MADHUCA INDICA: A REVIEW OF ITS MEDICINAL PROPERTYHTML Full Text
MADHUCA INDICA: A REVIEW OF ITS MEDICINAL PROPERTY
Pushpendra K. Patel*, Narendra K. Prajapati and B.K. Dubey
T.I.T. College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, Anand Nagar, Bhopal- 462 021, Madhya Pradesh, India
Medicines obtained from plant source are known as an herbal medicine, and the herbal medicine are one which make human healthy without causing any of harmful effect. Madhuca Indica is a plant of Indian origin having tremendous therapeutic potential but is not fully utilized. It is hidden from the eyes of the researchers and other botanist. Madhuca Indica has several pharmacological activity, and potential to provide health to the society. It is used as Anti diabetic, antiulcer, hepato protective, anti pyretic, anti fertility, analgesic, anti oxidant, swelling, inflammation, piles, emetic, dermatological, laxative, tonic, anti burn, anti earth worm, wound healing headache and many more problems. Here is a misconception about mahua tree that it is used as liquor and harmful for health, but this is what after the fermentation process, so the present review deals with the general and chemical profile of Madhuca Indica and its economic importance including medicinal and other uses, and tried to emphasize the most potent activity.
INTRODUCTION:The universal role of plants in the treatment of disease is exemplified by their employment in all the major system of medicine, irrespective of the underlying philosophical premise1.Plants are having a great importance to pharmaceutical industry, because these are rich source of drugs and a vast reservoir of chemical diversity for screening programs aimed at new drug discovery. Most of the drugs which are mention in the Indian medicinal system are from plant source 2. The duration of the mediaeval period is known as between 8th century to 18th century AD 3.
Screening programs which are based on the part of natural plant have achieved great success in identifying very useful chemical constituents such as anticancer agent like vinblastine and vincristine, some cardio protective drugs like digoxine or digitoxin 4. Plants have at one time supplied virtually all culture with food, clothing, shelter and medicine. Approximately 10 to 15 % of roughly 300,000 species of higher plants have been used in traditional medicine system from last several years, as they are flows from generation to generation 5. The Indian subcontinent is enriched by verity of flora, both aromatic and medicinal plants. This is due to the wide diversity of climatic condition available in India, ranging from deserts to swap lands. Numerous types of herbs have been well recognized and catalogued by botanist from the high ranges of Himalya 6.
The world health organization is now actively focusing his attention towards the developing countries to encourage them to use herbal medicine, which they have been traditionally, used for centuries. They have identified 3000 plants from forest of India 6. Herbal medicine can be defined as those products which are simply derived from the any part of plant 7. The most advantage of the herbal medicine is that they contain a wide variety of different component 8.India occupies the second place in the world for supplying the herbal and natural medicine of fine, pure and the best quality 9. Over the last few years, researchers have aimed at identifying and validating plant-derived substances for the treatment of various diseases. It is estimated that more than 25% of modern medicine is derived from the plants, means either their direct part is useful or their secondary metabolites are of prime importance 10-13. There are several other reasons for the adaptation of natural and traditional medicine, as these are useful without or less side effect and contra indication. The herbal medicine is not only used from recent time but it has been frequently used since the last thousands of years.
The knowledge of traditional medicine put the light on the discovery of new and potent medicine. The common difficulty that researchers and worker face with medicinal plant is about the purity of authentic information on the identity of the plant, its habit and the condition required for its collection and than its utilization as a medicinal plant 14.Another important thing about medicinal plant is prerequisites information for safety and efficacy must be known for address quality 15.
Madhuca Indica a plant of Indian origin having tremendous therapeutic and potential use but due to unawareness of people it is not fully utilized. It is hidden from the eyes of the researchers and other botanist. Mahua tree have a lot of pharmacological potency for treatment of several diseases. Madhuca Indica is a forest tree found in central and northern India and Malaysia. It is commonly observed in various parts of the Indian sub-continent, including Bangladesh. In the folk medicinal system of Bangladesh, various parts of the tree are used, namely whole young plants, leaves, stems, barks, roots, fruits, flowers, and seeds.
