GREEN NANOTECHNOLOGY AND NANOPARTICLES: AN ECO-FRIENDLY APPROACHHTML Full Text
GREEN NANOTECHNOLOGY AND NANOPARTICLES: AN ECO-FRIENDLY APPROACH
Hema Kumari and Kiranmai Mandava *
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, St Pauls College of Pharmacy, RR (Dist.), Turkayamjal , Telangana, India.
ABSTRACT: The field of nanotechnology is one of the notable active analysis areas in modern material science. Recent advances in Nanoscience and nanotechnology have led to the development of nanoparticles, which ultimately decrease potential health and environment hazards. Interest in developing environmentally friendly procedures for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been increased. The purpose is to minimize the negative impact of synthetic procedures, their accompanying chemicals, and derivative compounds. Nanoparticles produced by green technology are more superior when compared to those manufactured with physical and chemical methods based on it eliminates the use of most expensive chemicals and also use less energy along with formation of environmental byproducts. In the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, natural resources have been used. The exploitation of different biomaterials for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered a valuable approach in green nanotechnology. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and their application.
Keywords: Green Nanotechnology, Metallic Nanoparticles, Biomaterials, Green Synthesis
INTRODUCTION: There have been enormous advancements in the arena of Nanotechnology within the recent years related to the green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts, microorganisms and human genes. Green nanotechnology means the application of green chemistry and green engineering principles in the field of Nanotechnology. Nanoparticles can be synthesized using a variety of methods such as physical method, chemical method, biological method and hybrid method 1-3. The production of nanoparticles through conventional (physical and chemical) methods results in toxic by-products that are environmental hazards.
Additionally, these products cannot be used in medicine due to health-related issues 4. Conventional methods can be used to produce nanoparticles in large quantities with defined sizes and shapes in a shorter period of time; however, these techniques are complicated, costly and outdated.
In recent years, there has been growing interest in the synthesis of environmentally friendly nano-particles that do not produce toxic waste 5, 6. This can only be achieved through biological nature using biotechnological tools that are considered safe and ecologically good for fabrication as an alternative to conventional methods. Green nanotechnology is synthesizing the nanoparticles or nanomaterials using biological routes, as shown in Fig. 1, such as microorganisms, plants, viruses, or their by-products such as proteins and lipids. Nanoparticles produced by green technology are far superior to those manufactured with physical and chemical methods based on it eliminates the use of expensive Chemicals, consumes less energy and generates environmental friendly by-products 7.
FIG. 1: BIOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS OF METAL NANOPARTICLES
Approaches for the Synthesis of Nanoparticles: Metal particle synthesis typically takes place in one of two ways: top‐down or bottom‐up, as shown in Fig. 2. The top‐down approach uses an external force to pressure bulk materials, eventually causing these materials to break down into smaller components by means of mechanical, chemical, or some other energy sources. A bottom‐up approach takes place in a reverse tactic, growing precursor particle size by using chemical reactions to combine atomic or molecular species. It should be noted that the top‐down approach is considered to be a physical method while the bottom‐up approach is chemical, although both approaches can be applied in a range of states, including liquid, solid, gas, supercritical fluids, or vacuum 8.
FIG. 2: DIFFERENT APPROACHES FOR SYNTHESIS OF METAL NANOPARTICLES
Green Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles:
- Micro-organisms Based Mechanism: There are different mechanisms for the formation of nanoparticles using different microorganisms. First metallic ions are captured on the surface or inside the microbial cells, and then these arrested metal ions are reduced into metal nanoparticles by the action of enzymes. The two key aspects in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles are NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and NADH-dependent nitrate reductase. Nonetheless,
The bioreduction mechanisms associated with the production of metal salts and the resulting metal nanoparticles formed by microorganisms remain unexplored 9.
- Bacteria: Bacterial species have been widely utilized for commercial biotechnological applications such as bioremediation, genetic engineering, and bioleaching. Bacteria possess the ability to reduce metal ions and are momentous candidates in nanoparticles preparation.
