GC-MS ANALYSIS OF OIL FROM LAVANDULA LATIFOLIA L. AND ITS REPELLENT ACTIVITY AGAINST MOSQUITOHTML Full Text
GC-MS ANALYSIS OF OIL FROM LAVANDULA LATIFOLIA L. AND ITS REPELLENT ACTIVITY AGAINST MOSQUITO
S. Paulraj * 1, 2, T. Selvamohan 3 and K. Kumaraswamy 4
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University 1, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli - 627012, Tamilnadu, India.
Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology 2, Raja Doraisingam Government Arts College, Sivagangai - 630561, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Zoology 3, Rani Anna Government College for Women, Tirunelveli - 627008, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Zoology 4, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil, Kanyakumari - 629002, Tamil Nadu, India.
ABSTRACT: Mosquitoes are one of the important vectors of various diseases. Repellent activity significantly reduces contact with disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Essential oils have repellent activity that is being potentially developed as an alternative to commercial chemical pesticides. In this study, Lavandula angustifolia was used to evaluate its repellent activity against Ae. Aegypti. The repellent activity of L. angustifolia oil was tested with the 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm concentrations against the adult mosquitoes of Ae. Aegypti. L. angustifolia showed 100% protection up to 150 minutes against the bite of Ae. aegypti. After that, the repellency was found reduced by the increased exposure periods against Ae. Aegypti. The presence of phytochemicals in oils could be responsible for different mosquitocidal agents. Lavender oil was subjected to GC-MS analysis. It showed the presence of 37 compounds, including, 1R-à-Pinene, Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, 2,2-dimethyl-5methylene-, Tricyclo[188.8.131.52 (2,6)]heptane, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, Ocimene, Camphene, á-Pinene, Cyclohexene, 4-methylene-1-(1-methylethyl)-, Eucalyptol, 1,4-Cyclohexadiene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, Bicyclo [2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1,3,3-trimethyl-, 3-Oxatricyclo[184.108.40.206(2,4)] octane, 2,7,7trimethyl-, Acetaldehyde, (3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-, (E)-, Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, (1S)-, Isoborneol, Borneol, Cyclohexanol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-, Tetra-cyclo[220.127.116.11(2,5).0(1,8)]tridecan-9-ol, 4,4-dimethyl-, 1,6,10,14-Hexadecatetraen-3-ol, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E)- and 13-Hexyloxacyclotridec-10-en-2-one.
Phytochemical, Essential oil, Mosquito, Repellant activity, Ae. aegypti
INTRODUCTION: Plant essential oils are fashioned commercially from plant families. Generally, these plant oils possess the complex mixtures of several groups of phytoconstituents, such as monoterpenes biogenetically related phenols and sesquiterpenes. The use of oil in India is already there from time immemorial.
Certain plant oils confirm that some plant oils not only repel insects but have contact and fumigant insecticidal actions against a variety of pests, pathogens, and target organisms 1. Essential oils possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-microbial, insect repellant, and herbicidal activity 2.
Plant essential oils have been used on various species of mosquitoes, including Culex, Anopheles, and Aedes. They have been used as larvicides, repellents, adulticides, and ovicides 3. Many plant families found larvicides against Ae. Aegypti, including Cupressaceae 4, Piperaceae 5, Lauraceae 6, Asteraceae 7 and Labiatae 8.
Several plant oils possess several phytocompounds, which can act as mosquitocidal agents. The present investigation was aimed to assess the chemical components of Lavender, Lavandula latifolia L. oil and its repellant activity against Ae. Aegypti.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The Essential Oil from Lavendula latifolia: In this study, Lavendula latifolia oil was extracted from the sample as described previously. The extracted oil was stored in an amber-colored bottle for further analysis 9.
