ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN AGARO DISTRICT, JIMMA ZONE, SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIAHTML Full Text
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN AGARO DISTRICT, JIMMA ZONE, SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIA
Tesfaye Gabriel*and Teferi Guji
Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy 1, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
ABSTRACT: Aim: Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for more than many centuries. The use of a given plant for the same purpose by people geographically distant or with dissimilar cultural backgrounds constitutes impressive evidences that the use is valid. The aim of this study was to document ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants in Agaro District, Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia. Methods: A cross–sectional study was conducted in the district from June 01-July 31, 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to record pertinent information on the use of the medicinal plants and collect their specimens. The study involved 440 households living in the district. Result: Eighty medicinal plants were collected, of which sixty–eight were identified botanically and the remaining were reported in vernacular names. The identified species were distributed in thirty–eight families. Leaves were the major plant parts used accounting for 42(44.7%), followed by roots 21(22.3%), fruits 17(18.1%) and barks 7(7.4%). Regarding the method of preparation, vegetable drug was the most commonly used method accounting for 30(37.5%), followed by decoction 23(28.8%) and concoction 12(15.0%). Most of the medicinal preparations were taken orally 46(57.5%), followed by external application 25(31%) and nasal application 7(9%). Conclusion: The indigenous knowledge of the community of Agaro District on medicinal plants was documented. The local people knew which plant and which part of plant was used to treat what type of disease. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations should be carried out on the most frequently used species of medicinal plants in the study area.
Ethnopharmacology, Medicinal plants, Traditional medicine, Agaro District, Ethiopia
INTRODUCTION: Background: Traditional medicine (TM) is an ancient form of health care practice before the appearance of scientific medicine. It is a part of culture of many peoples. Moreover, it is accessible to the people in even the most remote areas, and it doesn’t require sophisticated equipment. The obvious preference for TM in many parts of the world has both cultural and economic roots 1, 2.
During the past few years, traditional systems of medicine have become a topic of global importance. The world health organization (WHO) estimates that 80% of the population in developing countries depends on traditional practitioners and medicinal plants (MPs) to meet primary health needs. In industrialized countries, plant products are gaining popularity as alternative and complementary therapies 3, 4.
Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for many centuries. Today medicinal herbs and their products are used worldwide as home remedies, over the counter preparations and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry. They now account for a substantial proportion of the global drug market, and increased attention is therefore being paid to assurance of their safety, quality and efficacy 5. The use of a given plant for the same purpose by people geographically distant or with dissimilar cultural backgrounds constitutes impressive evidence that the use is valid 6.
The increased worldwide interest in MPs can be explained by limitation of human ability to synthesize products that satisfy all health care needs and the limitless potential of plants to produce enormous compounds for their own survival and development, toxicities of drugs of chemical origin, similarly between living organism of plant and animal origin which allows easy assimilation of compounds produced by plants, its adherence to traditionally accepted systems and cultures and the confidence gained about the therapeutic utility of plants over several millennia 7, 8.
Africa is a continent endowed with enormous wealth of plant resources. Over 5,000 distinct species are known to occur in the forest regions alone and most of them have been used for several centuries in TM for the prevention and treatment of disease. The continent is believed to have the oldest human habitation and is generally considered the cradle of human civilization 9.
The Ethiopian flora is estimated to contain between 6,500 and 7,000 species of higher plants of which about 12% are endemic. The country is well known for its significant geographical diversity, which favored the formation of different habitat and vegetation zones. Plants have been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia from time immemorial to treat different ailments 10.
Though most practices and treatments in herbal medicine require specialists or professionals, who are referred generally to as herbalists, self-care using plants is common in Ethiopia. Although few studies on the MP resources of Ethiopia have been conducted, the extent and types of herbs used in self–care by the majority has not been documented 11.
