IMPACT OF FLAX ON METABOLIC SYNDROME AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORSHTML Full Text
IMPACT OF FLAX ON METABOLIC SYNDROME AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Supriyo Saha and Dilipkumar Pal *
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India.
ABSTRACT: Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an annual herb with a huge source of essential fatty acids, amino acids, vitamin E, organic acids, and cyanogenetic glycosides. Flax is primarily observed with antioxidative and cell rejuvenating properties. Due to the major ups and downs of lifestyle, metabolic syndrome is the most common terminology associated with humans. Metabolic syndrome is amplified by unhealthy food consumption, less physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, etc. Heart attack, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, cancer, in-vitro fertility and other hormonal or neuronal problems are the medusa’s snakes of metabolic syndrome. The constantly changing environment, pollution, bad air quality index, greater amount of carbon footprints, and exhaustion of greenhouse gases are the sources of maladies associated with environmental breakdown. Environmental calamities like consumption of non-renewable fossil fuel, pollutions, melting of the ice age are collectively flowed towards metabolic syndrome. After prolonging intake of Flax (seed or oil) it was observed with greater impacts on mitigation of Diabetes mellitus, occurrence of inflammation, ulcer, atherosclerotic plaque, and maintained the normal levels of hormones also increased the positive biochemical factors secreted from different organs.
Keywords: Flax, Hyperglycemia, Hormonal imbalance, Cardiovascular diseases, Biodiesel
INTRODUCTION: In this fast-forward and readymade lifestyle, humans are very prone to a lifestyle disorder known as metabolic syndrome 1. Metabolic syndrome is amplified by unhealthy food consumption, less physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, etc. 2
As well as, it is a constellation of other problems such as resistance towards insulin sensitivity 3, 4, increased blood pressure, deposition of visceral fat, dyslipidemia 5, 6 and increase amount of oxidative inflammatory markers, higher incidence of hormonal imbalance, polycystic ovarian disease, cancer and other neurological disorders with this syndrome 7. Major organs like the liver, pancreas, spleen, and heart are highly affected by this syndrome 8, 9. Hyperglycaemia, hepatic disorders, cancer, inflammation, hormonal disorders, polycystic ovarian syndrome, cardiac arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, ventricular fibrillation, and weight gain are the principle manifestations of metabolic syndrome Fig. 1 10. Peoples with a large waistline (greater than 35 inches for women and 40 inches for men), high blood pressure (greater than 180/120 mm Hg) 11, less active daily routine, intake of high carbohydrate or fatty foods, higher fasting blood level (greater than 100 mg/dL) 12, greater than 150 mg/dL of triglycerides and lower than 40 mg/dL of HDL level are very much prone towards the disorder (https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/ conditions-and-diseases/metabolic-syndrome) 13, 14. The scientific name of Flax (FL) is Linum usitatissimum belongs to the family Linaceae with more than 14 genera. FL is an annual self-pollinated herb with haploid chromosome with simple, sessile, linear-lanceolate leaves and flowers with five petals and sepals 15, 16. FL seeds are mainly smooth, shiny, oval, lenticular in shape about six mm in length with golden-brown colour. The seed was used as medicine for more than 800 decades 17, 18.