Repellent Activity: The repellent activity of three-days-old blood-starved female mosquitoes, Ae. aegypti (100 nos.) was kept in an adult mosquito rearing cage (40 cm × 30 cm × 40 cm). The volunteer had no contact with lotions, perfumes, or perfumed soaps on the day of the assessment. The arms of volunteers, only 25 cm2 dorsal side of the skin on each arm, were exposed, and the remaining area covered by rubber gloves. The crude extract was applied at 100 - 500 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed area of the forearm. Only methanol served as control. The time of the test depended on whether the target mosquitoes bite in the day or night. Ae. aegypti was tested from 07.00 to 17.00 h. The control and treated arm were introduced concurrently into the experimental cage, and gently tapping the sides on the experimental cages, the mosquitoes were activated. Each test concentration replicated five times. The volunteer conducted their test of each concentration by inserting the treated and control arm into the same cage for one full minute for every five minutes. The mosquitoes that landed on the hand were recorded and then shaken off before imbibing any blood, making out a 5 minutes protection. The percentage (%) of repellency was calculated by the following formula 10.
% Repellency= [(Tc – Tt)/Ta] × 100
Where Tc is the number of adults in the control group, and Tt is the number of adults in the treated group.
Gas Chromatography Analysis: The volatile oil was analyzed using PerkinElmer Clarus 500GC equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID). The test was carried out on a capillary column Elite-5 (Column length 30mm; Column id: 250µm; Crossband 5% Phenyl 95% dimethylpolysiloxane). Helium was employed as a carrier gas at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Injector and detector temperatures were set at 250 °C and 280 °C, respectively. The oven temperature was kept at 60 °C then gradually raised to 240 °C at 3 °C / min and finally held isothermally for 54.5 min. One microliter of the diluted samples (1/100 in hexane, v/v) were injected manually (split mode, split ratio 1:20). Calculation of peak area percentage was performed on the basis of the FID signal using the Turbomass software (ver 5.2.0).
Identification of Compounds: The identification of the compounds was done based on the comparison of retention indices and mass spectra of most of the compounds with data generated under identical experimental conditions by applying a two-dimensional search algorithm, considering the retention index, as well as mass spectral similarity 11, or with those of authentic compounds available in NIST 2005 libraries. Moreover, special software, namely TurboMass software (Ver5.2.0) was used for the processing and interpretation of mass spectra with several commercially available libraries included.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Repellent Activity of Lavendula angustifolia: The repellent activity of L. angustifolia oil was tested with the 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm concentrations against the adult mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti, the data pertaining to the experiments are represented in the table. It was observed that L. angustifolia showed 100% protection up to 150 minutes against the bite of Ae. aegypti. After that, the repellency was found reduced by the increased exposure periods against the selected mosquitoes Table 1. The presence of phytochemicals in oils could be responsible for different mosquitocidal agents. Furthermore, while experimenting, the application of oil with the respective concentration formed a thin film over the surface of the experimental cups, suggesting that the oil film might prevent the further exchange of gases in the medium of experimental cups, thereby causing the death of the larvae. Our present findings are going in hand in hand with the earlier findings of several authors. Jude et al., 12 evaluated the larvicidal and repellent effect of the essential oil from the seeds and leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides against the larvae and adults of An. gambiae mosquitoes. Chen et al., 13 determined the larvicidal activity of essential oil derived from Clinopodium gracile aerial parts against the larvae of Ae. Albopictus. Liu 14 determined the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Illicium henryi leaf and steamed against the larvae of Ae. albopictus. Eliningaya et al., 15 evaluated the larvicidal efficacy of eight volatile components of essential oils against third instar larvae of An. gambiae.