Despite significant contribution to the society, TM has experienced very little attention in modern research and development, and less effort has been done to upgrade the practice. It is only recently that the Ethiopian health authorities have shown interest to promote and develop it. Loss of the knowledge has been aggravated by the expansion of modern education, which has made the younger generation underestimate its traditional values. Migration from rural areas to towns and resettlement of people from drought stricken regions to fertile areas has also resulted in the deterioration of traditional practices. Such weakening of traditional medicinal practices will greatly affect the national PHC 10. Thus, this work is designed to document knowledge on the use of MPs in Agaro District, South Western Ethiopia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This ethnopharmacological study was conducted in Agaro District, Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia. The altitude of the studyarea is 1560 m above sea level. The study was conducted in the district from June 01-July 31, 2013.
A structured questionnaire was used to assess the ethnopharmacology of MPs from a total of 440 households (HHs) in the district. Before data collection, the questionnaires were translated into local languages and data collectors were recruited and trained.The structured questionnaire was used to collect information on locality, scientific and vernacular names, part(s) of the plant used, method(s) of preparation for use, disease(s) for which plant is used. Fertile specimens of the plants were collected in the field, pressed and taken to the National Herbarium (NH) for taxonomic identification. Finally, data were compiled and further analyzed.
A total of 440 HH were included in the study. Around 62% of the respondents were males. The average age of the respondents was 34.25. About two third of the study population were Oromo followed by Gurage (12.7%), Amhara (10.7%) and Wolayita (7.1%). Three fifth of the total respondents were Muslims, followed by Orthodox (30.0%) and Protestant (7.3%) regarding occupational status, farmers and merchants account for half of the total studied HH respondents. The average family size of the population was 4.8.
Illnesses and actions taken
One hundred twenty persons were reported to have an illness episode during a four weeks recall period preceding the interview date. Males were reported to have more morbidity than females and it is statistically significant. Febrile illnesses including malaria, common cold, tonsillitis and typhoid fever were the most frequently reported illnesses in the area. The point prevalence of diseases in the four weeks recall period was 22.2%. Seventy percent of population with reported perceived illnesses used MM and 15(12.5%) used home–made remedies.
Ever use of traditional medicine and reasons for use
About 47% of the respondents reported that they had used TM in the past. The ever use of TM were compared between subgroups (among different ages, sex, educational status) using chi-square tests. Males were more likely to use TM than females but the association was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Age was found to have a significant association with the use of TM (P<0.05). Respondents between ages group 25-34 used TM more than other age groups. Respondents of Oromo used TM more than other ethnic groups. Farmers were more likely to practice TM and statistically significant (P<0.005), the association between ethnicity, income and literacy status was statistically significant too. The most commonly cited reasons for the practice of TM were cheapness (37.9%), culture/belief (26.2%) and efficacy (20.9%) as shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1 REASONS OF THE RESPONDENTS WHO PRACTICED TM FOR USING IT IN THE PAST, AGARO DISTRICT, JUNE 01-JULY 31, 2013.
About seventy five percent of the total respondents knew and used MPs. In the survey, 80 MPs were collected, of which 68 were identified botanically and the remaining were reported in vernacular names (Afan Oromo and Amharic). The identified species were distributed in thirty–eight families, of which Labiatae, Acanthaceae, Euphorbionce, Caricaceae and Compositae were the dominant plant families (Table 2, 3). Ocimum lamiifolium, Deciliter laxata, Croton Macrostachys, Vernonia amygdalina, Carica papaya, Eucalyptus globules, Allium Sativam, Echinops maccrochaetus, Schinus molle, and Withania somnifera were the top ten commonly used plant species (Table 4).
The result of the study indicated that there was a practice of cultivating MP. About 26% MPs were cultivated at home garden and 42 (52.5%) grown at wild and the remaining were grown both at garden and wild.
TABLE 2 MEDICINAL PLANTS USED AGAINST HUMAN AILMENTS IN AGARO DISTRICT, JIMMA, ETHIOPIA, JUNE 01-JULY 31, 2013.
