MEDICINAL PLANTS AS NATURAL ANTI-DIABETIC AGENTSHTML Full Text
Received on 17 October, 2013; received in revised form, 27 November, 2013; accepted, 03 February, 2014; published 01 March, 2014
MEDICINAL PLANTS AS NATURAL ANTI-DIABETIC AGENTS
Nishu Khera and Aruna Bhatia*
Immunology and Immunotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala-147 002, Punjab, India
ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a growing health concern worldwide and now emerging as an epidemic world over. The management of diabetes is still a major challenge. Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show anti-diabetic potential. Thus there is great demand for research on natural products with anti-diabetic properties. Numerous studies have confirmed the benefits of medicinal plants with anti-hyper-glycaemic effects in the management of diabetes mellitus. The present paper is an attempt to list of the plants with anti-diabetic and related beneficial effects originating from different parts of world. History showed that medicinal plants have been used in traditional healing around the world for a long time to treat diabetes; this is because such herbal plants have hypoglycemic properties and other beneficial properties, as reported in scientific literature. The review provides a starting pointfor future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive anti-diabetic compounds present in these plants.
Diabetes, Medicinal Plants, Anti-diabetic, Traditional medicine, WHO
INTRODUCTION:Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem worldwide entailing enormous financial burden and medical care policy issues 1. According to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the number of individuals with diabetes in 2011 crossed 366 million, with an estimated 4.6 million deaths each year 2. The Indian subcontinent has emerged as the capital of this diabetes epidemic.
The reported prevalence of diabetes in adults between the ages of 20 and 79 is as follows: India 8.31%, Bangladesh 9.85%, Nepal 3.03%, Sri Lanka 7.77%, and Pakistan 6.72% 3.
Indians show a significantly higher age-related prevalence of diabetes when compared with several other populations 4. For a given BMI, Asian Indians display a higher insulin level which is an indicator of peripheral insulin resistance. The insulin resistance in Indians is thought to be due to their higher body fat percentage 5, 6. Excess body fat, typical abdominal deposition pattern, low muscle mass, and racial predisposition may explain the prevalence of hyperinsulinemia and increased development of type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians.
Diabetes is characterized by metabolic dysregulation primarily of carbohydrate metabolism, manifested by hyper-glycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, impaired insulin action, or both 7. Uncontrolled diabetes leads to a plethora of complications affecting the vascular system, eyes, nerves, and kidneys leading to peripheral vascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, morbidity, and/or mortality.
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that poses a major challenge worldwide. Currently in India the number of people with diabetes is around 40.9 million and it is expected to rise to 69.9 million by 2025 8. India has emerged as the diabetic capital of the world 9. Unless urgent preventive steps are taken, it will become a major health problem. The Indian Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated 3.9 million deaths for the year 2010, which rep-resented 6.8% of the total global mortality 10.
Traditional anti-diabetic plants might provide new oral anti-diabetic compounds, which can counter the high cost and poor availability of the current medicines for many rural populations in developing countries 11. Plant drugs are frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic ones 12. In India, indigenous remedies have been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus since the time of Charaka and Sushruta (6th century BC) 13. The World Health Organization (WHO) has listed 21,000 plants which are used for medicinal purposes around the world. Among these, 2500 species are in India. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential 14. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs endowed with a wide diversity of agro-climatic conditions and is called as botanical garden of the world 15. Pharmacological and clinical trials of medicinal plants have shown anti-diabetic effects and repair of β-cells of islets of Langerhans 16.
