GCMS AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MADHUCA LONGIFOLIA VAR. LATIFOLIA SEEDSHTML Full Text
GCMS AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MADHUCA LONGIFOLIA VAR. LATIFOLIA SEEDS
Y. C. Suryawanshi and D. N. Mokat *
Department of Botany, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune - 411007, Maharashtra, India.
ABSTRACT: Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia belonging to the family Sapotaceae which was also known as Mahua and Butter tree. The present study was designed to identify the fatty acids present in oil and to analyze the elements present within the seed and seed cake. After extraction of oil, it was found that the seeds were high in oil content within the kernel. The oil percentage found in seed was highest recorded as 57.59%. In GCMS analysis of oil, the oleic acid which is monounsaturated fatty acid (45.11%) was recorded highest in amount compared to others. Elements within the seed and seed cake were analyzed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. Concentrations of seven elements such as Calcium (35.53%), Carbon (33.56%), Oxygen (22.46%), Nitrogen (5.20%), Phosphorus (2.18%), Magnesium (0.23%) and Sodium (0.04%) had been determined in seed cake by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The present study provides information about the availability of some essential minerals and fatty acids, which can be used as nutraceuticals and it may also help in developing the biofuel for industrial purposes.
Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia, Seed, Oil, GCMS, Fatty acids, SEM-EDS
INTRODUCTION: Madhuca longifolia (Koen.) Mac Bride. var. latifolia (Roxb.) Chev. belongs to the family Sapotaceae. The name Madhuca came from Sanskrit language, Madhu means Honey because of its flower which is sweet. M. longifolia is one of the multi-use forest tree species present in most of the part of South Asia provides the solution for the timber, fuel, fodder, food and other nontimber forest products (NTFP’s) to local people. It is a large deciduous tree growing mostly under dry and hot climatic conditions and found up to an elevation of 1200 meter 3. The harvesting time of M. longifolia seeds is at the peak of period rainfall (June-July) 4. The seed oil content is varied from 33 to 61% weight of the kernel 5. Oil is pale yellow and used as cooking and lamp oil by most of the tribes in Western Ghats of Maharashtra.
Almost all parts of this tree show the medicinal properties 6. Seed cake (SC) which remains after oil extraction is mostly used as organic manure and to feed cattle 7. Tribal people of the study areas use this multifarious plant for their livelihood. Global demands of bio-fuel are increasing day by day because of depletion in fossil fuels. Consequently, world biodiesel production had increased from 200 million gallons to 1 billion gallons during 2001-2005 1.
India has the vast potential of more than 0.6 million tons of tree borne oil (TBO). But near about only 80,000 tons of oil is being extracted 2. It is, therefore, necessary to exploit domestic resources to maximize production and ensure the oil security for the country. The present study was carried out to determine the fatty acids as well as elements of M. longifolia seeds. Seeds are the rich source of minerals and can be used as nutraceuticals presenting the oil is used for cooking purposes 7.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Plant Material Collection: The seeds of M. longifolia were collected from Pune district in June 2016. Primarily the precise location (longitude and latitude) and diameter at breast height (DBH) of the plant were recorded. Then approximately 2 kg of seeds were collected in polybags. The collected seeds were brought in the laboratory and kept it in the refrigerator (-20 °C) for further analysis.
Oil Extraction Using Soxhlet: The fine oven dried kernel powder of seeds was made and used for extraction of oil. The dried kernel powder packed in thimble and oil was extracted in petroleum ether (Thomas Baker, 60-80 ºC) for 6 h using Soxhlet apparatus 8. After the extraction solvent was removed in a rotary vacuum evaporator and the yield of oil was calculated from the dry weight of the seeds. The oil was stored in a glass vial and kept at 4 °C for further use. Each experiment was performed in triplicates.
Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) Analysis: The seed and SC were dried in an oven to reduce the moisture. The dried seed and SC were crushed in a blender, and a fine powder was prepared. The powder was passed through sieve 120 µm and used for analysis. The samples were analyzed using SEM-EDS and observed by Bruker XFlash 6130 at the Central Instrumentation Facility of Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 9. Each experiment was performed in triplicates and mean was calculated.
Fatty Acid Profiling using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS): Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was prepared from oil using boron trifluoride acid catalysis method 10. Prepared FAME was identified on Gas Chromatography (GC) model-7890 A, equipped with Mass Spectrometer (MS) model-5975. For carrier gas Helium was used with a flow rate of 3 ml/min. A capillary column HP-5ms, 0.32 mm internal diameter, 30 m length and 0.25 μm film thickness (Agilent Technologies) was used for the identification of FAME present in the oil. The 1 μl sample was injected at a temperature of 270 ºC. A temperature program of 100 °C (5 min), 7 °C/min to 225 °C (5 min), 5 °C/min to 300 (2 min) was used for separation of FAME in GCMS.