TABLE 1: REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF LAVENDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA TESTED AGAINST THE ADULTS OF SELECTED VECTOR MOSQUITO
|% of repellency|
|Post application of repellent (min)|
|200||100.0±0.0||100.0±0.0||100.0±0.0||100.0±0.0||100.0±0.0||47.3±1.4||39.6 ±1.1||30.1 ±1.5|
Values are mean ± S.D of five replications
GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oils: Lavender oil was injected into the GC-MS spectrogram column. The column was washed according to the manual. It showed the presence of 37 different compounds, including 1R-à-Pinene, Bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane, 2,2-dimethyl-5methylene-, Tricyclo [2.2. 1.0 (2,6)] heptane, 1, 7, 7-trimethyl-, Ocimene, Camphene, á-Pinene, Cyclohexene, 4-methylene-1-(1-methylethyl)-, Eucalyptol, 1,4-Cyclohexadiene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1, 3,3-trimethyl-, 3-Oxatricyclo[18.104.22.168(2,4)] octane, 2,7,7 trimethyl-, Acetaldehyde, (3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-, (E)-, Bicyclo[2.2.1] heptan-2-one, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, (1S)-, Isoborneol, Borneol, Cyclohexanol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methyl-ethylidene)-, Tetracyclo[22.214.171.124(2,5).0(1,8)]tridecan-9-ol, 4,4-dimethyl-, 1,6,10,14-Hexadecatetraen-3-ol, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E)- and 13-Hexyloxa-cyclotridec-10-en-2-one Fig. 1, Table 2. The presence of 1,6-Octadien-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl in L. latifolia belongs to terpenes. This finding is in agreeing with the earlier findings of several authors. The oil is effective and possesses strong antibacterial, antifungal, carminative, sedative, anti-depressive, and useful for burns and insect bites. Essential oils are versatile of many different aroma compounds. The analysis of Lavandula oils with typical scents has demonstrated that due to the level of linalool, linalyl acetate, and various sesquiterpenes. These essential oil components showed antimicrobial and larvicidal activity 16-19.
TABLE 2: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA OIL
|Peak||Compound name||Formula||Retention Time||%Peak Area|
|13||Acetaldehyde, (3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-, (E)-||C10H16O||11.96||0.4926|
|14||Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, (1S)-||C10H16O||14.23||10.8711|
|17||Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, (1S)-||C10H16O||15.94||0.1567|
|22||Acetic acid, 1,7,7-trimethyl-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl ester||C12H20O2||19.60||0.5745|
|32||Cyclopentanecarboxylic acid, 3-isopropylidene-, bornyl ester||C19H30O2||42.16||0.0055|
|34||1,6,10,14-Hexadecatetraen-3-ol, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E)-||C20H34O||43.87||0.0036|
|36||1,6,10,14-Hexadecatetraen-3-ol, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E)-||C20H34O||48.19||0.0068|
|Total percentage of chemical compositions||100.0000|
FIG. 1: GC- MS CHROMATOGRAM OF LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA OIL
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the oil of Lavandula angustifolia showed potential repellent activity against Ae. Aegypti. Essential oils from L. angustifolia showed activity at deficient concentrations and is the most promising activity. Results revealed that Ocimene, Eucalyptol, Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, (1S)- are the significant components significantly responsible for the repellent activity. Essential oil L. angustifolia repellent activity is being potentially developed as an alternative to commercial chemical pesticides.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors are very much grateful to UGC, New Delhi for the financial assistance and also thankful to the Principal, and Head, Department of Zoology, Government Arts College for Men (Autonomous), Nandanam, Chennai-35 for providing the laboratory facilities.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: None of the conflict of interest.
- Vivekanandhan P, Venkatesan R, Ramkumar G, Karthi S, Senthil-Nathan S and Shivakumar MS: Comparative analysis of major mosquito vectors response to seed-derived essential oil and seed pod-derived extract from Acacia nilotica. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2018; 15(2): 388.
- Paola A, Deligios D, Carboni G, Farci R, Solinas S and Ledda L: Low-Input Herbicide Management: Effects on Rapeseed Production and Profitability. Sustainability 2018; 10(2258): 2-16.
- Massebo F, Tadesse M, Balkew M and Gebee-Michael T: Bioactivity of essential plants against adult Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ethiopia. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology 2013; 4: 805-09.
- Benelli G, Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Vaseeharan B, Alyahya SA, Alharbi NS, Kadaikunnan S, Khaled JM and Maggi F. Insecticidal activity of camphene, zerumbone and α-humulene from Cheilocostus speciosus rhizome essential oil against the Old-World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2018; 148: 781-6.