Indian Medicinal Plants to Treat Diabetes: India has a rich history of using various potent herbs and herbal components for treating diabetes. Many Indian plants have been investigated for their beneficial use in different types of diabetes and ported in numerous scientific journals. This review article enumerates some medicinal plants belonging to different families possessing antidiabetic activity and elucidating their mechanisms of action such as Adhatoda zeylanica, Brassica juncea etc. Table 1 shows the information about scientific name, family, parts of the plant used to treat diabetes and their mode of action/Observation
TABLE 1: ANTI-DIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR MODE OF ACTION/OBSERVATION
|Botanical Name||Family||Partsused||Observation/ Mode of action|
|Adhatoda zeylanica 17||Acanthaceae||Leaf||Significant reduction in blood glucose level in alloxan induced Diabetic rats.|
|Adenia lobata 18||Passifloraceae||Stem||Significantly reduce the blood glucose level in STZ induced Diabetic rats.|
|Acacia tortilis 19||Mimosoideae||seed||Lowers serum glucose levels in normal and diabetic rats and significantly increases glucose tolerance in Alloxan- induced diabetic rats|
|Aloe vera 20||Liliaceae||Leaf||Shows Ant diabetic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats|
|Astragalus membranaceus 21||Fabaceae||PLSH. fraction||Shows hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides enriched extract in diet induced insulin resistant mice|
|Andrographis stenophylla 22||Acanthaceae||Leaf||Shows Hypoglycaemic Activity|
|Abutilon indicum 23||Malvaceae||Whole plant||Aqueous extract inhibits glucose absorption and stimulates insulin secretion in rodents.|
|Acosmium panamense 24||Fabaceae||Bark||Glucose lowering activity in streptozotocin diabetic rats|
|Acourtia thurberi 25||Asteraceae||Root||Reduces blood glucose in normal mice & Lowered hyperglycemia in rabbits|
|Aegle marmelos 26-28||Rutaceae||Fruit||Improve functional state of the pancreatic ss-cells and partially reversed the damage caused by STZ to the pancreatic Islets|
|Leaf||Modulates the activity of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants and enhances the defense against reactive oxygen species-generated damage in diabetic rats, Effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced by alloxan and produced a reduction in blood sugar.|
|Agarista Mexicana 29||Ericaceae||Stem||Hypoglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic mice|
|Aloe barbedensis 30||Liliaceae||Leaf||Significant decrease in serum glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols|
|Panax quinquefolius 31||Araliaceae||Root||Significant effects on fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance test|
|Anacardium occidentale 32||Anacardiaceae||Leaf||Significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in a dose dependent manner in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats|
|Anemarrhena asphodeloides 33||Asphodelaceae||Rhizome||Stimulates insulin secretion in islets of normal Wistar and diabetic GK rats.|
|Arachis hypogaea 34||Fabaceae||Nut||Hypoglycemic activity in normal and in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats|
|Artemisia pallens 35||Asteraceae||Aerial part||Blood glucose lowering effects in hyperglycaemic and alloxan induced diabetic rats|
|Artemisia judaica 36||Asteraceae||Whole plant||Significantly reduce the blood glucose level in diabetic rats.|
|Artemisia Afra 37||Asteraceae||Leaves||Hypoglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits|
|Annona squamosa 38, 39||Annonaceae||Root||Antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin induced- hyperglycemic Rats|
|leaf||Hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits|
|Azadirachta indica 40-42||Meliaceae||Fruit||Beneficial effects on blood glucose levels in Normoglycemic rabbits|
|leaf||Blood sugar lowering activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats|
|Seed||The whole oil and the acidic portion of oil shows very significant hypoglycaemic effect|
|Artocarpus heterophyllus 43||Moraceae||Leaf||Significant reduction in the F.B.S. conc. and a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in normoglycemic rats,|
|Beta vulgaris 44||Amaranthaceae||Rhizome||Reversed the effects of diabetes on blood glucose and tissue lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels.|
|Biophytum sensitivum 45||Oxalidaceae||Leaf||Significantly reduce the blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin level|
|Barleria lupulina 46||Acanthaceae||Aerial part||Reduction of blood glucose in streptozotocin hyperglycemic Rats|
|Bauhinia candicans 47||Fabaceae||Leaf||Hypoglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits|
|Bauhinia forficata48-49||Fabaceae||leaf||Shows hypoglycemic effect Reducing hyperglycemia as well as hyperlipidemia in alloxan- induced diabetic rats|
|Boerhavia diffusa 50||Nyctaginaceae||Leaf||Significant reduction in serum and tissue cholesterol, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and triglycerides in alloxan induced diabetic rats.|