(Key: R=Roots L=Leaf; Rh= Rhizome; S= Stem; F= Flower; Fr= Fruit; Se= Seed; La = Latex; Bu= Bulb; OAfan Oromo; aAmharic )
|S. No||Vernacular name||Scientific name||Family||Uses (citation)||Part used||Mode of preparation and administration|
|Abishia||Echinops macrocheetus||Asteraceae||Abdominal Colic (1)||Se||The seeds are ground and macerated with water then taken|
|Agamsao||Carissa edulis||Apocynaceae||Evil eye (1)||R||The roots are ground and warmed on fire then inhaled|
|Anao||Lawsonia inermis.L||Lythraceae||Toothache(2)||R||Roots are ground and held on tooth|
|Anamuroo||Ajuga integrifolia ham.buch||Labiatae||Diarrheae (2)||L||Leaves are ground and macerated with water then taken|
|Ashero||Acmella caulirhiza||Asteraceae||Toothache (1)||F||The flower is held on the tooth|
|Atsefarisa||Datura stramonium L.||Solanaceae||Dandraff(4)
|Leaves are pounded and put on head and washed.
Leaves are chewed and fluid is spat away
Leaves are grounded, macerated with water then wound is washed with conc.
|Bisanaa||Croton marcrostachys||Euphorbionce||Scabies (28)
|L||Fresh leaves are pounded and applied on skin|
|Bokoloa||Zea mays L||Graminae||Kidney disease (1)||Se||Dried seeds are grounded macerated then taken|
|Bosokeo||Kalanchoe lanceolanta V.||Crasulaceae||Cough(1)
|L||Fresh leaves are pounded and juice is prepared|
|Bunnaa||Coffea Arabica linn||Rubaceae||Bloody diarrhea (1)||Se||Dried seeds are ground after roasting and mixed with honey and taken|
Common cold (92)
|Fresh leaves are pounded and body is washed with concoct
The juice of pounded fresh leaves is prepared and drunk .
|Dawulaa||Kalanchoe spp||Crasulaceae||Wound (1)||L||Leaves are pound and held on wound|
|Dhegisoo||Eleusine coracana||Poaceae||Intestinal parasite (1)||L||Fresh leaves are pounded and macerated with water and taken after adding sugar.|
|Dimbilalia||Coriandrum satuum L||Umbellitereae||Kindney disease (1)||Se||Dried seeds are pound and macerated with water and taken|
|Dobbia||Girardinia bullosa (Hocrstex steud)||Urticaceae||Streptothricosis (1)||L||Fresh pounded leaves are held on the wound|
|Dubbaa||Cucurbita pepo L.||Cucurbitaceae||Intestinal parasiste (1)||Se||Dried seeds are pound and macerated with water and taken|
|Enchinea||Pavonia urens||Malvaceae||Streptothricosis (1)||L||Fresh leaves are pounded and put on skin|
|Fetoa||Lepidum sativum G.||Crucifereae||Stomachache (8)
|Dried seeds are grounded, macerated with water and taken after adding sugar|
|Gingiblea||Zingiber officinale Rose||Zingiberaceae||Common cold (6)
|Rh||Rhizomes are pounded and mixed with honey and taken|
|Grawaa||Vernonia amygdalina delile||Compositae||Wounds (24)
Kidney problem (5)
|Pounded fresh leaves are held on wound or teeth
Fresh leaves are pounded macerated with water and taken
|Inkoya||Ximenia americana||Olacaceae||Common cold (5)
|The fruit is boiled and taken orally
The pounded root is applied on the skin
|Indoda||Phytolocca dodecandra L Herit||Phytolaccaceae||Rabies (2)
Chokkia bite 91)
|The root is pounded and juice is taken orally
The pounded root is applied on the skin
|Kalalao||Stephania abyssinica (Dill and Rich ) walp.||Menispermaceae||Wart (2)||L||The fresh leaves are warmed slightly and bandaged on skin of wart|
|Key bahirzafa||Euclaptus camaldalensis||Myrtaceae||General body illness (4)||L||The fresh leaves are warmed and the smoke coming out is inhaled.|
|Key Shinkurta||Allium cepn L||Liliaceae||Malaria (2)||St/Bu||The bulb is roasted or boiled and taken with honey|
|Kinchiba||Euphorbia tirucalli||Euphorbiaceae||Wart (1)||La||Latex from apical part of leaf is applied on wart|
|Komegnao||Brucea antidysentrila J.F miller||Simaroubaceae||Stomachache(1)||St||The stem is chewed and the juice is swallowed|
|Korchia||Erythrina abysinica||Papilionoideae||Stomachache (1)||BA||The bark is chewed and the fluid/juice is swallowed|
|Kulkuala||Euphorbia abysinicum||Euphorbiaceae||Ameba (1)||La||Latex coming from stem is baked with red tef and taken|