The identification of compounds was performed by comparing their mass spectra with NIST library. The relative percentage of fatty acids was calculated from the total area by using the software of the instrument.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The seeds were collected from the healthy plant (Lat. 18°51'38.9"N, Long. 73°45'22.0"E) from Pune district of Maharashtra, India having DBH 47.79 cm. The plant sample was identified and deposited in Western Regional Center of Botanical Survey of India, Pune (Accession no. 136273). Seed cake and extracted oil are used for further analysis with the following results.
Oil Analysis: The oil was extracted using petroleum ether in Soxhlet apparatus. The oil obtained after extraction was pale yellow and having a characteristic odor. The average oil content in the seed was 57.59 %, which was higher as compared to previous reports 11, 12. The high oil content in M. longifolia seeds is an important parameter for the economic view and industrial applications 13, 15.
GCMS Analysis: A total of four major fatty acids have been identified from the chromatogram of the GCMS Table 1. The present study showed the high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (55.21%) and a comparatively low amount of saturated fatty acids (44.77%). The major fatty acid present in M. longifolia oil is oleic acid which is 45.11%. The result from the present investigation corroborated well with the previously reported values 14-16.
TABLE 1: FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF M. LONGIFOLIA OIL
|S. no.||Fatty acid||Systemic name||Formula||RT||Area %|
|1||Palmitic acid||Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester||C17H34O2||18.436||23.45|
|2||Linoleic acid||9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester||C19H34O2||20.703||10.10|
|3||Oleic acid||13-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester||C19H36O2||20.828||45.11|
|4||Stearic acid||Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester||C19H38O2||21.146||21.32|
The high oleic acid content is may be responsible for reducing the serum blood cholesterol and blood pressure 15. The presence of high amounts of oleic acid is unique for seed oils of plant origin. The oleic and linoleic acid ratio are an important criterion to check the seed kernel quality 17. Many authors have reported the successful production of biodiesel from M. longifolia oil 18-22. The M. longifolia oil has an estimated oil production potential of 0.18 million metric tons per year in India 23. The seed oil is edible, and it is mostly used by tribal’s of India. The oil is also used for manufacturing soap, lubricant grease, and fatty alcohols. Thus the seed oil is valuable in meeting demands of food, feed, and fuel to industrial uses.
Elemental Analysis: The results of the elemental composition of M. longifolia seed and SC are shown in Table 2. The SEM-EDS spectra of the M. longifolia seed and SC were showed in Fig. 1 and 2 respectively. The EDS analysis revealed that M. longifolia seeds an SC contain Carbon (C), Calcium (Ca), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), Magnesium (Mg), Phosphorus (P), Sodium (Na). After the extraction of oil, the elements in SC concentration was varied. In all these elements, C and Ca presented as high concentration while P and N presented as the moderate amount. But Mg and Na presented only in trace quantities.
TABLE 2: THE PERCENTAGE OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEED AND SEED CAKE OF M. LATIFOLIA
|Weight %||Atom Weight %||Sigma Weight %||Weight %||Atom Weight %||Sigma Weight %|
The concentration of C is reduced in seed cake may be because of low fatty acids concentration present in SC. M. longifolia seed cake contains a high amount of saponin, therefore it is used for non feed purposes, i.e. biogas, fertilizer, insecticide, pesticide and for mushroom productions 15, 24-26.
For the utilization of seed in food and feed purposes, it is essential to detoxify the seed and SC. The seed and SC contain a high amount of Ca. Ca is an essential element in the human body, for teeth and bone development animals need the Ca.
Ca also play an important role in heart rhythm, blood clotting and vitamin synthesis 27, 28. The oil extraction waste (SC) with high C content may be used as biofertilizer which is eco-friendly and cheap in comparison to the expensive fertilizers.
CONCLUSION: M. longifolia is distributed in most parts of India. The research on elemental analysis is meager, and hence present investigation was undertaken very limitedly. Fatty acid within seed kernel oil is important for effective biofuel production. The present study revealed that M. longifolia seeds are rich in oil and minerals. Oleic acid is dominantly present in the oil. The seed and SC are rich in mineral elements viz. C, Ca, O, N, Mg, Na, and P which can be used to treating various diseases that are mainly caused due to deficiency of these minerals.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This work was supported by the Board of College and University Development (BCUD) project fund for which authors are thankful to the authorities of the BCUD, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have no conflict of interest.
- Banse M, van Meijl H, Tabeau A and Woltjer G: Impact of EU biofuel policies on world agricultural and food markets. Presented at 107th EAAE Seminar, Sevilla, Spain 2008.
- Banerjee H, Dhara PK, Mazumdar D and Alipatra A: Development of tree borne oilseeds (TBOs) plantation and scope of intercropping on degraded lands. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research 2013; 47(5): 453-456.
- Hiwale S: Sustainable Horticulture in Semiarid Dry Lands. Springer, New Delhi. 2015: 255-261.
- Sidhu OP, Chandra H and Behl HM: Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua (Madhuca indica) seeds: Synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2009; 47(4): 774-777.