FIG. 1: METABOLIC SYNDROME
Actually, Flax (seed or oil) is the cheap alternate of chia and quinoa seeds, and people follow healthy foods with a balance between carbohydrates, fats, proteins and fibers 19. This drive causes a serious positive slope in the use of Flax 20. A recent market report on the sale of Flax (seed or oil) after surveys on five geological areas (Asia-Pacific, Europe, North-America, South-America, and the Middle East & Africa), it was clearly observed that market demand will reach by 30 million USD by 2023 (Report ID: 290219). India, China, Australia, Kazakhstan and Iraq are the giant producer of Flax 21, 22. Another critical situation that arises with this fast life is environmental calamities. Now the question is what is Environment? The environment is our surroundings, where humans, animals, birds, insects, plants, trees, planktons, corals, fossils and many more organisms are live in a symbiotic way 23, 24. The rapid change in temperature, shortfall of rain, floods, tornadoes, eruptions of volcanoes, shrinking of river width, lesser amount of fresh oxygen and drinkable water are not the curses of environment; these are the maturity benefits of manmade pollutions 25. Too much emission of greenhouse gases, huge consumptions of non-renewable fossil fuels, and create much darker carbon footprints are the crusades of the environment 26, 27. The land and ocean temperature index observed with 0.8°C temperature rise in 2018, followed by 3.3 mm/year rise in global mean sea level, an increase in 1.8 and 1.1 mm/year in ocean mass and steric height 28, respectively, and a decrease in 286 Gt/year and 126 Gt/year in Greenland and Antarctica ice mass, respectively (Data provided by NASA) 29. Greater consumption of biofuel, biodiesel, and solar energy, lesser consumption of energy, minimization of carbon fuel usages are the principle mitigation process of environmental pollution 30. Environmental mismanagement creates a direct pavement towards metabolic syndrome. Higher levels of ultraviolet irradiation, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxides, particulate matter (< 1.0 µM), and carbon di/mono oxides leads to cardiac arrhythmia, ischemia, cardiomyopathy 31 diabetic mellitus and insulin resistance; alteration of DNA base pairing, skin and lung cancer; inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, hormonal irregularities and dementia, Alzheimer and Parkinson’s diseases 32, 33. This work mainly focuses on the importance of Fl (whole, seed or oil) in the management of metabolic syndrome and creates a positive impact on our environment.
Chemical Constituents of FL: FL is composed of essential fatty acids such as alpha linoleic acid, linolenic acid, oleic acid; histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, valine, threonine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, proline, serine as essential amino acids; alpha and gamma tocopherols; ferulic acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid as organic acids and linustatin, linamarin as cyanogenetic glycosides also rhamnose, galactose, fructose, D-xylose, arabinose and cellulose, lignin are the observed polysaccharides obtained from soluble and insoluble fibers of FL seed Fig. 2.
FIG. 2: FLAXSEED AND ITS CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
Effects of FL on Metabolic Syndrome:
Effect of FL Seed on Hyperglycemia: High fructose-fed animals were administered with (50 mg/kg body weight) of FL, (25 mg/kg body weight) of quercetin and dual administration of (25 mg/kg body weight of both) for a period of four weeks; followed by estimation of blood glucose, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin level. The outcomes revealed that level of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin and adiponectin were slightly modified whereas level of high- and low-density lipoproteins was marked changed Fig. 3.
FIG. 3: THE LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN LEVELS AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF FLAXSEED, QUERCETIN AND IN COMBINATION IN FRUCTOSE-FED RATS FOR 4-WEEKS. [Copyright @ Abdelkarem et al. 2017 with permission from Elsevier B.V].
These data confirmed the effectiveness of FL and quercetin in the management of hyperglycemia 34. Electrodialysis using ultrafiltration membrane technique of FL with potassium chloride solution was obtained two protein hydrolysates as F1 (300-400) Da and F2 (400-500) Da molecular weight. Then the effect of the fraction on glucose transport and systolic blood pressure was estimated, which revealed that F2 showed greater uptake of glucose transport and F1 showed blood pressure-lowering effect 35. Another experiment indicated the effect of FL oil on minimization of genetic hyperglycemic conditions. Here at first, hyperglycemic was induced on female rats and processed for pregnancy, after confirmation animals were divided into three parts, fed with a high-fat diet, FL oil, and non-hyperglycaemic diet, respectively. When the male infants were accustomed to nature, then natural death was promoted in two phases as 100 days and 180 days; followed by histopathology of the pancreas. The outcomes revealed that muscle of pancreas was abnormally thick with high-fat diet and a small quantity of islets with lowers insulin density; whereas FL oil diet observed with greater islets and insulin immunodensity 36.
Effect of FL Seed on Inflammation and Hepatic Disorders: A design confirmed the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extract of FL on ulcerative colitis (induced by acetic acid). The selected animals were divided into four groups as placebo, control, treated, and infected with prednisolone (standard); followed by sacrificed to examine the condition of colon and spleen, the presence of blood in stool, Disease Activity Index (DaI); also the presence of leukocyte and ability for generation of free radical were the scavenging parameters of FL. The intake of (300) mg/ml and (500) mg/ml of FL, parameters like weight loss, DaI, percent affected area, macroscopic colonic lesion, and ulceration index was markedly decreased. Histopathological sections of colon showed the proper presence of neutral and acidic mucin with a reduction in goblet cell depletion along with improved catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione activity Fig. 4 37.