For the preparation of metallic and other novel nano-particles, a variety of bacterial species are utilized. Prokaryotic bacteria and action mycetes have been broadly employed for synthesizing metal/metal oxide nanoparticles. The bacterial synthesis of nanoparticles has been adopted due to the relative ease of manipulating the bacteria. Some examples of bacterial strains that have been extensively exploited for the synthesis of bio-reduced silver nanoparticles with distinct size / shape morphologies include: Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas sp. SH10 Phaeocystis antarctica, Pseudomonas proteolytica, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus indicus, Bacillus cecembensis, Enterobacter cloacae, Geobacter spp., Arthrobacter gangotriensis, Corynebacterium sp. SH09, and Shewanella oneidensis. Likewise, for the preparation of gold nanoparticles, several bacterial species (such as Bacillus megaterium D01, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, E. coli DH5a, Bacillus subtilis 168, Shewanella alga, Rhodopseudomonas capsulate and Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485) have been extensively used. Information on the size, morphology, and applications of various nano-particles is summarized in Table 1.
TABLE 1: SYNTHESIS OF METALLIC NPS FROM VAR
|S. no.||Species||Nanoparticles||Size (nm)||Morphology||Application||Reference|
|1||Bacillus cereus||Silver||20-40||Spherical||Anti- bacterial activity||10|
|2||Pseudomonas proteolytica, Bacillus cecembensis||silver||6-13||Spherical
|Anti -bacterial activity||11|
|3||Lactobacillus casei||Silver||20-50||Spherical||Drug delivery, cancer treatment, bio labeling||12|
|4||Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae||Silver||28-122||Spherical||Optic receptors, anti -microbial agent||13|
|5||Bacillus indicus||Silver||-||-||Anti -microbial agent||14|
|6||Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485||Gold||10-25||Cubic, octahedral||-||15|
|7||Bacillus subtilis 168
|8||Bacillus megaterium D01||Gold||<25||Spherical||Catalysis, bio-sensing||17|
|10||E. coli DH 5α||Gold||8-25||Spherical||Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin||19|
|12||Rhodopseudomonas capsulate||Gold||10-20||Triangular||Cancer hyperthermia||21|
|13||Magnetospirillum magneto-Tactium||Iron oxide||47||-||-||22|
|14||Aquaspirillum magnetotacti- Cum||Iron oxide||40-50||Octahedral prism||-||23|
|15||Shewanella oneidensis||Uranium oxide||1-5||-||-||24|
|16||Klebsiella aerogenes||Cadmium sulphide||20-200||-||-||25|
|17||E. coli||Cadmium sulphide||2-5||Wurtzite structure||Fluorescent labels||26|
|18||Rhizopus nigricans||Silver||35-40||Round||Bactericidal, catalysis||27|
|19||Aspergillus niger||Silver||20||Spherical||Anti-bacterial agent||28|
|20||Verticillium luteoalbum||Gold||<10||Triangular, hexagonal||Optics, sensor, coatings||29|
|21||Aspergillus terreus||Zinc oxide||8||Spherical||Catalysis, bio-sensing, drug delivery, diagnostics||30|
|22||Aspergillus flavus TFR7||Titanium dioxide||12-15||Spherical||Plant nutrient fertilizer||31|
|23||MKY3||Silver||2-5||Hexagonal||Coatings for solar energy absorption||32|
|24||Saccharimyces cerevisae||Gold, silver||4-15||spherical||Catalysis||33|
- Fungi: Fungi-mediated biosynthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles is also a very efficient process for the generation of mono-dispersed nanoparticles with well-defined morphologies. They act as better biological agents for the preparation of metal and metal oxide nano-particles, due to the presence of a variety of intracellular enzyme. Competent fungi can synthesize larger amounts of nanoparticles compared to bacteria. Moreover, fungi have many merits over other organisms due to the presence of enzymes/proteins/reducing components on their cell surfaces. The probable mechanism for the formation of the metallic nanoparticles is enzymatic reduction (reductase) in the cell wall or inside the fungal cell. Many fungal species are used to synthesize metal/metal oxide nanoparticles like silver, gold, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, as discussed in Table 1.