|Schinus molle||Anacrdiaceae||Tonsillitis (8)||L||The fresh leaves are chewed well and the juice is swallowed|
|Lenquantaa||Grewia ferruginea||Tiliaceae||Wart (1)||B||The bark is pounded and bandaged on skin|
|Lommia||Citrus aurantifolia (christm)||Rutaceae||Wound (3)
Common cold (5)
|The juice of the fruit is applied on the wound
The juice of the fruit is taken orally
|Merasisao||Withania somnifera (L) Dunal||Solanaceae||Stomachache (5)
|The root is pounded and mixed with butter and taken orally
The root is held between the teeth
|Mokmokoa||Rumex abyssinicus Jacf||Polygonaceae||Liver disease (1)
Lung problem (2)
|R||The root is pounded, macerated with water and taken orally|
|Muzia||Musa sapientum L||Musaceae||General body illness (1)||L||The leaves are pound and bandaged on skin|
|Nech Artia||Artemisia afra jacq facq||Compositae||Stomachache (2)||L||Leaves are pounded and mixed with salt macerated in water and taken orally|
|Nech bahirzafa||Eucalyptus globalus||Myrtaceae||Common cold (17)
General body illness (17)
|L||The fresh leaves are burned slightly and the smoke is inhaled|
|Nech shinkurta||Allium sativam L||Alliaceae||Malaria (10)
Common cold (13), Headache (6)
|Bu||The bulb is cut into pieces, pounded and juice taken orally|
|Papayaa||Carica papaya L||Caricaceae||Malaraia (21)
|L, R, Fr||Either leaves, roots, or fruits are pounded and juice prepared and taken|
|Kberichoo||Echinops macrochaetus M||Asteraceae||Snake bite (9)
|R||Roots are pounded and mixed with lemon juice and taken orally|
|Senemekio||Senna didymebotry Irwin and Barnely||Fabaceae||Jaundice (3)||R/Fr||The root or fruit is pounded and juice is prepared and taken orally|
|Sensela||Justicio shimperans Hochst, ex Nees||Acanthaceae||Rabies (5)
|L||Leaves are pounded and juice is prepared and taken orally|
|Surmoo||Pilea bambusteti Engi||Urtacaceae||Fracture (1)
|L||Leaves are pounded with sugar and juice is prepared and taken orally|
|Temenehaya||Acokenthera schimperi votiken||Apocyanaceae||Stomachache (27)||L||Leaves are grounded and mixed with honey and taken orally|
|Tena adama||Ruta chalepensis L||Rutaceae||Stomachache (27)||L||Leaves are grounded, macerated with water and taken orally|
|Tikur artia||Artemisia rehan||Compositeae||Stomachache (5)||L||Leaves are pounded with salt and juice taken orally|
|Tikur azmudia||Nigella sativa L||Ranumculaceae||Asthma (2)
|Se||The pounded seed is mixed with honey and taken orally|
|Tikur incheta||Prunus africana||Rosaceae||Asthma (2)
|Ba||Smoke of slightly burned bark is inhaled
Bark is held on teeth
|Togoa||Dicipter laxata C.B.Cl||Acanthaceae||Eye disease (31)
General body illness (31)
Common cold (31)
|Leaves are squeezed and fluid applied on eye
Leaves are grounded, macerated with water and applied on skin
Leaves are pounded, dispersed in water and taken
|Tufoo||Ageratum conizaides L||Compositae||Bleeding wound (2)||L||Leaves are crushed and juice is prepared and applied on skin|
Hochst ex Rich
|Polygonaceae||Stomachache (3)||R||The root is chewed and the fluid is swallowed|
|Warzaa||Cordia faricana Lim||Boraginaceae||Spider bite (2)||L||Leaves are burned on fire, powdered, mixed with butter then applied on skin|
|Kosso incheta||Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce ) J.F Gmel||Rosaceae||Intestinal parasite (8)||Se||Dried seeds are pounded and juice is prepared and taken orally|
|Arakissao||Wound (1)||L||The fluid on the tip of leaves is dropped on the wound|
|Baggeo||Eye disease (1)||La||The latex from stem is dropped on the eye|
|The seeds are pealed and taken
Fruit is taken orally
|Ibab harega||Stomachache(1)||L||Fresh leaves are pounded and juice is taken orally|
|Kelkelchao||Stomachache (1)||Ba||Dried bark is pounded and macerated in water and taken orally|
|Sokoruo||Wound (1)||L||Burned and powdered leaves are applied on skin|
TABLE 3 MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN COMBINATION FORMS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HUMAN AILMENTS IN AGARODISTRICT, JIMMA, ETHIOPIA, JUNE 01-JULY 31, 2013.