Also, inflammatory markers as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (lowered by 6.99 digits), interleukin 6 and interferon-gamma (lowered by 7.32 and 13.18 digit respectively), transforming growth factor-beta (increased by 173.29 digits), and calprotectin (minimized by 192.20 unit) were markedly affected 38. Another study revealed the antiulcer effect of FL lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside on dextran sodium sulphate induced rat model considering amino salicylic as standard. The assessment of DaI, myeloperoxidase assay, histopathological evaluation of colon (using heamtoxylin and eosin stains) and invasive intestinal inflammation (using fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran stain) were the assessment parameters. Lower DaI and colon weight, higher colon length, lower myeloperoxidase, and slightly higher intestinal permeability were observed with high diglucoside content Fig. 5 39.
FIG. 4: PRETREATMENT WITH FS.CR IMPROVED THE MACROSCOPIC DAMAGE PARAMETERS OF COLONIC TISSUES IN BALB/C MICE INDUCED WITH AA COLITIS. [Copyright@ Palla et al., 2018 with permission from Elsevier B.V].
FIG. 5: ORAL SDG TREATMENT AMELIORATED DSS-INDUCED COLON INJURY. [Copyright @ Xu et al., 2016 with permission from Elsevier Ltd].
A study on the effects of FL and corn oil on high ethanol-fed animals followed by assessing the levels of plasma enzyme, hepatic steatotic and inflammatory factors, endotoxin (lipopoly-saccharide greatly linked with toll-like receptor-4 associated inflammatory response). The outcomes revealed that levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin, plasma triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (reactive product of lipid peroxidation), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and endotoxin were markedly decreased with FL oil. This data confirmed the effectiveness of Fl oil on alcoholic liver disease 40.
FIG. 6: H AND E STAINING DEPICTING NORMAL AND CANCEROUS OVARIAN TISSUE HISTOLOGY AND IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE DEMONSTRATING ER ALPHA PROTEIN EXPRESSION FROM CONTROL, WHOLE FLAXSEED, DFM AND FLAX OIL DIETS. [Copyright @ Dikshit et al., 2017 with permission from Elsevier Inc.].
Effect of FL Seed on Cancer: A study on chloroform Fl extract (20 µg/ml, 40 µg/ml, 80 µg/ml, 160 µg/ml and 320 µg/ml) and methyl esters of FL fatty acids (hexadecanoic methyl ester, methyl stearate, trans-13-octadecanoic methyl ester, 9,12-octadecadienoic methyl ester, and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic methyl ester) on breast cancer cell line (MCF 7); followed by determination of different antiproliferation parameters such as programmed cell death and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The outcomes showed a dose-dependent decrease on antiproliferative parameters 41. In another experiment evaluated the effects of FL oil (200 µl and 400 µl) on tumor growth factor of C57BL/6 mice cervical cancer model along with the level of expression of viral E6 and E7 oncogenes related to ovarian cancer progression. Here five different animal groups were introduced (control, 4 mg/kg of cisplatin-treated, 200 µl of FL oil treated, 400 µl of FL oil treated and 400 µl of FL oil with 4 mg/kg of cisplatin-treated), and the outcomes observed that last treated group showed maximum inhibition of tumor weight, decreased expression of E6 and E7 (tubulin as loading control) along with decreased and increased expression of p53 and Rb genes, respectively with co-administration of cisplatin and FL oil. The increasing expression on cytokines and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid-related substances) by cisplatin and oil correlated with cell toxicity behaviour along with higher trolox value was observed with high concentration of FL oil directly confirmed the effect of FL oil on ovarian cancer cell line proliferation 42. The metastasis of solid tumor was evaluated using Fl (seed and oil) and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside on human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-435) for seven days and it was mainly applicable when size of solid tumors of 0.9 gm and 110 square meters after the scissor of tumor.