- Abraham Z, Yadav S, Latha M, Mani S and Mishra SK: Seed variability in Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) JF Macbride, a source of oil for use as bio-energy. Genetic resources and crop evolution 2010; 57(4): 619-623.
- Patel PK, Prajapati NK and Dubey BK: Madhuca indica: a review of its medicinal property. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Res 2012; 3(5): 1285-1293.
- Sunita M and Sarojini P: Madhuca lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A review of its traditional uses and nutritional properties. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention 2013; 2(5): 30-36.
- Keenth H: Official methods of analysis. AOAC, Virginia, Fifteenth edition 1990.
- Beck NR and Kamta PN: Phytochemical screening and elemental analysis of leaves and stem barks powder of Woodfordia fruticosa. International Journal of Green Pharmacy. 2018; 11(04): 697-700.
- Johnson S, Saikia N, Mathur HB and Agarwal HC: Fatty acids profile of edible oils and fats in India. Centre for Science and Environment 2009: 25-26.
- Divakara BN, Upadhyaya HD, Laxmi A and Das R: Identification of diverse genotypes with high oil content in Madhuca latifolia for further use in tree improvement. Journal of Forestry Research 2015; 26(2): 369-379.
- Munasinghe M and Wansapala J: Study on variation in seed morphology, oil content and fatty acid profile of Madhuca longifolia grown in different Agro-Climatic zones in Sri Lanka 2015; 3(3): 105-109 .
- Gupta A, Chaudhary R and Sharma S: Potential applications of mahua (Madhuca indica) biomass. Waste and Biomass Valorization 2012; 3(2): 175-189.
- Yadav S, Suneja P, Hussain Z, Abraham Z and Mishra SK: Prospects and potential of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) JF Macbride for nutritional and industrial purpose. Biomass and Bioenergy 2011; 35(4): 1539-1544.
- Singh A and Singh IS: Chemical evaluation of mahua (Madhuca indica) seed. Food chemistry 1991; 40(2): 221-228.
- Kapilan N, Babu TA and Reddy RP: Characterization and effect of using Mahua oil biodiesel as fuel in compression ignition engine. Jou of Thermal Sci 2009; 18(4): 382-384.
- Kodad O and Socias ICR: Variability of oil content and of major fatty acid composition in almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) and its relationship with kernel quality. Jou of Agr and Food Chem 2008; 56(11): 4096-4101.
- Puhan S, Vedaraman N, Sankaranarayanan G and Ram BV: Performance and emission study of Mahua oil (Madhuca indica oil) ethyl ester in a 4-stroke natural aspirated direct injection diesel engine. Renewable Energy 2005; 30(8): 1269-1278.
- Saravanan N, Puhan S, Nagarajan G and Vedaraman N: An experimental comparison of the transesterification process with different alcohols using acid catalysts. Biomass and Bioenergy 2010; 34(7): 999-1005.
- Raheman H and Ghadge SV: Performance of compression ignition engine with mahua (Madhuca indica) biodiesel. Fuel 2007; 86(16): 2568-2573.
- Ghadge SV and Raheman H: Process optimization for biodiesel production from mahua (Madhuca indica) oil using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology 2006; 97(3): 379-384.
- Kumari V, Shah S and Gupta MN: Preparation of biodiesel by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of high free fatty acid containing oil from Madhuca indica. Energy & Fuels 2007; 21(1): 368-372.
- Puhan S, Vedaraman N, Rambrahamam BV and Nagarajan G: Mahua (Madhuca indica) seed oil: A source of renewable energy in India. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 2005; 64: 890-896.
- Gupta A, Kumar A, Sharma S and Vijay VK: Comparative evaluation of raw and detoxified mahua seed cake for biogas production. Applied Energy 2013; 102: 1514-1521.
- Deshpande NV, Kale NW and Deshmukh SJ: A study on biogas generation from Mahua (Madhuca indica) and Hingan (Balanites aegyaptiaca) oil seedcake. Energy for Sustainable Development 2012; 16(3): 363-367.
- Mulky MJ and Gandhi VM: Mowrah (Madhuca latifolia) seed saponin. Toxicological studies. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 1977; 27(6): 708-713.
- Bahadur A, Chaudhry Z, Jan G, Danish M, Rehman A, Ahmad R, Khan A, Khalid S, Ullah I, Shah Z, Ali F, Mushtaq T and Jan FG: Nutritional and elemental analyses of some selected fodder species used in traditional medicine. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2011; 5(8): 1157-1161.
- Bachheti RK, Rai IN, Joshi AR, Pandey DP and Sharma A: Physicochemical and elemental analysis of ash of some medicinal plants from Garhwal region, Uttarakhand, India by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2012; 4: 359-362.
How to cite this article:
Suryawanshi YC and Mokat DN: GC-MS and elemental analysis of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia seeds. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2019; 10(3): 786-89. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(3).786-89.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Y. C. Suryawanshi and D. N. Mokat *
Department of Botany, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
09 June 2018
10 August 2018
18 August 2018
01 February, 2019