINES
Informant Consensus Factor (ICF): The degree of informant agreement was calculated and presented in the form of ICF. The value of ICF ranged from 0.44-1. A higher value of ICF denoted specificity of information and represented acceptability of information among the informants. Higher value of ICF also displayed frequent exchange of that particular information among the people. The highest degree of consensus was observed for gastrointestinal issues, skin allergies, sores, urinary tract infection, male sexual potency, bone fracture, dandruff, early delivery in cattle, uterus cleaning in cows, gynecological disorder, foeticidal, inflammation, pain and numerous other ailments showed highest degree of informant consensus. While, lower ICF values were observed for cough (0.55), wound healing (0.75), skin disease (0.44), piles (0.57) and ringworm (0.62). Lower ICF values signified the randomness of the particular ailment category and represented minimal information sharing for that particular ailment.
DISCUSSION: The findings of the study indicate close relationship of the local residents with plants. Local people, particularly living in rural and remote areas utilize plants for numerous purposes viz. aesthetic, devotional, positivity, pollution scavengers, industries, medicinal, food and fodder. The region is a rich treasure chest of cultivated and wild OPs. This selection of OPs by the local residents is believed to have been influenced by numerous factors, primarily by socioeconomic and cultural factors 7, 22, 23.
A total of 91 OPs belonging to 42 families have been documented. The documented OPs were utilized as garden (G), pot (P), bouquet/cut flower/ cut foliage (B), avenue plant (A), road dividers (R), religious and cultural (RC), hedge and fencing (H), lawn covers (L). During the study, the ornamental uses of plants were classified into different sections based on observations and personnel interviews with informants from different socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. All the plants grown on both sides of the roads primarily for shade, beautification and real estate enhancement were listed as avenue plants 24, 25. It was evident from the results that combinations of cultivated and wild plants were used in different ornamental categories.
Albizia lebbeck, Delonix regia, Melia azedarach, Morus alba, Tabernaemontana divaricata were widely used avenue plants in the region. Although the documentation of avenue plants has not been done from the region, but there are instances of these plants being documented in plant biodiversity studies 26, 18. All the plants grown in institutional, public and home gardens were listed as garden plants and fulfilled various goals like beautification of the estates, stress reduction, psychological balancing, positivity and build curiosity 27. Similar findings were also observed in other ornamental studies from India and other nations 18, 28.
OPs grown in pots and used for decoration of public, private offices, hospitals, industries, educational institutes, terrace gardens, balconies were enlisted into pot plants categories 29. Rosa indica, Epipremnum aureum, Polianthes tuberosa, Asparagus racemosus, and Aloe vera were the region's most frequently encountered pot plants. Studies have also suggested the use of similar plant species for decorations, specifically in homegardens 30, 31. Bouquet/cut flower/ cut foliage category included those plants which were used by local florists, nurseries, and residents in their houses and offices for decoration purpose 32. Rosa indica, Canna indica, Asparagus racemosus, Saccharum spontaneum, Tagetes erecta, Portulaca oleracea, were the most dominantly used plants. Hedge and fencing plants category included those shrub or trees which were closely grown and had profuse branching. These plants are used for demarcation of boundaries, maintaining privacy and as wall against stray animals 3. These included Clerodendrum phlomidis, Pithecellobium dulce, Lawsonia inermis and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis relatable results were also shared by numerous studies 28, 30, 31. Road dividers included those plant species which were grown between roads and dividers with the purpose of absorbing dust, aesthetic appearance to pavements, improve air quality, and protection from high beam lights from vehicles. These includes Albizia lebbeck, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Putranjiva roxburghii, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Cascabela thevetia, Nerium oleander and were majorly grown and maintained by the government and private agencies 24.