The different ailments treated with these parts include tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cholera, paralysis, snake-bite, debility, tonsillitis, influenza, piles, arthritic pain, helminthiasis, low semen count, headache, flatulency, and infections, besides being used as a blood purifier and as an antidote to poison. Two proto basic glycosides, namely madhucosides A and B have been isolated from the bark of this tree The two compounds showed significant inhibitory effects on both superoxide release from poly morph nuclear cells, and hypochlorous acid generation from neutrophils 16. The Mahua tree is approximately 20 meters in height, and possesses evergreen or semi-evergreen foliage. Mahua tree is generally valued for its seeds which have abundant amount of oil bearing capacity and flowers which are mostly used in the production of the alcoholic beverage and sweet candy. Spent flowers (after fermentation) are also used as animal feed. About 0.12 million tones seeds of Mahua tree are produced in India, after collecting it from different part of the country in organized sectors and utilized for oil extraction 17. The estimated production of Mahua flowers is more than one million tons in the country. The collection of Mahua flower and seed are encouraged by the state government of India, as they provide the basic support price for it, on the other way it is source of income for the poor people as they collect it and then sell it to the government agency or local buyer 18. With development of photochemical industries in India, domestic requirements for various medicinal plants grow considerably 19.
Local names: English (Indian butter tree), Hindi (Mahua, Mohwa, mauwa), Bangali (mahwa, Maul, Mahwla), Marathi (mahwa,Mohwra) Gujrati (madhuda, Telgu ( Ippa), Tamil ( Illupei, Ewpa), Kannad (tuppe) Malyalam ( poonam, Ilupa) Oriya ( mahula, moha, Madgn) 20
Habitat and Distribution: Our knowledge about the particular plant in our environment is far from complete. There are regions around the world where it is little difficult to categories or classify the plant 21. In India there is all type of climatic condition for better propagation and cultivation, which varies from hot to cold, humid to dry as we go in different part in India 22. The Madhuca Indica commonly known as Mahua is an important economic plant growing throughout the subtropical region of the indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Large numbers of Mahua trees are found in the state of Dehradun, Saharanpur, Chota Nagpur, Siwaliks, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, North circars, Deccan and Karnataka 18, 20, 23
Cultivation and Collection: This plant can be cultivated or self sown 23.Flowering of this medium sized tree take place during the season of March to April, in every years.
Botanical Description and Identification Features: A medium sized to large deciduous tree, usually with a short, hole and large rounded crown found throughout the green forest part of India up to an altitude of 1,200 meter and of 12 to 15 meter height, bark thick dark colored cracked, inner bark dark red, milk, trunk short, branches numerous 23. Leaves are 10-30 centimeter long, are thick and leathery most of leaves pointed at the tip, clustescent glabrred near end of branches, epileptic or elliptic oblong 7.5 to 23 cm into 3.8 to 11.5 cm. coriaceous pubeand when young almost. Flowers are small and fleshy, dull or pale white in color and in define fascicles near end of branches. Corolla tubular, freshly pale, yellow aromatic and caduceus 24. Fruits are 2-6 cm long, fleshy and greenish. Bark dark color, cracked 25.
Useful parts of plant: Every part of any plant posses some medicinal properties, either in small of large proportion. Different parts of a plant often contain a quit different active ingredients, so that one part may be toxic and another one quite harmless 26. The plant consist of several parts, they may be classified according to the function. They are root, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, oil.