(Key: R=Roots L=Leaf; Rh= Rhizome; S= Stem; F= Flower; Fr= Fruit; Se= Seed; La = Latex; Bu= Bulb; OAfan Oromo; aAmharic )
|S No||Vernacular name||Scientific name||Family||Uses (citation )||Part used||Mode of preparation and administration|
|Coffea arabica linn||Rubaceae||Stabbing pain (1)||R
|Seed of coffee is pounded with root of alter and macerated with water and taken|
Morus nigra L
|Common cold (2)||R
|Roots are pounded, macerated with water and taken|
|Snake bite (2)||L
|Fresh leaves are pounded and held at the site of bite|
|Ximenia Americana L
Ruta chalepensis L
|Leaves are pounded and juice is prepared and taken|
|Rumex nervosas vani
|Fresh leaves are pounded and juice is prepared and taken|
|The fresh pounded leaves are put in bleeding nose or on the wound|
Brassica oleracea var capitata L
|Root of indod and seed of gomen pounded together, juice is prepared and taken.|
|Withania somenifera L
|Stomachache(3), Evil eye(3), Stabbing pain (2) toothache (1)||L
|Leaves are pounded and juice is prepared and taken
The pounded leaves are applied on teeth
Acokenthera shimperi votlike
|Evil eye (3)
|Their roots are grounded and juice is prepared and taken orally|
|Pavonia verens cavan
|General body illness (3)
Evil eye (1)
|Their fresh leaves are pounded and along with water concoction is prepared and taken orally|
|Their fresh leaves are pounded, concoction is prepared with water and taken orally|
Ruta chalepensis L
|The leaves are pounded and juice is prepared and taken orally|
|Common cold (2)||Se
|The dried seeds are pounded, concoction is prepared with water and taken orally|
TABLE 4: TOP TEN COMMONLY USED MPS IN AGARO DISTRICT, JIMMA, ETHIOPIA, JUNE 01-JULY 31, 2013.
|No||Scientific name||Ailments||No (%) of informants|
|Ocimum lamiifolium||Febrile illness, headache, common cold||92(20.9)|
|Dicliptera laxata||Eye disease, stomachache
Febrile illness, common cold
|Croton macrostachys||Scabies, streptothricosis, wound, febrile illness||28(6.4)|
|Vernonia amygdalina||Wounds, toothache, stomachache||24(6.4)|
|Carica papaya||Malaria, wound, liver jaundice||23(5.5)|
|Eucalyptus globalus||Common cold, mitchia||17(3.3)|
|Allium sativam||Malaria, common cold, headache||13(2.9)|
|Echinops macrochaetus||Snakebite, stomachache||9(1.6)|
|Withania somifera||Stomachache, toothache||8(1.3)|
The result of the study indicated that leaves were the major plant parts used 42 (44.7%) followed by roots 21(22.3%), fruits (17(18.1%) and barks 7(8.4%) (Fig. 1).
FIGURE 1: COMPARISON OF PLANT PARTS USED AS SOURCES, AGARO DISTRICT, JUNE 01-JULY 31, 2013.