- Plant Extract Based Mechanism: For a long time, it has been known that plants have the potential for biological reduction of metallic ions and hyper-accumulation. Because of such remarkable properties, plants have been considered a more environmentally friendly biological method for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, and also useful for detoxification applications. Plant extracts contain various bioactive, such as alkaloids, proteins, phenolic acids, sugars, terpenoids and polyphenols, which have been found to have an important role in first reducing and then stabilizing the metallic ions, as shown in Fig. 3.
FIG. 3: BIOSYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES USING PLANT EXTRACT
The shape and size of nanoparticles mainly depend on the variation in composition and concentration of active biomolecules of different plants, and their interaction with the aqueous metal ions. Especially in the chemical and biological synthesis of nano-particles, the aqueous metal ion precursors from metal salts are reduced, which results in a colour change of the reaction mixture and provides a quantitative indication of nanoparticle formation. More importantly, the nanoparticles synthesized from reducing agents may show general toxicity, engendering serious concern for developing environmentally friendly processes. The process of the formation of nanoparticles begins by mixing a metal–salt solution with a sample of plant extract. During the synthesis of nanoparticles, biochemical reduction of the salt solution starts immediately and the change in colour of the reaction mixture indicates the formation of nanoparticles.
During synthesis, initially there is an activation period process in which metal ions are converted to zero-valent state from their mono or divalent oxidation states, so that the nucleation of such reduced metal atoms takes place. Furthermore, the process of nanoparticle synthesis is followed by the integration of smaller neighboring particles to form larger nanoparticles, which are thermodynamically stable, and, subsequently, the metal ions are reduced biologically.
In this way, growth progresses and nanoparticles aggregate to form a variety of shapes such as spheres, cubes, triangles, rods, wires, hexagons, and pentagons. In the final stage of the process, the ability of plant extract to stabilize the nanoparticle finally determines its stable morphology. Significantly, the quality, size, and morphology of the nanoparticles are influenced by properties of the plant extracts; mainly its concentration, reaction time, metal salt concen-tration, reaction solution pH, and temperature 3.
- Anti-microbial Activity: Various studies have been carried out to ameliorate antimicrobial functions because of the growing microbial resistance towards common antiseptic and antibiotics. According to in vitro antimicrobial studies, the metallic nanoparticles effectively obstruct several microbial species.
The antimicrobial effectiveness of the metallic nanoparticles depends upon two important parameters like material employed for the synthesis of the nanoparticles and the particle size of the metal nanoparticle. Silver nanoparticles are the most admired inorganic nanoparticles, and they are utilized as efficient antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents. The antimicrobial potential of silver nanoparticles can be described in the following ways:
- a) Denaturation of the bacterial outer membrane.
- b) Generation of pits/gaps in the bacterial membrane leading to fragmentation of the cell membrane.
- c) Interactions between silver nanoparticles and disulphide or sulfhydryl groups of enzymes which disrupt the metabolic processes and leads to death 9.
TABLE 2: GREEN SYNTHESIS OF METALLIC NPS FROM VARIOUS PLANT EXTRACTS
|S. no.||Species||Nanoparticle||Size (nm)||Morphology||Applications||Reference|
|1||Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera)||Gold & silver||10-30||Spherical, triangular||Cancer hyperthermia||35|
|2||Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera)||Indium oxide||5-50||Spherical||Solar cells, gas sensors||36|
|3||Acalypha indica||silver||20-30||Spherical||Anti-bacterial activity||37|
|Silver & gold||39||Spherical, triangular||Cancer hyperthermia, IR-absorbing optic coating||38|
|5||Avena sativa (oat)||gold||5-20||Rod-shaped||-||39|
|Gold, Silver & silver-gold alloys||5-35, 50-100||Spherical, triangular, hexagonal||Remediation of toxic metals||40|
|7||Camellia sinensis (black
tea leaf extracts)
|Gold & silver||20||Spherical, prism||Catalyst, sensors||41|
|8||Brassica juncea (mustard)||Silver||2-35||Spherical||-||42|
|Gold & silver||55-80||Triangular, spherical||-||43|
|10||Carica papaya (papaya)||Silver||60-80||Spherical||-||44|
|11||Citrus limon (lemon)||Silver||<50||Spherical||-||45|
|Gold||6.75-57.91||Spherical, triangular, decahedral||Drug delivery, tissue/tumor imaging||46|
|Gold||200-500||Spherical, triangular||IR-absorbing optics coating||47|
|14||Cycas sp. (cycas)||Silver||2-6||Spherical||-||48|
|15||Diospyros kaki (persimmon)||Bimetallic gold & silver||50-500||Cubic||-||49|
|16||Emblica officinalis (Indian
|Gold & silver||10-20 & 15-15||-||-||50|
|18||Eucalyptus hybrid||Silver||50-150||Crystalline, spherical||-||52|
|20||Gardenia jasminoides Ellis
|21||Medicago sativa (alfalfa)||Iron oxide||2-10||crystalline||Cancer hyperthermia, drug delivery||55|
|22||Sedum alfredii Hance||Zinc oxide||53.7||Hexagonal,
|23||Ocimum sanctum (tulsi;
|Gold & silver||30& 10-20||Crystalline, hexagonal, triangular & spherical||Bio-labeling & bio-sensors||57|
|24||Pear fruit extract||Gold||200-500||Triangular, hexagonal||Catalyst, bio-sensors||58|
2. Catalytic Activity: Metal nanoparticles play a notable role in catalysis application. Specifically, metal nanoparticles with high surface area and more active sites promote faster reactions and increase product yield.