There is growing interest in plants for lawn covers, including species used for reviving barren land and preparing grass beds in gardens and homes. Religious and cultural plant species were also noted during the study tenure. These included Crinum asiaticum, Tecomella undulata, Canna indica, Butea monosperma, Mitragyna parvifolia, Datura metel and Ficus religiosa. Different studies also reported similar findings in similar socio-cultural traditions and conditions 33, 34, 35. It was evident from the results that wild plants were prominently used by different fractions of the society primarily due to the low cost of maintenance and domestication of wild ornamental species 36.
Industries, hospitals, and shopping malls consisted of cultivated ornamental plants procured from private nurseries due to the distribution of cultivated ornamentals by private nurseries for maintaining status and institutional integrity37. While, homesteads, terrace gardens, educational institutes, temples, ashrams, and nurseries consisted of both cultivated and wild species of plants. It was also observed that most wild plant species grown in homes were shared amongst the local residents like Acacia leucocephloea, Cynodon dactylon, Albizia lebbeck, Aloe vera, Opuntia dillenii, and Tinospora sinensis. The previous studies have also highlighted the impact of urbanization on perception and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants 18. Results have also exhibited that the nearby local areas have massive ethnomedicinal information. Countless individuals, especially those living in rural and remote regions, use them for essential medical services. Nearby individuals depend on ethnomedicinal plants because of their availability, efficacy, and affordability. It was observed during the tenure of study, that maximum participation was from temple priests, gardeners, workers and owners of nurseries. The large number of OPs species belonged to Leguminosae followed by Asteraceae, Euphobiaceae, Poaceae, Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Convolvulaceae, Nyctaginaceae and Solanaceae families. The dominance of these families could be attributed to prevailing edaphoclimatic conditions. Further, the dominance ofLeguminosae members in the region and adjoining areas have also been reported by earlier studies 10, 38, 39.
Herbaceous plants (43.96%) were the dominating life form in this region followed by trees, shrubs, twines, climbers and creepers. These findings are like other past investigations and could be inferred to high usage of herbaceous plants in gardens, pots and institutions for ornamental purposes40, 41, 42. This could be ascribed to their easy accessibility in the nearby regions and nurseries than different habits like trees, bushes and climbers. The findings of the current study are in concurrence with the findings of the previous studies 43, 44.
Leaves were the most often utilized plant part, followed by the roots, entire plant, seeds, bark, flower, fruit, stem, petal, bulb, gum, and latex. Similar findings have also been reported in other ethnomedicinal and ethnopharmacological studies 38, 39, 43, 40, 41. Leaves are a rich reservoir of diverse phytochemicals 45. Moreover, reaping leaves guarantees the survival of the plants dissimilar to the roots, stem bark, and entire plant. The current study's findings likewise showed maximum utilization of freshly gathered plant parts for therapeutic purposes for the treatment of different ailments. The broad utilization of fresh plant materials followed by dried powder, latex and gel in the space might be connected with the thought that active constituents could be lost on drying. Other ethnomedicinal studies have additionally opined that fresh parts have better viability when contrasted with the dried plant parts 46, 48. The maximum ethnomedicinal uses were reported for skin disease (17) followed by wounds, boils (13), constipation (12), piles, cough (10), jaundice, asthma (09), swelling, and pimples (07). Skin disease, wounds, boils, constipation, piles, cough, jaundice, and asthma are the most common ailments in the region. The homogeneity of the ethnomedicinal information led to the discovery of frequently shared knowledge for treating various routine maladies like gastrointestinal issues, skin allergies, sores, urinary tract infection, male sexual potency, bone fracture, dandruff, early delivery in cattle, uterus cleaning in cows, gynecological disorder, foeticidal, inflammation and pain which showed ICF value of 1. While, certain ailment categories were found to be rarely shared amongst the individuals, like cough, wound healing, skin disease, piles, and ringworm.