Most of the preparations (37.5%) were taken raw (as vegetable drug), followed by decoction 23(28.8%) and concoction 12(15.9%) (Fig 2). In majority of the MPs (82.5%) only a single plant part is used and in 17.5% of them more than one part is used.
FIGURE 2: COMPARISON OF METHODS OF PREPARATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT PRODUCT, AGARO DISTRICT, JUNE 01-JULY 31, 2013.
The result of the study indicated that the major routes of administration was peroral accounting for 46(57.5%), followed by topical (applied externally on skin as bandaging or ointment, 25(31%) and nasal application 7(9%) (Fig 3).
FIGURE 3: COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS, AGARO DISTRICT, JUNE 01-JULY 31, 2013
Abdominal colic, common cold, evil eye, febrile illness, toothache wound and rabies were the most common diseases treated by different MPs (Table 5). Regarding the modes of uses of MPs, 3/4th of the plants were prepared and used fresh and 19 (23.7%) were used dry.
TABLE 5 COMMON DISEASES TREATED BY THE MPS, AGARO DISTRICT, JUNE 01-JULY 31, 2013.
|S. No||Common diseases||No of plants||%|
It was observed that appropriate dose measurement was not this mach practiced well in the study area. However, few people used glasses and cups for measurement of dose. They did not have adequate knowledge on adverse effects that appear upon taking the herbal preparation and use of antidotes.
DISCUSSIONS: Beliefs about causes of health problems are determinants of treatment seeking decisions. Hence, one of the alternatives for the solution of health problem, rise in a large segment of rural population is employing TM in general and MPs in particular 12.
The present study indicated that 47% of the total respondents had used TM is the past. However, the value is lower than the WHO estimated value (80%) 3. On the other hand, the indicated value is high when compared with the 21% prevalence found in Woliso 13. Males were more likely to use TM than females. This is not consistent to the result of pervious study done in rural and central Ethiopia on the use of MPs in self–care where females practiced TM more than males 11. Cheapness, cultural belief, efficacy and accessibility were the main reasons for popularity of TM in the study area, which is consistent with other studies 11, 13.
One hundred and twenty persons were reported to have an illness episode during a four weeks recall period preceding the interview date, showing that the disease prevalence in the study area was 22.2%. Males were reported to have more morbidity than females which is inconsistent with the study of Gedif and Hahn in central Ethiopia. Febrile illness like malaria, common cold, were the most frequently reprorted illnesses both in the study area and in a study done in rural and central Ethiopia 11.
The present study reported 80 MPs as being used by the people of Agaro district. The number of plants is greater than what was reported by Giday M, et al among Zay people 14. Most of the reported MPs were also used elsewhere in Ethiopia for their medicinal value. The fact that some MPs being used for the same purpose by more than one community might indicate the therapeutic effectiveness of these remedies. The major uses of different MPs for treatment of different disease in the present study area ranged from abdominal colic to wound and rabies based on distribution of species, experience and knowledge on practice of TM. In the study done in Jimma zone, the diseases ranged from pain to fatal diseases like malaria and cancer 12.
The study indicated that most of MPs were cultivated at the home garden but other study showed that most MPs are harvested from wild as in many parts of the country. 10 Regarding the partof the MPs, leaves were the major plant part used which complies with the studies done in Woliso 10, among Zay people 13 and Seka Chekorsa 15. However, in the study conducted in Shirka District, roots were the major plant part used 16. Collecting leaves does not cause a great danger to
the existence of an individual plant when compared with the collection of underground part, stem, bark or whole plant. Vegetable drug was the most frequently used method of preparation. In another study done in Seka Chekorsa, decoction and/or concoction were the frequently used method 15.