- Manh HD, Hue DT, Hieu NT, Tuyen DT and Tuyet OT: The mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from cymbopogon and eucalyptus species in Vietnam. Insects 2020; 11(2): 128.
- Huong LT, Chinh HV, An NT, Viet NT, Hung NH, Thuong NT, Giwa-Ajeniya AO and Ogunwande IA: Zingiber zerumbet Rhizome essential oil: chemical composition, antimicrobial and mosquito larvicidal activities. European Journal of Medicinal Plants 2019; 30: 1-12.
- Manh HD and Tuyet OT: Larvicidal and repellent activity of Mentha arvensis essential oil against Aedes aegypti. Insects 2020; 11(3): 198.
- Huang Y, Lin M, Jia M, Hu J and Zhu L: Chemical composition and larvicidal activity against Aedes mosquitoes of essential oils from Arisaema fargesii. Pest Management Science 2020; 76(2): 534-42.
- Kiran Babu GD, Sharma A and Singh B: Volatile composition of Lavandula angustifolia produced by different extraction techniques. J Essen Oil Res 2016; 28(6): 489-500.
- World Health Organization, Report of the WHO informal consultation on the evaluation and testing of insecticides, CTD / WHOPES / IC / 96.1, Control of Tropical Diseases Division, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1996: 69.
- Konig GM, Kehraus S, Seibert SF, Abdel-Lateff A and Müller D: Natural products from marine organisms and their associated microbes. Chem Bio Chem 2005; 7(2): 229-38.
- Jude D, Bigoga, Petola A, Saahkem, Sali A, Ndindeng, Ngondi JL, Nyegue M, Oben JE and Leke GF: Larvicidal and repellent potential of Henopodium ambrosioides essential oil against Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The Open Entomology Journal 2013; 7: 16-22.
- Liu, XC, Liu QY, Zhou L and Liu ZJ: Larvicidal activity of essential oil derived from Illicium henryi Diels (Illiciaceae) Leaf. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2014; 14(1): 111-16.
- Chen XB, Liu XC, Zhou L and Liu ZL: Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of Clinopodium gracile (Benth) Matsum (Labiatae) aerial parts against the Aedes albopictus mosquito. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2013; 12(5): 799-804.
- Kweka JE, Lima TC, Marciale CM and deSousa DP: Larvicidal efficacy of monoterpenes against the larvae of Anopheles gambiae. Asian PacJ TropicBiomed2016; 6(4): 290-94.
- Inouye S, Tsuruoka T and Watanabe M: Inhibitory effect of essential oils on apical growth of Aspergillus fumigates. Mycoses 2000; 43: 17-23.
- Abdelatti ZA and Hartbauer M: Plant oil mixtures as a novel botanical pesticide to control gregarious locusts. Journal of Pest Science 2020; 93(1): 341-53.
- Benelli G, Pavela R, Giordani C, Casettari L, Curzi G, Cappellacci L, Petrelli R and Maggi F: Acute and sub-lethal toxicity of eight essential oils of commercial interest against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and the housefly Musca domestica. Industrial crops and products 2018; 112: 668-80.
- Atif M, Ilavenil S, Devanesan S, AlSalhi MS, Choi KC, Vijayaraghavan P, Alfuraydi AA and Alanazi NF: Essential oils of two medicinal plants and protective properties of jack fruits against the spoilage bacteria and fungi. Industrial Crops and Products 2020; 147: 112239.
How to cite this article:
Paulraj S, Selvamohan T and Kumaraswamy K: GC-MS analysis of oil from Lavandula latifolia L. and its repellent activity against mosquito. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2021; 12(1): 668-72. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.12(1).668-72.
All © 2013 are reserved by the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
S. Paulraj *, T. Selvamohan and K. Kumaraswamy
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India.
22 January 2020
22 April 2020
25 April 2020
01 January 2021