The outcomes revealed that the issue of spreading for lung and lymph nodes was statistically minimized Table 1 43. FL seed, defatted FL meal, and FL oil were minimized the expression of estrogen receptorα and higher concentration of microsomal enzyme with the altered genetic information of decapentaplegic homolog7 protein expressions by cascading the mechanism of caspase3 enzyme and phosphorylated the p38 gene Fig. 6 44.
TABLE 1: EFFECT OF FL AND FL SECOISOLARICIRESINOL DIGLYCOSIDE AND FLAXSEED OIL (FO), ON THE RECURRENCE OF EXCISED PRIMARY TUMOR
|Parameters||Total||Recurrence of tumor (%) Primary tumor less than 0.9 g||Primary tumor greater than 0.9 g||Recurrence of tumor size Volume (cc)||Weight (gm)|
|Basal diet||7/24 (29.2)||4/14 (28.6)||3/10 (30.0)||0.72||0.89|
|FL seed||7/24 (29.2)||2/14 (14.3)||5/10 (50.0)||1.30||1.70|
|Sdg||8/24 (33.3)||3/15 (20.0)||5/9 (55.6)||0.55||0.81|
|FL oil||8/23 (34.8)||3/13 (23.1)||5/10 (50.0)||0.50||0.79|
|Sdg with FL oil||6/22 (27.3)||3/14 (21.4)||3/8 (37.5)||0.74||1.09|
The ω-3 fatty acid of FL was minimized the occurrence of cancer for 3.5 years old hen and without any observable difference in the expression of cyclooxygenase-1 enzyme for FL presence/ absence diet but lowering in the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme for FL fed animals. These data confirmed the importance of FL for minimizing the incidence of ovarian cancer 45. Another study of four previously linoorbitides were isolated from FL oil were assessed against breast cancer cell lines (Sk-Br-3 and MCF 7) and human skin cancer cell line (A375) for a period of two days. The outcomes pointed that first linorbitides (LOB3) showed greater cell toxicity against A375, Sk-Br-3 and MCF 7 with percentage greater that 55%, 45% and 5% after 2 days of treatment. Another parallel examination of peptides on cellular phospholipids binding came with the conclusion of hydrophobic interaction between peptides and cell membrane. These data confirmed the cell toxic nature of FL orbited against breast and skin cancer 46. Another two orbitides as [1–9-NαC]- linus orb B3 (molecule A) and [1–9-NαC]-linus orb B2 (molecule B) were isolated from Fl oil using hexane as a solvent, evaluated against human gastric cell lines SGC-7901 and GES-1 epithelial cells, decreased cell viability confirmed the anti-proliferative effect 47.
Effect of FL Seed on Oxidative Stress: The oligosaccharides of FL showed good radical scavenging property using inhibition of free radical generation was assessed by hydroxyl radical scavenging, diphenyl picrylhydrazyl, and azino-bis (ethylbenzothiazoline sulphonic acid) methods. Outcomes observed with maximum dose-dependent inhibition observed with sulphonic acid method (rate of inhibition: 92%) followed by hydroxyl scavenging (rate of inhibition: 82.6%) and diphenyl picrylhydrazyl method (rate of inhibition: 58.2%) 48. Also, four different peptide sequences (QGRGG QGGQGQ, NGSGYPGSDLDSSPPGAKVP, GRE EIGNVMRSLM, and GVKVEGDGGLVRRDEI) with another thirteen amino acid sequence (GFPGRLDHWCASE) were identified from FL hydrolysate, observed with greater scavenging activity by peptide sequence (GFPGRLDH-WCASE) Table 2 49.