People of the study area have developed many methods of administration or application of the preparations depending on particular disease to be treated. Most of the remedies were taken orally, followed by external application and nasal application, which is similar with an earlier study done on Zay people 10. Lack of precision in the determination of doses has been noted in the area. According to other study, the real drawbacks in TM stem mostly from lack of precision in dosage 10. In the survey of ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants carried out in Mali, in the regions of Doila, Kolokani and Siby, about 50 medical indications were reported for the use of plants in TM. The most frequent indications reported were for malaria abdominal pain and dermatitis. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and a single species only. They were mainly taken orally, but some were prepared with a mixture of plants or other ingredients such as honey, sugar, salt, ginger and preparation and leaf powder was mostly used for the preparation of infusions. The part of plants most frequently used was the leaves 17.
CONCLUSIONS: The indigenous knowledge of the community of Agaro District on medicinal plants was documented. In the survey, 80 MPs were collected, of which 68 were identified botanically and the remaining were reported in vernacular names. The local people knew which plant and which part of plant was used to treat what type of disease. The result of the study indicated that leaves were the major plant parts used. Most of the preparations were taken raw (as vegetable drug). The result of the study indicated that the major routes of administration were peroral. Regarding the modes of uses of MPs, 3/4th of the plants were prepared and used fresh. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations should be carried out on the most frequently used species of medicinal plants in the study area.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: We would like to extend our gratitude to respondents of households and traditional healers who showed their willingness to share their knowledge on the use of medicinal plants.
- Mohammed SL, Traditional and modern medicine-is a marriage possible? World Health Forum, 5(2), 1984, 175 - 177.
- Morinis EA, Two pathways in understanding disease: Traditional and Scientific. WHO chronicle, 32(2), 1978, 57 - 59.
- WHO, Monographs on selected medicinal plants. Vol. 1 Geneva, 1999, 1 - 2.
- WHO, promoting the role of traditional medicine in health systems: a strategy for the African Region, 2001, 3 - 5.
- WHO, Quality control methods for medicinal plant material. Geneva, 1998, 5 - 8.
- Norman RF, A computerized data base for medicinal plants. World Health Forum, 594, 1984, 373 - 376.
- Yeboah T, Improving provision of traditional health knowledge for rural communities in Ghana. Health Libraries Review. 17, 2000, 203 - 208.
- Abebe D, The role of herbal remedies and the approaches towards their development. In: the proceedings of the workshop on the development and utilization for herbal remedies in Ethiopia. Nazareth, Addis Ababa Ethiopia, 1996, 28 - 38.
- Maurice M., Handbook of Africa medicinal plants, 1989. LLL, www.osksnug.org. Accessed on 7 January 2006.
- Giday M, Asfaw Z, Elmqvist T, Woldu Z, An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Zay people in Ethiopia. J Ethnopharmacol, 85, 2003, 43 - 52.
- Gedif T, Hahn HJ, The use of medicinal plants in self-care in rural and central Ethiopia, J Ethnopharmacol, 87, 2003, 155 - 161
- Abera B, Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Jimma Zone, Oromiya, Ethiopia, Ethiop J Health Dev 13(2), 2003, 85 - 94.
- Woldeyesus K, Utilization of traditional herbal medicine among residents of Woliso town, South West Showa, Oromia region, Ethiopia. 2003, SRP (unpublished) pp. 10 - 14.
- WHO, The promotion and development of traditional medicine, Supplement 622, Geneva, 1978, pp 3 - 4.
- Tadesse M, Hande D, Getachew Y, Survey of medicinal plants used to treat human disease in Seka Chekorsa, Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Ethiop. J Health Sci, 15(2), 2005, 89 - 100.
- Addis G, Abebe D, Urga K, A survey of traditional medicinal plants in Shirka District, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia. Ethiop Pharm J, 19, 2001, 30 - 47.
- Adiara T, Drossa D, Seydou D, Hofle B, Berit SP, Survey of ethnopharmacology of seven medicinal plants from Mali (West Africa), in the regions of Dolla, Kolokani and Siby. Indian J Med Sci, 1, 2005, 1 - 2.
How to cite this article:
GabrielTand Guji T: Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Agaro District, Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia. Int J Pharm Sci Res2014; 5(8): 3551-59.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.5 (8).3551-59.
All © 2014 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Tesfaye Gabriel* and Teferi Guji
Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
06 December, 2013
28 June, 2014
17 July, 2014
01, August 2014