GC-MS ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WHOLE PLANT OF MOLLUGO OPPOSITIFOLIA L. AND THEIR PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIESHTML Full Text
GC-MS ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WHOLE PLANT OF MOLLUGO OPPOSITIFOLIA L. AND THEIR PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
Anju G. Nagannawar * and M. Jayaraj
P. G. Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad - 580003, Karnataka, India.
ABSTRACT: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Mollugo oppositifolia L. of Molluginaceae has been analyzed by using GC-MS for Bioactive compounds and for their pharmacological activities. GC-MS showed 32 compounds and is confirmed with the help of the database of NIST. Out of these, seven major Bioactive compounds are identified based on their retention time and peak area in GC-MS chromatogram. Among these seven bioactive compounds, Estran-3-one is highest with 33.5%, and dodecanoic acid is lowest with 5.75%. hexadecanoic acid, stigmasterol, estran-3-one, and 8, 11, 14-eicosatrienoic acid are having a higher number of pharmacological activities.
Bioactive compounds, Ethanoic extract, GC-MS, Mollugo oppositifolia L., Pharmacological activity
INTRODUCTION: Traditional medicinal plants have been identified as a part of the evolution of human healthcare for thousands of years. The medicinal plants are useful for healing as well as for the curing of human diseases because of the presence of phytochemical constituents 17. Plants have the capacity of synthesizing the organic compounds and are called secondary metabolites, and they have unique complex structures. The secondary metabolites are used in treating chronic as well as infectious diseases 7. They are the vital source of chemical compounds of biological and pharmacological importance.
World Health Organization (WHO) is to encourage, promote, and facilitate effective herbal medicine for the primary use in developing countries for different health programs. Different biological activities like antioxidant, antimicrobial, anxiolytic, and anti-inflammatory are due to the presence of the bioactive compounds 17.
Mollugo oppositifolia L., (Syn.: Glinus oppositifolius L.) belongs to family Molluginaceae, is an indigenous herb, commonly known as Slender carpetweed or ‘Papait’ and grows throughout South India Fig. 1. It is a diffuse, prostrate or ascending annual herb found to be growing in Assam, West Bengal, Delhi, Gujarat, and South India 29, 21. It is a highly valued medicinal herb having anti-oxidant, anthelmintic, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and anti-hyperglycemic activities. Traditionally, the plant extract is used in stomach ache, as carminative and juice is applied for dermatitis and other skin diseases; it is also useful as a bitter tonic for liver disorders; the plant is administered for suppression of the lochia and when applied warm and moistened with a little castor oil; is reckoned good application for earache 25.
FIG. 1: HABIT- MOLLUGO OPPOSITIFOLIA L.
The plant is also utilized as a common dietary principle, mainly in South India. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is an integral part of research associated with medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical analysis, pharmacognosy, pharmaceutical process control, and pharmaceutical biotechnology. The present study is undertaken to know bioactive compounds through the GC-MS profile of ethanolic extract of whole plant Mollugo oppositifolia L. and their pharmacological activities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Material: The Mollugo oppositifolia L. (Voucher specimen no: KUD/BOT/AN/JM/001), the plant was collected from Karnatak University Campus, Dharwad, Karnataka. The plant was washed with running tap water and later shade dried at room temperature. The dried plant was powdered using an electric blender. The powder thus obtained was sieved and stored in an airtight container at room temperature for further analysis.
FIG. 2: SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR GC-MS ANALYSIS OF MOLLUGO OPPOSITIFOLIA L.
Whole Plant Extract: About 15 gms of the shade dried plant finely powdered and was subjected to extraction with ethanol (250 ml) using the Soxhlet apparatus. The extract was used for GC-MS analysis to identify the bioactive components in Fig. 2.
GC-MS Analysis: The analysis was performed using a (GC-MS Shimadzu): QP2010S fitted with a 1.4 µm column Rxi-5si1MS 30-meter length, 0.25 mm inner diameter, and 0.25 µm film thickness. Carrier gas helium with a flow rate of 0.98 ml/min; column temperature 80 ºC; initial temperature 70 ºC, injector temperature 260 ºC and detector temperature 300 ºC, followed by a linear programmed temperature from 70- 280 ºC at a rate of 10 ºC/min, operating in electron impact mode. The samples were injected in splitless mode, and interface temperature was kept at 280 ºC. The pressure of the carrier gas was kept at 63.6 kPa. The constituents were determined based on the Retention time of a series and identification of each component and were confirmed with the com-parison of its retention index with the database 3, 10.
Identification of Components: Bioactive compounds are identified based on the GC-MS using the database of the National Institute Standard and Technology (NIST). The spectrum of the unknown components was compared with a spectrum of known components that were stored in the NIST library. The name, molecular weight, and molecular formula of the components of the test material were tabulated in Table 1.
Results: The GC-MS chromatogram of the ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Mollugo oppositifolia L. showed 7 peaks indicating the presence of seven compounds. Fig. 3 and Mass spectra of the identified bioactive compounds from the ethanolic extract Fig. 4. The active principles with their peak, retention time (RT), area (%), height (%), molecular formula and molecular weight are presented in Table 1.