These particles can be broadly divided into two main groups: noble-metal (Au, Pt, Ag, etc.) -supported metal nanoparticles and non-noble-metal (Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, etc.)-based nanoparticles Table 3.
TABLE 3: VARIOUS METAL NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIZED AND THEIR CATALYTIC PROPERTIES 60-88
|S. no.||Metal Nanoparticles||Catalysts|
|1||Molybdenum–Bismuth Bimetallic Chalcogenide Nanoparticles||CO2 to Methanol|
|2||Platinum–Antimony Tin Oxide Nanoparticles||Cathode catalysis for direct methanol fuel cells via an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)|
|3||Cobalt Oxide Nanocrystals||Cobalt Oxide Nanocrystals with CoO nanocrystals coupled with carbon nanotubes as catalysts for chlor–alkali electrolysis systems|
|4||Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles||Catalytic oxidation of phenolic and aniline chemical compounds (Fe 3O4 )|
|5||Zirconia Nanoparticles||Catalysts for sol–gel synthesis, aqueous precipitation, thermal decomposition, and hydrothermal synthesis|
|6||Tin Oxide Nanoparticles||Catalysts for the reduction and photo degradation of organic compounds|
|7||Silver Nano flakes||Silver Nano flakes on molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) films for the catalytic oxidation of tryptophan|
|8||Tungsten Oxide Nanoparticles||Hetero-nanostructured photo electrodes synthesized via the atomic layer decomposition of tungsten oxide (WO3 ) combined with an oxygen evolving catalyst|
|9||Cuprous Oxide Nanoparticles||Cuprous oxide nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for usage as an efficient electro catalyst in ORR|
|10||Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles||Carbon modified titanium dioxide (TiO2) can be used in daylight photo catalysis.
TiO2 nanoparticles and photo catalytic performance measured under a medium-pressure mercury UV lamp.
|11||Iridium Oxide Nanoparticles||Ligand-free iridium oxide nanoparticles for high electro catalytic activity.
Reusable catalyst in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate room-temperature ionic liquid for the biphasic hydrogenation of olefins under mild reaction conditions.
|12||Palladium Nanoparticles||Catalytic formic acid oxidation can take place through the oleylamine-mediated synthesis of palladium nanoparticles|
|13||Gold Nanoparticles||Gold nanoparticles help to create an active catalyst for the reduction of nitroarenes in an aqueous medium when placed on top of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide.
