IN VITRO ANTIARTHRITIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND IN VIVO CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF YOGARAJA GUGGULUAbstract
Yogaraja guggulu a poly herbal formulation, consisting of 29 ingredients, has been used for the neurological, musculoskeletal disorders and in general practice, used for osteo arthritis. In vitro antiarthritic activity is done against pathogens which also include septic arthritis causing microorganisms. This study focused on determining antimicrobial efficacies of methanol (A), ethylacetate (B) and hexane extracts (C) of the Yogaraja guggulu by measuring the zone of inhibition. In vitro antioxidant activities were also assayed by 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. Antimicrobial activity was tested against the pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococci bacteria; Pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida bombi, Candida utilis and Trichophyton rubrum. In these three extracts methanol extract (A) showed better zone of inhibition (19-50 mm) when compared with ethyl acetate (B) and hexane (C) (9-40 mm) and (9-45 mm) respectively, against the tested pathogens. DPPH antioxidant activity of all the three extracts showed potent radical scavenging activity in comparison with the positive control, ascorbic acid. The IC50 values are 424.89, 419.39, 413.60 and 394.56 ug/ml for A, B, C and ascorbic acid, respectively. The FRAP method also showed excellent antioxidant potential with methanol extract (A) (90.454 mg of Gallic acid equivalents/g) when compared with other extracts B (86.571 mg GAE/g) and C (82.472 mg GAE/g). In vivo Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA) of the methanol (A), ethyl acetate (B) and hexane extracts (C) of the Yogaraja guggulu and correlate cytotoxicity results with known pharmacological activities of the plants. Novel cytotoxic, antitumor compounds can be isolated from potential plant sources through the assessment of cytotoxic activity against brine shrimps. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of LC50 (lethality concentration). Ten nauplii were added into three replicates of each concentration of the test samples. After 24 hours the surviving brine shrimp larvae were counted and LC50 was assessed. Results showed that the extracts of methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts were potent against the brine shrimp with LC50 values of 55, 10, and 100 ppm (μg/mL), respectively. It indicated that bioactive components are present in these plants that could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. The results validate the potent use of against septic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and skin diseases. The results are an evidence for the existence of synergism among the compounds of different ingredients and validate the use of Yogaraja guggulu for various ailments.
P. Suman, K.Y. Ramkumar, Venkata Smitha P. and Hara Sreeramulu S.*
PG Department of Biotechnology, Dr. V.S. Krishna Govt. Autonomous College, Visakhapatnam-530013, Andhra Pradesh, India
29 November, 2014
24 March, 2015
21 May, 2015
01 July, 2015