FIGURE 1: SOME USEFUL PARTS OF MADHUCA INDICA 27
TABLE 1: PARTS VISE USE OF MADHUCA INDICA 25,28
|Part of Plant||Medicinal Properties|
|Leaf||Enzyma, Wound Healing, Anti Burns, Bone Fracture|
|Oil||Emollient, Skin Disease, Rheumatism, Headache, laxative, Piles, Hemorrhoids, Emetics, Anti Earth worm.|
|Fruit||Sweet, Refrigerant, Aphrodisic, Tonic, Dipsica, Bronchitis, Astringent, Anti Ulcer, Acute and Chronic Tonsillitis, Pharyngitis.|
|Bark||Rheumatism, Ulcer, Inflammation, Bleeding, Spongy Gums, Tonsillitis, Diabetic, Stomach Ache, Anti Snake Poisoning, Astringent, Emollient, Fracture, Itching.|
|Flower||Refrigerant, Liquor, Jelly, Sweet Syrup, Expectorant, Increase the production of milk in woman, Stimulant, Diuretics, Anthelmentic, Strangury, Verminosis, Hepatoprotective. Gastropathy.|
Phytochemical: The therapeutic value of the plant depends on the active constituents present inside the different part of the plant, which may be present in the small or large quantity 29. The secondary metabolites are the important substance responsible for the main medicinal properties in the crude drugs 22. The leaves of Mahua tree contain saponin, an alkaloid, and glucoside. Sapogenin and other basic acid are found in the seeds. Various Photochemical studies on Mahua include characterization of Sapogenin, triterpenoids, steroids, saponin, flavonoids and glycosides. In view of the aides and attributed medicinal properties new components including madhucic acid (penta cyclic triterpenoids), madhushazone, four new oleanane type triterpene glycosides and madhucosides A and B 20.
The fresh flower of Mahua contains 2 acetyl 1 pyrroline, the aroma molecule. They also contain polysacheride which on hydrolysis give D-galactose, D-glucose, L-araninose, L-rhamose,D- xylose and D-glucuronic acid 15. To estabililish the pharmacological activity of particular crude drug is known as the pharmacological screening, and it is important for prediction of activity 7.
TABLE 2: ACTIVE CONSTITUENT PRESENT IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF MADHUCA INDICA 25, 30, 23
|Bark||Flavonoids, Triterpene, Sterol|
|Latex||Soluble Resin, Insoluble Resin|
|Leaf||Moisture, Organic Matter, Minerals, Potas (K2O) Phosphoric Acid (P205) Silica, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Protobasic Acid.|
|Flower||Carotene, Ascobic Acid, Thiamine, Riboflavine, Niacine, Folic Acid, Biotine, Inositole.|
|Ripe Fruit||Moisture, Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, Minerals, Calcium, Phosphoras, iron, Carotine, Ascorbic Acid, Tannins.|
Nutritional and Medicinal Use: The Mahua tree is having lots of nutritional value in it. It produces fruit which is valued for its seed which yield high quantity of fat commercially known as Mahua butter or mowrah butter, many edible and medicinal applications and it is also used as a biodiesel 31. Its fat has been used as substitute for cocoa butter and ghee. It is one of the single largest sources of natural hard fat 32. The fat which is thus obtained from Mahua fruit oil is used in cooking, frying and manufacturing chocolates. The seed fat has emulsion property so it mostly used as an emulsifying agents in few pharmaceutical industries. It is generally applied as massage oil in many part of the country, as it is very good to moisturize skin.
Besides edible and medicinal uses, Mahua has industrial application as it can be utilized in the manufacture of laundry soaps and lubricants 33. Moreover, the seed cake is reported to have insecticidal and pesticide property and used as organic manure in crops like rice, sugarcane etc. The medicinal properties which are seen in this plant are stimulant, demulcent, emollient, heating. Skin disease, rheumatism, headache, laxative, piles, and sometimes as galactogogue astringent and many more 25.
Review of literature based on chemical composition of mahua flower reveals its high nutritional value. Apart from being a rich sours of sugar and protein, the flowers also contain essential minerals like Ca, p, Fe, and K. Calcium is a major component of the bone and assists in teeth development 34, 18 phosphorus is next in importance to calcium as utilization of Ca is closely related to it. Most of the Calcium in the body is deposited as the calcium Phosphate 35.
Traditional use: Although Mahua tree is easily found in the several part of India, it is not used as a food material. Mahua flower occupy an important position in the life of the tribal in many parts of India 36. Only a small quantity of flowers is consumed in a raw, cooked or fried formed in different parts of India. Major quantity of flowers is used in the preparation of the distilled liquors. The freshly prepared liquor has a strong, smoky foetid odor, which disappear on ageing 25.It is also seen that the pest of the Mahua tree bark is used to cure the fracture of bone. The most interested thing about the Mahua tree is that it has two fruits in different seasons; the seed oil is extracted from it and used in the several different purposes. The wood of mahua tree is also used in the house hold utility like door and window making.