Other ethnomedicinal studies have also shared findings that have documented higher and lower ICF values for respective categories 10, 21, 23, 42. Thus, locals have identified various ways of their treatments over the period through hits and trials. Similar other reports favor the present investigations from other communities 46, 47, 49. Our analysis confirmed the availability hypothesis and revealed that most OPs are utilized for numerous ornamental and medicinal purposes in the region.
Limitations of the Current Study: The current study attempted to incorporate informants from diverse backgrounds, specifically from the adornment point of view for which individuals working in Nurseries, floral shops, and gardeners working in different institutions were approached. However, the region is facing zealous development, but there is little development in the OPs sector. It was observed there is limited no. of nurseries in the district, and the majority of the nurseries are primarily restricted to Rewari block. Further, the Rewari and Bawal blocks were the only blocks that had reputed schools, hospitals, shopping malls and factories which have tried to incorporate OPs for positive ambience and beautification purposes. Thus, other community blocks of the district were neglected from OPs perspective.
Moreover, the ethnomedicinal knowledge was mainly restricted to local residents, temple priests, and region gardeners. It was also observed that the aged informants harbored most of the ethnomedicinal knowledge and younger generations were not very keen to accept this traditional knowledge. The toxicological profile of the plants documented was neglected in the study, which should be consolidated in future studies.
CONCLUSION: The current ethnomedicinal exploration of wild and cultivated ornamental plants in Rewari district revealed 91 plant species belonging to 42 different families. It was conclusive from the study that the residents of the Rewari district are using a combination of wild and cultivated ornamental plants in gardens, pots, bouquet/cut flower/ cut foliage, as avenue plants, road dividers, religious, cultural, lawn covers, hedge, and fencing. The selection of OPs by the local people was greatly influenced by the Socio-cultural and economic factors, which further paved the way for the selection of wild plants for ornamental purposes. It was evident from the findings that the local people harbour immense ethnomedicinal knowledge and use it frequently to treat various routine maladies. However, it is recommended to conduct more studies on the validation of ethnomedicinal claims as no such studies have been conducted on the ethnomedicinal ornamental plants from the region. Further, the findings of the study provide useful information that can be utilized in urban forestry planning and redesigning of nurseries that could incorporate wild plants of the region. The present study is expected to help in conservation and sustainable use and influence the floristic perspective for utilization of local ornamental flora of the region for utilization by local people for multipurpose uses. The current study will be useful for local inhabitants of the region to develop diversified, sustainable home gardens and revenue for local people by promoting younger generations into OPs businesses and start-ups. It is recommended to conduct more in-depth studies on the impacts of OPs on households and ethnopharmacological studies.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors are thankful to the hakims/vaids, traditional practitioners, temple priests, owners and workers of nurseries, and elder people, including women of District Rewari, for sharing their valuable knowledge and cooperation during the study. Prior informed consent (PIC) was obtained from the information and knowledge providers as per NBA/CBD guidelines, and they were also informed of equitable benefit sharing.
Funding: SSY thankfully acknowledges SERB-DST, Govt. of India, New Delhi, financial assistance in the form of a research project under the core grant scheme. The authors are also grateful to Haryana State Council for Science and Technology (HSCST) and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, DST-FIST, New Delhi, and M.D. University Rohtak for financial assistance.
Author’s Contribution: PB and SSY conceptualized and designed the study. ASR and PB conducted field surveys, data collection, and formal data analysis. ASR, PB, and SSY were actively involved in manuscript preparation, reviewing, and editing.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: Authors declare there is no conflict of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Bansal P, Rao AS, Yadav SS, Bhandoria MS, Narasimhan B and Dash SS: Ethnomedicinal exploration of ornamental flora of Aravalli Hill ranges of Rewari district of Haryana, India. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2023; 13(7): 2951-76. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.13(7).2951-76.
All © 2022 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
P. Bansal, A. S. Rao, S. S. Yadav *, M. S. Bhandoria, B. Narasimhan and S. S. Dash
Department of Botany, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
16 May 2022
18 June 2022
10 June 2022
01 July 2022