TABLE 2: ISOLATED PEPTIDES FROM FLAXSEED HYDROLYSATE
|Fraction no.||Observed mass||Calculated mass||Peptide sequence||Source protein||Fragment|
|F5||634.600 (+3)||1900.880||NGSGYPGSDLDSSPPGAKVP||Cellulose synthase 6D||144-163|
|F5||1491.741 (+1)||1490.733||GREEIGNVMRSLM||UDP- Glycosyltransferase-1||426-438|
Effect of FL Seed on Cardiovascular Disorders: FL seed and psyllium fibre were lowered the waist circumference by 2.8 cm and 1.18 cm, respectively; HbA1c level was minimized by 0.5 unit by FL and increased by 0.1 unit by psyllium; fasting blood glucose level was increased by 15.4 mg/dl by FL and decreased by 1.6 mg/dl level by psyllium; insulin resistance was increased by 2.2 unit by FL and 1.7 unit by psyllium; serum cholesterol level was lowered by 15.3 mg/dl by FL and increased by 0.7 mg/dl by psyllium; low density lipoprotein was decreased by 13.1 mg/dl by FL and lowered by 0.5 mg/dl by psyllium; tumor necrosis factor and malondialdehyde levels were decreased by FL whether psyllium fibre has not any prominent effect; the most important parameter nitric oxide was markedly increased (2.4 nM/L) by FL whether decreased by 0.8 nM/L unit by psyllium 50. The effects of FL seed (10% milled), oil (4.4%), and lignan (0.44%) on myocardial infracted animals by assessing on the level of plasma fatty acids, ventricular arrhythmia, ventricular dilation, and myocardial inflammation. The outcomes revealed that FL oil enhanced the level of alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid without any effects on docosahexanoic acid also the incidence of arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia were markedly decreased by FL oil, and dilation of the ventricle was slightly modified with FL treatment, but myocardial fibrosis was greatly reduced and contraction-relaxation behaviour of heart muscle with all types of FL supplements 51, 52. FL oil was administered on three groups of animals as control (fed normal prescribed animal diet), WTD (high cholesterol western diet), and FO (high cholesterol western diet with flaxseed oil) showed a markedly decrease in the levels of serum and liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, malondialdehyde and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α- messenger ribonucleic acid Fig. 7 53.
FIG. 7: EFFECTS OF DIETARY FLAXSEED OIL ON AMELIORATING ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN WTD-FED MICE. PHOTOMICROGRAPHS OF REPRESENTATIVE OIL-RED O-STAINED AORTAS OF MICE IN CONTROL, WTD, AND FO GROUPS. [Copyright @ Han et al., 2018 with permission from Elsevier Ltd.]
Another experiment of FL oil on zucker (fa/fa) rats, followed by assessment of level of cytokine, haptoglobin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and adipokine were evaluated from the tissue and serum sample and the lower expression of markers confirmed the beneficial effects of Fl on hyperlipidemia 54. Also FL spread and 20 mg of FL lignanfed animals observed with 40% lower weight gain and 60% lowered ratio of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low density/high-density lipoprotein, and outcomes revealed that no prominent effects on haematological parameters like uric acid 55, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and albumin level. So, the data confirmed the cholesterol and body weight lowering effects of FL 56, 57.
Effect of FL Seed on polycystic ovarian syndrome and hormonal imbalance: A group of white females with polycystic disease was administered with FL (10 gm/day for first 3 days, 20 gm/day for next 3 days and 30 gm/day for four-month period) and hydroalcoholic FL extract followed by measuring the level of insulin, serum and free testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone along with number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteumin blood samples. The outcomes revealed that level of insulin was increased whereas level of testosterone in serum and free condition were markedly decreased after four months by FL and increased level of estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone along with decreased number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum were observed with hydroalcoholic FL extract administration 58, 59. Also a group of scientist experimented on the modulatory effects of Fl on ovarian parameters like serum progesterone, testosterone, weight and volume of the ovary, number of oocytes and germinal vesicles in primordial, primary, and secondary follicles, level of PCNA, cyclin B1 (markers of G1-S and G2-M phase in cell cycle) Bax and caspase-3 (markers of cytoplasmic / mitochondrial apoptosis) after 10 days and 24 days treatment with 10% of FL seed.
The outcomes revealed that body weight was increased but weight and volume of ovary did not visibly change whereas level of oocytes and germinal vesicles in primordial, primary and secondary follicles were markedly increased; marked decrease in PCNA, cyclin B1 was observed in primordial, primary and secondary follicular oocytes whereas increased values were observed with Bax and caspase-3 levels after 10 to 24 days of FL treatment. These data confirmed the ovarian nourishment effect of FL 60. Long-term use of FL was reduced the area of corpus cavernosum, corpus spongiosum but testosterone was slightly reduced along with an increased level of 17β-estradiol with FL group 61.