Sugar syrup: There are several reports on preparation of sugar syrup from dry Mahua flowers, as its sweet property is utilized in the fermentation process 37, 38, 18. The water extract of dried flower is decolorized with different de colorizing agent like slacked lime and activated charcoal before concentrating it to the desired concentration. Activated charcoal at a concentration of 3.5-5% was found to be the best agent for the preparation of the Mahua sugar syrup 18. The syrup thus obtained from the flower of Mahua is employed in the different purpose, either in the manufacturing of chocolate or as a sweetening agent 25.
Industrial use: Recently, biodiesel has been receiving increasing attention due to its less polluting nature andbecause it is a renewable energy resource as against the conventional diesel, which is a fossil fuel leading to a potential exhaustion. Mostly, biodiesel is prepared from oils like soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, safflower, zetropa etc. throughout the world 39.
Renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils and fats obtained from the animal are the richest source of the production of the biodiesel. Research have been carried out from the last several years to produce the new source of diesel which provide the alternative of present fuel, and this is continues from about 100 years ago but interest lagged because of cheap and plentiful supplies of petroleum fuels. The reason for the utilization of natural or vegetable as a new source of fuel is present status of demand. There is a increasing graph of the demand of the oil as the no. of vehicle are increasing day by day and the pollution is also running along with the no. of vehicles, so one has to look forward to prepare the another alternative source of diesel.
Since the oil price increase of the 1970s, various alternative fuels have been investigated with the goal of replacing conventional petroleum supplies. The initial interest was mainly one of fuel supply security, but recently more attention has been focused on the use of renewable fuels in order to reduce the net production of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion sources 40.
Pharmacological profile: Madhuca Indica, belonging to the family Sapotaceae, is an important economic tree growing throughout India. Traditionally, Madhuca Indica bark has been used against diabetes, rheumatism, ulcers, bleeding and tonsillitis 41- 43.The flowers, seeds and seed oil of Madhuca have great medicinal value. Externally, the seed oil massage is very effective to alleviate pain. In skin diseases, the juice of flowers is rubbed for oleation. It is also beneficial as a nasya (nasal drops) in diseases of the head due to pitta, like sinusitis 42, 43. The Mahua have several pharmacological potency and it is being used from the tradition. Few of its Pharmacological use are as follows;
- Anti-inflammatory Activity: The reason of the generation of the swelling or inflammation is release of the various chemical mediators from the damaged cell like histamine and serotonin 44. Inflammation is a defensive mechanism of the body 45.The most important mechanism of anti-inflammatory drugs is considered to be inhibition of PG synthesis at the site of injury. The anti inflammatory potency of drugs is corresponds with their potency with to inhibit the COX 46. As more inhibition of COX means the anti inflammatory activity of that particular plant is more. The Madhuca Indica is found to be a good remedy for treatment of the inflammation, its aerial parts is utilized for the treatment of inflammation. The plant material (50 g) was extracted with 100 ml of methanol for 24 hrs using soxhlet apparatus. Thus, extract were filtered and concentrated under vacuum sounding apparatus for 30 min. when this solution was given to the male vistar rat which was already having inflammation showed a satisfactory result 47.Anti inflammatory effect can be measured as the percent inhibition of inflammation and calculated with reference to negative control 28.
Control - Treated
Percentage inhibition = x 100
FIG. 2: BIOSYNTHESIS AND METABOLISM OF PROSTAGLANDIN 48
- Analgesic activity: Analgesics are the agents that relieve the sensation of pain without disturbing consciousness or altering other afferent inputs 49. Analgesic activity was evaluated on the acetic acid induced writhing. The methanolic extract of Madhuca Indica was given orally to the group of 6 animals. The number of writhing during the following 30 min. period was observed after acetic acid injection. Anti analgesia is expressed as the reduction of the number of abdominal constriction between control animal and mice pretreated with the extract 47. In other words if the analgesic drug works the abdominal contraction will be the less in numbers. The analgesic activity of the Madhuca Indica can also be evaluated by the using other method of evaluation like tail flick method or hot plate method in rats 47, 50, 51. Significant reduction either in the reaction time hot plate, tail flick, gradient heat, abdominal constriction compared with vehicle treated animals was consider as anti nociceptive response 50.