Catalytic CO oxidation can occur under the presence of gold nanoparticles
|14||Elemental Sulfur Nanoparticles||Catalysis occurred when elemental sulfur nanoparticles were placed on chromium (VI) with a sulfide reaction|
|15||Silica Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles||Exhibit catalytic properties that can be tested for the oxidation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons|
|16||Silica Vanadium Oxide Nanoparticles||Exhibit catalytic properties that can be tested for the oxidation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons|
|17||Dendrimer-Encapsulated Metal Nanoparticles||Dendrimer can be used to control the placement and other properties of metal nanoparticles for their usage as catalysts|
|18||Imidazolium Metal Nanoparticles||Metal nanoparticles immersed in imidazolium ionic liquids exhibit unique catalytic properties|
|19||Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles||Semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires made from nanoparticles can be tested for photoluminescence properties through catalytic growth|
|20||Silver Nanoparticles||Silver nanoparticles can be used as chemically stable nanoparticles with no environmentally harmful effects on microbes under anaerobic conditions|
|21||Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles||EXAFS spectroscopy shows that magnesium oxide is a precursor of a type of mononuclear complex of gold that can catalyze ethane hydrogenation|
|22||Calcium Oxide Nanoparticles||Calcium oxide nanoparticles can be catalyzed with pyridines in an aqueous ethanol medium|
|23||Strontium-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles||Can be created with the sol–gel method, and tests showed successful photo catalytic activity of these nanoparticles when removing methylene blue (MB)|
|24||Titanium Carbide Nanoparticles||Such nanoparticles can support platinum catalysts for methanol electro oxidation in acidic mediums|
|25||Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles||These nanoparticles with their catalytic properties can be used for a variety of biomedical applications|
|26||Antimony–Vanadium Oxide Catalysts||Catalysts prepared are selective for acrylonitrile formation|
|27||Metal Nanoparticles at Mesoporous N-doped Carbons and Carbon Nitrides||Metal nanoparticles at Mesoporous N-doped carbons and carbon nitrides held in Mott–Schottky heterojunctions can function as efficient catalysts|
|28||Metal Nanoparticles||Catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles can be used in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes|
- Removal of Pollutant Dyes: Cationic and anionic dyes are a main class of organic pollutants used in various applications. Organic dyes play a very imperative role due to their gigantic demand in paper mills, textiles, plastic, leather, food, printing, and pharmaceutical industries. In textile industries, about 60% of dyes are consumed in the manufacturing process after which 15% of dyes are wasted and are discharged into the hydrosphere, they represent significant source of pollution. Dyes produce undesirable turbidity in the water, which will reduce sunlight penetration and leads to the resistance of photochemical synthesis and biological attacks to marine and aquatic life 9. The need for hygienic and safe drinking water is increasing day by day. Considering this fact, the use of metal and metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles for oxidizing toxic pollutants has become of great interest in recent material research fields.
- Heavy Metal Ion Sensing: Heavy metals (like Ni, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, Hg) are well known for being pollutants in air, soil and water. There are innumerable sources of heavy metal pollution such as mining waste, vehicle emissions, natural gas, paper, plastic, coal, and dye industries. Some metals (like lead, copper, cadmium, and mercury ions) show enhanced toxicity potential even at the traces of ppm levels. Therefore, identifying toxic metals in the biological and aquatic environment has become a vital need for proper remedial processes. Due to the tunable size and distance-dependent optical properties of metallic nanoparticles, they have been preferably employed for the detection of heavy metal ions in polluted water systems 89-90. The advantages of using metal nanoparticles as colorimetric sensors for heavy metal ions in environmental systems/samples include simplicity, cost, effectiveness and high sensitivity at sub-ppm levels.
CONCLUSION: Green synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles has been a highly attractive research area over the last decade. The use of nanoparticles in the medical, food, pharmaceutical and agricultural industries has garnered a great deal of interest, with a focus on development of more convenient methods using green biotechnology tools for production of eco-friendly, non-toxic, and environmentally benign nanoparticles. Numerous kinds of natural resources like plants, bacteria, fungi, yeast and plant extracts have been employed in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Among them, plant extract has been proven to possess high efficiency as stabilizing agent and reducing agent for the synthesis of controlled materials.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors are thankful for the management, St. Pauls College of Pharmacy for their constant encouragement and moral support for writing this review.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Kumari H and Mandava K: Green nanotechnology and nanoparticles: an eco-friendly approach. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2021; 12(11): 5624-33. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.12(11).5624-33.
All © 2021 are reserved by the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Hema Kumari and Kiranmai Mandava *
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, St Pauls College of Pharmacy, RR (Dist.), Turkayamjal, Telangana, India.
19 September 2020
15 May 2021
25 May 2021
01 November 2021