EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF SOME NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTSHTML Full Text
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF SOME NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS
P. Swetha*, Harish C. Rodda and T. Sandhya
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Pathfinder Instituent of Pharmacy Education and Research, Opposite Warangal Airport, Mamnoor, Warangal-506166, Telangana, India.
ABSTRACT: The nutritional supplements are the natural food supplements, and other related products used to boost the nutritional content of the diet. These nutritional supplements have been of interest to research because of their antioxidant property by consumption of food and drinks. The present study deals with a comparative evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of marketed nutritional supplements using cytoprotection, lipidperoxdiation and membrane stabilization activities on RBC under in-vitro condition. The marketed nutritional supplements exhibited cytoprotection or prevented hemolysis in erythrocytes and provided better protection against H2O2 induced oxidation and lipid peroxidation and exhibited good membrane stabilization when compared to standard. The Women Horlicks showed significant protection against H2O2 induced cytotoxicity in erythrocytes when compared to other supplements, the nutritional supplement Boost provided better protection against lipidperoxidation induced by H2O2 in erythrocytes. The nutritional supplement Maltova showed better membrane stabilization activity when compared to standard and other nutritional supplement.
Alternative uses of drugs, Antioxidant activity, Cytoprotection activity, Membrane stabilization activity, Add-on therapy
INTRODUCTION: Nutrition can be defined as all processes used by an adult or child to take in food and to digest, absorb, transport, utilize, and excrete food substances, components or substances found in food are called as nutrition 1. Nutritional supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbs, meal supplements, sports nutrition products, natural food supplements, and other related products used to boost the nutritional improve the content of the diet. Nutritional supplements are used for many purposes.
They can be added to the diet to boost overall health and energy; to provide immune system support and reduce the risks of illness and age-related conditions; to improve performance in athletic and mental activities; and to support the healing process during illness and disease 2. However, most of these products are treated as food and not regulated as drugs. Nutritional supplement drinks are available for different purposes and different age groups children's, women’s, sport persons, diseased persons, pregnant ladies, feeding mothers 2.
In present study antioxidant, cytoprotection and membrane stabilization activities of different nutritional supplements was studied on RBC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human red blood cell, Saline phosphate buffer containing 0.44 mol/l H2O2, TCA containing 0.1 M sodium Meta aresenite, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), malondialdehyde (MDA), 1,1,3,3-tetra ethoxypropane (TEP), ascorbic acid, hydrogen peroxide, hypotonic saline, isotonic saline, diclofenac sodium, sodium hydroxides.
Boost, Horlicks, Women Horlicks, Junior Horlicks and Kissan Nutria Gro (Glaxo Smith Kine, Punjab), Complan Memory, Complan Nutri Gro, Complan Kesar Badam (Heinz India Pvt Limited, Mumbai) Pediasure (Abbott Singapore Private Limited, Singapore), Bournvita, Bournvita 5 Star (Cabdury India Limited, India), Protinex Vanilla (Wock Hardt Limited, Mumbai).
700mg of nutritional supplements was transferred into a beaker and 5ml of distilled water was added and mixed well 4.
Lipid peroxidation method:
An aliquot containing 1ml of RBC suspension in 9 ml saline phosphate buffer(pH 7.2) which contains 0.44 mol/L H202 was prepared. To it 1ml of test sample was added. About 2.5ml aliquot was withdrawn at zero hour and remaining aliquot (2.5ml) was incubated at 37⁰ for 2 hours. To all the tubes 1 ml of 28% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was added and kept aside. The 3 ml of supernatant was taken and to it 1ml of 1% thiobarbituric acid (TBA) was added and boiled for 15mins. The tubes were then cooled and centrifuged for 15 min at 3000 rpm. Absorbance was read at 540 nm using Shimadzu spectrophotometer (UV-1800). All the determinations were performed in triplicate. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content was estimated 3, 4.
The samples were prepared as shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1: CYTOPROTECTION ACTIVITY
|Test||Positive control||Negative control||Standard|
|2ml nutritional supplements(140mg/ml)+400µl RBC suspension||2ml Ascorbic acid (140mg/ml)+
400µl RBC suspension
|2ml phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.2)+400µl RBC suspension||5.6ml H2O2 (10mM)+400µl RBC suspension|
|1.6ml PBS (pH 7.2)+2ML H2O2 (10mM)||1.6ml PBS (pH 7.2)+2ML H2O2 (10mM)||1.6ml PBS (pH 7.2)+2ML H2O2 (10mM)||-|
To the test, positive control, negative control, RBC suspension was added and incubated for 1 hr. Phosphate buffer and hydrogen peroxide were then added to the above solution and incubated for 1½ hr and the supernatant solutions were separated.
The hemoglobin released into the supernatant of the mixtures was measured at 540 nm using Shimadzu spectrophotometer (UV-1800). All the determinations were performed in triplicate 5.
Test solution: A reaction mixture consisting of 2ml of hypotonic saline (0.25%w/v), 1ml of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), 0.5ml of test sample, 0.5ml of 10%w/v human red blood cell in isotonic saline was prepared and finally the volume was made up to 4.5ml with hypotonic saline.