- Antipyretic activity: Madhuca Indica is used to treat the fever in individual, as it is experimented in animals. About 5 groups of 6 rats each were injected subcutaneously with 10 ml kg -1 body weight. Firstly the animal are forced to fever by injecting the suspension of the yeast suspension, this will increase the body temperature of the experimental animal. After measuring the basal rectal temperature of each animal by a help of thermometer, about 19 Hr. after yeast injection, the rectal temperature was recorded again and animal showing a rise in temperature of <0.6ocwere discarded. Rectal temperature was then recorded at 20-24 hr after yeast injection. After some time interval it is found in the reduction in the rectal temperature of rat, which shows the antipyretic effect of Madhuca Indica 47.
- Anti-hyperglycemic Activity: The significant hypo-glycemic effects of Madhuca Indica bark in diabetic rats indicate that this effect canbe mediated by stimulation of glucose utilization byperipheral tissues. The results of the present study clearlyindicated the ethanolic extract of Madhuca Indica barkto have a hypoglycemic effect on STZ induced diabeticrats 52. In all groups except for glibencl amide, at 30 min of initiating glucose tolerance test, blood glucose concentration was higher than at zero time but decreased significantly from 30 min to 120 min. Methanolic extracts were enhancing glucose utilization, thus the blood glucose level was significantly decreased in glucose loaded rats 28, 43
% variation of glycaemia = x 100
Where Gi and Gt are the values of initial glycaemia (0hr) and glycamia at 1, 2 and 4 hr respectively.
Methanolic extract of Madhuca Indica have significantly decreased the serum glucose level in streptozotocin and STZ-NIC induced diabetic rats 53. The crude methanolic extract of Madhuca Indica leaves demonstrated dose-dependent reductions in serum glucose level following administration in glucose-loaded mice. The decreases in serum glucose levels were found to be significantly reduced at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg extract per kg body weight. At these doses, the extract reduced serum glucose levels 54, 55.
- Anti ulcer Activity: Gastro intestinal ulcer is a common disorder of gastrointestinal tract. It is now considered that gastrointestinal ulcer is a disease of multi factorial origin but its detailed etiology is still not clear 56. Ulcer is a result of the imbalance between the defensive and attacking factors in the GIT. An ulcer is a local defect or excavation of the upper part that is called surface of an organ or the tissue 57. Anti ulcer activity has been proved in Madhuca Indica plant while it is tested in the male vistar rat 28. To evaluate the anti ulcer activity of the Mahua tree, firstly the animal is forced to produce the ulcer by any of suitable method like stress induced ulcer or carrageen induced ulcer, and then the same is treated with the extract of the tested plant materials.
FIG. 3: POSSIBLE MODE OF ANTI ULCER ACTION OF MADHUCA INDICA 56
- Antioxidant Activity: Oxidative stress is produced during normal metabolic process in the body as well as induced by a Varity of environmental and chemical factor, which cause a generation of a various reactive free radical and subsequent change in DNA and lipids 56, 57. The reducing property of ethanolic bark extract of Madhuca Indica implies that it is capable of donating hydrogen atom in a dose dependent manner. The high content of phenolic compounds in the extract may be a contributing factor towards antioxidant activity because the phenol compounds are known to have direct antioxidant property due to the presence of hydroxyl groups, which can function as hydrogen donor. The reducing capacity of a compound may serve as a significant indicator of its potential antioxidant activity 52, 58.The anti oxidant potency of any drug depends upon the two mechanism, first to prevent the oxidation by oxidizing itself or second by creating a layer of protection over the material.