The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of seven major bioactive compounds in the ethanol extract of the whole plant, Hexadecanoic acid, Dodecanoic acid, Heptanoic acid, Stigmasterol, Isobornyl acetate, 8, 11, 14-Eicosatrienoic acid, and Estran-3-one. The GC-MS identified bioactive compounds with their pharmacological activities and are recorded in Table 2.
FIG. 3: CHROMATOGRAM OF WHOLE PLANT ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MOLLUGO OPPOSITIFOLIA L.
FIG. 4: MASS SPECTRA OF IDENTIFIED COMPOUNDS FROM ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE WHOLE PLANT OF MOLLUGO OPPOSITIFOLIA L.
TABLE 1: THE GC-MS ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN THE WHOLE PLANT ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MOLLOGO OPPOSITIFOLIA L.
|Molecular formula||Molecular weight (g/mol)||Name of
|6||21.950||24.20||25.42||C20H34O2||306.5||8, 11, 14-Eicosatrienoic acid|
TABLE 2: PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN THE WHOLE PLANT ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MOLLUGO OPPOSITIFOLIA L.
|S. no.||Compounds||Pharmacological activity|
|1||Hexadecanoic acid||Antioxidant 11, Anti-inflammatory 4, Anthelmintic activities 3, Antibacterial, Antiallergic 11, Hypocholesterolemic, Pesticide, Flavour, Haemolytic, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor 8, 15, Antifibrinolytic 20, Antialopecic, Antiandrogenic, Lubricant, Nematicide, Pesticide, Propecic, Soap 16.|
( lauric acid)
|Antioxidant 28 and Cyclooxygenase activity 27, Anticoronary, Antiandrogenic, 5-Alpha reductase inhibitor 1, Antifungal and Antibacterial 26, Antimicrobial 22.|
|3||Heptanoic acid||Antioxidant 18, 13, Antimicrobial 23.|
|4||Stigmasterol||Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Anticancer, Anti-inflammatory, Diuretic 17, Hypoglycemic and thyroid inhibiting properties, precursor of progesterone, Antiarthritic, Antiasthma 11, 8, Antiperoxidative 2, Antifungal activity 4, Antitumor activity5.|
|5||Isobornyl acetate||Antioxidant and Antifungal 22.|
|6||8, 11, 14-Eicosatrienoic acid (dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid(DGLA)||Antioxidant and Cyclooxygenase activity 27, Cardioprotective 9, Inhibitor of platelet aggregation provoked by ADP 19.|
|7||Estran-3-one||Progestational and Dehydrogenase 12,
Antisickling activity and good binding affinity 24, 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-inhibitor (prevent breast, ovarian, and endometrium cancers) and androgen-sensitive pathologies (prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, acne, hirsutism) 6.
DISCUSSION: The GC-MS analysis revealed 32 compounds out of which seven major bioactive compounds are identified. The Estran-3-one (33.51%) is the highest chemical compound and Dodecanoic acid (5.75%) as the lowest chemical compound. The compound Hexadecanoic acid (6.54 %), Dodecenoic acid (5.75%), and Heptanoic acid (11.66%) showed pharmacological activity as reported in the plants of Wattakaka volubilis 28, Asclepias curassavica 8, Pyrostegia venusta 18 and Cassia italic1. Similarly, Stigmasterol (7.67%), Isobornyl acetate (9.45%), 8, 11, 14-Eicosatrienoic acid (25.42%) and Estran-3-one (33.51%) also have different pharmacological activities as reported for Bulbine natalensis 14, Achillea millefolium 22, Neibuhria apetala Dunn 9 and Monodora myristica 24 (African nutmeg).
CONCLUSION: The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Mollugo oppositifolia L. has seven different bioactive compounds with their pharmacological activities. Each chemical compound produced by this plant may be used in the pharmaceutical industry and for medicinal usage, and each chemical compound can be extracted individually and may be used in clinical trials to check the efficiency and to develop a new allopathic drug from a crude herbal drug. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is an integral part of research associated with medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical analysis, pharmaco-gnosy, pharmaceutical process control, and pharmaceutical biotechnology. The plant Mollugo oppositifolia L. may be of great interest for the pharmaceutical industry, and medicinal research and each bioactive compound can be extracted individually and used in clinical trials to check the efficiency and to develop a new drug from a crude drug.The GC-MS profile of Mollugo oppositifolia L. will also be a part of a database of bioactive compounds of natural drugs.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors acknowledge the Chairman, P. G. Department of Botany Karnatak University, Dharwad, USIC Karnatak University, Dharwad for GC-MS analysis, facilities and financial assistance to one of the authors as UGC- RGNF fellowship.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Nagannawar AG and Jayaraj M: GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds from ethanolic extract of whole plant of Mollugo oppositifolia l. and their pharmacological activities. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2020; 11(5): 2504-09. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.11(5).2504-09.
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