Effect of FL Seed on Neurological Disorders: Scientists also experimentally confirmed the increased levels of genetic expression of BDNF and GDNF along with decreased level of percent dark neurons in ischemic brain cortex by FL oil supplementation; which confirmed the neuro-protective activity of FL on ischemic brain stroke 62. Also, a group of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathic wistar rats were administered with Fl diet followed by evaluation of brain mass, percent climbing, immobility and swimming as per modified forced swim test (behavioral test) and time of immobility in tail suspension test (correlate with stress) and latency period in morris water maze (correlated with cognitive behavior). The outcomes revealed that the highest brain mass observed with FL-fed animals in induced HI case, swimming capacity was greatly influenced after FL treatment climbing and immobility were more often decreased and latency period was also minimized with FL administration. These data confirmed the effects of FL on HI 63.
Effects of FL on Environmental Factors: Environment-friendly biodiesel was developed after reaction between FL oil and methanol ratio using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst with 98% and 94% of maximum yield 64. The optimized ratio of biodiesel production was 5.9:1 and (6:1) between methanol and Fl oil 65. Another study revealed that waste of ethyl esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids of flaxseed oil was used to produce biomass using Yarrowia lipolytica S6 yeast. The biomass was generated from 25 g/L and 40 g/L of glycerol. A total yield of 0.51 g/g was developed from 21.3 g/L of strain with (19.4-48.2)% of protein and (7.38-30.51)% of cellular lipids 66. Industrial waste and effluents were managed with FL mucilage (100 mg/L) using sodium dodecyl sulphate as standard effluent. The coagulation process was optimized at pH 7.0 with 76.0 mg of nanocatalyst and 1.07 ml of hydrogen peroxide. This data observed with greater industrial effluent management 67. Zinc oxide nanosheet was developed using FL mucilage followed by removal of methylene blue. The sheet was 75 nm thick with the removal of 80% of methylene blue within 2 h of exposure 68. Al soan another water-soluble onion shaped nanoparticle (4-8) nm size was developed using pyrolysis of FL oil with emission of stable green luminescence with greater photocatalytic efficiency of methylene blue. The nanoparticle was observed with specific detection of aluminium with (Limit of Detection: 0.77μM), which was used as a waste management tool 69. Hydro-alcoholic extract of deoiled FL was used to develop silver nanoparticle for the evaluation of antimicrobial effects against gram (-) ve Escherichia coli, gram (+) ve Staphylococcus aureus, and mycotoxin producing fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The nanoparticle was face-centered cubic structure with 9.22 nm. This material was observed with greater efficiency in food and health product industries 70, 71. FL was used to protect pregnant rats and foetus against diesel exhaust particles (1.5 mg/kg/day) and/or an oral gavage of fenitrothion (1/200 of LD50=3.76mg/Kg/day) 72, 73. These data clearly stated the importance of the seed on the environment and related factors.
CONCLUSION: In these modern genera, metabolic syndrome is the most common disease among the population. The abnormal lifestyle, inadequate sleep-awake cycle, less physical activity, intake of oily foods, alcohols are the key factors of this syndrome. Flax was cultivated for around 5000 years’ timeline in India, China, and Egypt. The development of biodiesel and biomass from seed waste and flaxseed was also helped to develop nanoparticles with greater removal efficiency of dye with antimicrobial effect. The fibre and oil of Flax are normally taken by ancients to mitigate the spectrum of metabolic syndrome. Here we also noticed that the seeds and oils of Flax were highly effective against hyperglycemia, inflammations, ulcer, insulin resistance, ovarian cancer, expression of papilloma, atherosclerosis, hormonal imbalances, and neurological disorders also maintained health of liver, pancreas, spleen, and genital organs. So, in this spectrum of activity, the urban are inclined towards the intake of Flax. These-article emphasized that the shine of Flax (seed or oil) alleviates different conditions linked with metabolic syndrome.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Declared none
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Saha S and Pal D: Impact of flax on metabolic syndrome and related environmental factors. Int J Pharm Sci & Res 2022; 13(2): 531-42. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.13(2). 531-42.
All © 2022 are reserved by the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Supriyo Saha and Dilipkumar Pal *
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India.
17 February 2021
08 June 2021
09 June 2021
01 February 2022