FIGURE 4: POSSIBLE MODE OF ACTION OF ANTIOXIDANT
- Anti fertility activity: The percentage of fertile male mice and the number of pregnancies were significantly reduced in atropine induced mice from control mice in present case there was complete reduction of fertility in male rat, number of pregnant females and number of litters in plant extract treated group. Among the plant based contraceptives, inhibition of male fertility after administration of natural substances has been related to decrease spermatozoa density .Also for male contraception, it is not necessary to stop spermatogenesis, but rather to eliminate the fertilizing ability of the spermatozoa by causing changes in the morphology or in the function of the sperm. The decrease in sperm count and the high number of morphologically abnormal sperms indicate interference with testicular spermatogenesis 59.
- Dermatological use: Due to the present atmospheric condition and pollution skin related problem are emerging day by day, and there are few synthetic lotion and cream are available for it, but they cause several other side effect like rashes and itching too. That’s why the use of medicinal or natural plant is much safer and convenient. The decoction of the bark is useful in itching and ulceration, the oil is obtained from the seed, which is useful in the several allergic disorders. It is also used as laxative 23.
- Hepatoprotective Activity: The methanol extracts of Madhuca Indica bark is studied for hepatoprotective activity against albino rats with liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). It was found that the methanol extract of Madhuca Indica bark at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight exhibited moderate protective effect by lowering the serum levels of Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum bilirubin and Serum alkaline phosphate (SALP) to a significant extent. Present finding demonstrated the methanolic bark extract of Madhuca Indica could afford significant dose-dependent protection against CCl4 induced hepato cellular injury 60.
- Antibacterial Activity: The flower has an antibacterial activity against the Escherichia coli and resist against rice pest disease 61.
- Antiepileptic Activity: The anticonvulsant activity of the methanol extract of heart wood of Madhuca longifolia was assessed in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) - induced convulsion in mice with benzodiazepine as standard drug. Mechanistic studies were conducted using flumazenil, a GABA-benzo-diazepine receptor complex site antagonist, and naloxone a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist. Madhuca longifolia at the dose of 400 mg/kg prolonged the onset time of seizure and decreased the duration of seizures compared to saline group 62.
- Anticancer Activity: In Ayuevedic system of medicine it is stated that the bark of Madhuca Indica is useful in the treatment of cancer at the local application 63.
- Toxicity: Like all word views, it is not entirely without foundation- the safety risk of herbal medicine is generally lower than most of the modern drug 64. A mixture of saponin isolated from Madhuca longifolia seed did not reveal any cholinergic activity, although it produced at a higher concentration. The saponin is extremely toxic when administered parentally 65. L.D. 50 by IP route was one of the same orders as that by the IV route, being 50 to 70 times higher than oral route 23.In the root of Madhuca Indica, maximum amount of phenol was observed i.e. 46.0 mg/gdw. These compounds play an important role in the precursor of toxic substance and role in the growth regulation and development of plants 47. It is also reported to have toxic chemical aflatoxine in Madhuca Indica seed oil 66. The quality control of herbal medicine should be strictly followed to avoid any harmful effect 67.
CONCLUSION: Plants are the important economical source of a number of well established drugs looking upon wide prospects and potential of Madhuca Indica for various purposes; it is worthwhile to cultivate this plant on large scale especially on unproductive and wasteland. This will help in financial full support of poor and landless families. Generally this plant Madhuca Indica is known only for its liquor making purpose, but one have to come forward to change the thinking of unaware people. The Mahua tree is hidden from the public eyes as its medicinal point of view.
As for the better potential, good quality of mahua tree should be cultivated through plant tissue culture by means of micro propagation. The research workers have to come along with the people of rulers’ area so they may have more and valuable knowledge. In coming next generation the importance of plant and mahua tree is going to be increase because of their effectiveness, easy availability, low cost and comparatively being devoid of toxic effect. Madhuca Indica has found several of pharmacological activity, yet several other activities have to be finding out.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: I am very thankful to my family for their support and encouragement; I am also thank full of my dear friends Jyoti Sahu, Bhupendra, Monika, Lokesh, for their cooperation and having trust on me during the work of my review.
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Pushpendra K. Patel*, Narendra K. Prajapati and B.K. Dubey
T.I.T. College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, Anand Nagar, Bhopal- 462 021, Madhya Pradesh, India
27 January, 2012
29 February, 2012
19 April, 2012
01 May, 2012