A control mixture consisting of 2.5ml of hypotonic saline (0.25%w/v), 1ml of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and 0.5ml of 10%w/v human red blood cell in isotonic saline was prepared and finally the volume was made up to 4.5ml with hypotonic saline.
A standard mixture containing 2ml of hypotonic saline (0.25%w/v), 1ml of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), 0.5ml of diclofenac sodium, and 0.5ml of 10%w/v human red blood cell in isotonic saline was prepared and finally the volume was made up to 4.5ml with hypotonic saline.
A reaction mixture containing 2.5ml of hypotonic saline (0.25%w/v), 1ml of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and 0.5ml of diclofenac sodium solution was prepared and finally the volume was made up to 4.5ml with hypotonic saline 7. The mixtures were incubated at 56°C for 30 minutes. The tubes were cooled under running water for 20 minutes, and mixtures were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10min and the supernatant liquid was separated. The absorbance of supernatant was read at 560 nm using shimadzu spectrophotometer (UV-1800). All the determinations were performed in triplicate.6, 7
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Effect of different extracts on lipid peroxdiation:
Extent of lipid peroxidation is measured through malondialdehyde levels in the biological tissues and fluids, a pro-oxidant factor which determines the oxidative damage.
The standard graph of malondialdehye for determination of lipid peroxide levels is shown in Fig 1. The absorbance values and concentrations were found to be linear in the concentration range of 1-30 nM/ml, as confirmed by the correlation coefficient of 0.994. The absorbance (y) was proportional to the concentration of Ascorbic acid (x) following the regression equation y=0.0298+0.0378.
The results reveal that most of the nutritional supplements provided better protection against lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 in erythrocytes. The nutritional supplements Women Horlicks, Proteinex V, Proteinex C, Kissan smart exhibited better results in lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 in erythrocytes. (Table.2, Fig.1 and Fig.2)
TABLE 2: EVALUATION OF LIPID PEROXIDATION ACTIVITY OF NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS
|S.no||Products||MDA levels at
0 –Hour( Nm)
|MDA levels at
2 –Hour (Nm)
|9||Bournvita 5 Star||15.29±0.51||17.6332±1.65|
FIG.1. EVALUATION OF LIPIDPEROXIDATION ACTIVITY OF NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS AT 0-HOUR
Fig. 2: Evaluation of Lipid peroxidation activity of Nutritional supplements at 2-hour
According to our results, the percentage of hemolysis in erythrocytes pretreated with the nutritional supplements was lower than the non pretreated erythrocytes suspension. Nutritional supplements like Women Horlicks and Pediasure showed significant protective effect against H2O2 induced cytotoxicity in erythrocytes. (Fig.3 and Table 3)
FIG. 3: EFFECT AND PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENT NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS ON CYTOTOXCITY
TABLE 3: CYTOPROTECTION AGAINST HYDROGEN PEROXIDE INDUCED ON HUMAN RBC
|Cytoprotection by hydrogen peroxdie induced human RBC|
|6||Complan Pista Badam||51.56|
|7||Complan Kesar Badam||55.00|
Membrane stabilization method:
The percentage membrane stabilization of different nutritional supplements is shown in Table 4. The results indicate that the Maltova had highest in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity when compared to other products. (Fig.4 and Table.4)
FIG.4: PERCENTAGE OF MEMBRANE STABILIZATION OF DIFFERENT PRODUCT
|Membrane stabilisation method|
|S.no||Product||Average reading||Percentage (%)|
|Test control||Drug control|
|6||Complan Pista Badam||2.805||0.997||71.85|
|7||Complan Kesar Badam||2.457||0.668||70.45|
TABLE 4: EFFECT OF DIFFERENT NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS ON MEMBRANE STABILIZATION
Summary: The results of the present investigation reveal that nutritional supplements like Horlicks and Bournvita exhibited the better antioxidant potential. Nutritional supplements like Protienx, Horlicks Junior, and Complan exhibited good protection against lipid peroxdiation induced by H2O2. Women Horlicks and Pediasure showed significant protection against H2O2 induced cytotoxicity in erythrocytes. Maltova had highest in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity when compared to other products.
CONCLUSION: The present study reveals that nutritional supplements were found to active against cytotoxicity, oxidation, and membrane destabilization. The comparative data obtained regarding the pharmacological activities of nutritional supplements in the present investigation can be used for further studies in other areas of interest and also for studies on healthy volunteers.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The authors wish to acknowledge the management of the pathfinder institute of pharmacy educational and research, for providing the necessary facilities.
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How to cite this article:
Swetha P, Rodda HC and Sandhya T: Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of some nutritional supplements. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2016; 7(11): 4540-45.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.7(11).4540-45.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
P. Swetha*, Harish C. Rodda and T. Sandhya
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Pathfinder Instituent of Pharmacy Education and Research, Opposite Warangal Airport, Mamnoor, Warangal, Telangana, India
02 June, 2016
21 July, 2016
02 August, 2016
01 November, 2016