|Berberis aristata 51||Berberidaceae||Root||Strong potential to regulate glucose homeostasis through decreased gluconeogenesis and oxidative stress.|
|Begonia malabarica 52||Begoniaceae||Stem||Reduction in fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels, increase inSerum insulin levels and liver glycogen levels|
|Benincasa hispida 53||Cucurbitaceae||Fruit||Improve the glucose level and metabolic derangements in lipid caused by alloxan induced diabetes in rats|
|Bougainvillea spectabilis 54||Nyctaginaceae||Bark||Sugar-lowering capacity streptozotocin induced diabetic albino rats|
|Brassica juncea 55||Brassicaceae||Seed||Significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats.|
|Brassica oleracea 56||Brassicaceae||Stem||Hypoglycaemic activity in alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats|
|Bryophyllum pinnatum 57||Crassulaceae||Leaf||Antidiabetic properties in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus|
|Butea monosperma 58||Fabaceae||Leaf||Significant hypoglycemic and anti-oxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic male adult mice|
|Caesalpinia bonducella 59||Caesalpiniaceae||Seed||Significant recovery in the activities of metabolic enzymes along with correction in FBG and glycogen carbohydrate levels|
|Calamintha officinalis 60||Lamiaceae||Aerial part||Hypoglycemic effect independently of insulin secretion in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats|
|Camellia sinensis 61||Theaceae||Leaf||Effective to reduce most of the diabetes associated abnormalities in a steptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats|
|Carica papaya 62||Caricaceae||Leaf||Exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect and also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats|
|Catharanthus roseus 63||Apocynaceae||Leaf||Lowering of plasma glucose and an increase in plasma insulin were observed|
|Caralluma attenuata 64||Asclepidaceae||Whole plant||Glucose lowering activity in both diabetic and normal rats|
|Cyanodon dactylon 65||Poaceae||Whole plant||Aqueous extract and non-polysaccharide fraction of Cyanodon dactylon shows Antidiabetic activity|
|Cichorium intybus 66||Asteraceae||Whole plant||Shows Antidiabetic Effect in STZ-Diabetic Rats|
|Cassia fistula 67||Fabaceae||Stem||Reduced serum blood glucose conc., induced favorable changes in body weight, improved transaminase activity.|
|Citrullus colocynthis 68, 69||Cucurbitaceae||Root||Significant reduction in blood sugar level, serum creatinine, serum urea and serum protein|
|Fruit||Significant reduction in F.B.S.,P.P.B.S. and glycosylated haemoglobin in clinical trial|
|Carthamus tinctorius 70||Asteraceae||Flower||Meaningful decrease in FBS, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C in diabetic rats|
|Carum carvi 71||Apiaceae||Seed||Caraway has both antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity|
|Cinnamomum tamala 72||Lauraceae||Oil||Significant reduction in blood glucose level liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and glycosylated hemoglob in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats|
|Coccinia indica 73||Cucurbitaceae||Fruit||Reduction of fasting blood sugar alloxan induced diabetic rats.|
|Costus speciosus 74||Costaceae||Root||Significantly decreased Plasma glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), increased plasma insulin & tissue glycogen.|
|Costus igneus 75||Costaceae||Leaf||Reduced the fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels, bringing them towards normal, in dexamethasone- induced hyperglycemia in rats.|
|Cogniauxia podolaena 76||Cucurbitaceae||Leaf||Hypoglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats|
|Cecropia pachystachya 77||Urticaceae||Leaf||Significant hypoglycemic effect with a blood glucose reduction & antioxidant activity|
|Coriandrum sativum 78||Apiaceae||Fruit||Reduced plasma glucose, insulin and IR, TC, LD L- cholesterol in obese-hyperglycemic-hyperlipidemic (OHH) Meriones shawi rats|
|Clerodendron Infortunatum 79||Verbenaceae||Leaf||Significantly reduced blood glucose levels SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase in STZ diabetic rats.|
|Cucumis trigonus 80||Cucurbitaceae||Fruit||Significant increase in the body weight, liver glycogen and serum insulin level and decrease in the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels.|
|Curcuma longa 81||Zingiberaceae||Rhizome||Significantly suppressed an increase in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic KK-A(y) mice|
|Cucurbita ficifolia 82||Cucurbitaceae||Fruit||Hypoglycemic action, improve GSH redox state, increasing glutathione pool|
|Cyamopsis tetragonoloba 83||Fabaceae||Bean||Antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats|
|Datura metel 84||Solanaceae||Seed||Blood glucose lowering effect in normoglycemic and in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats|
|Dillenia indica 85||Dilleniaceae||Leaf||Beneficial effect on blood glucose level and enhance serum insulin level|
|Dalbergia sissoo 86||Fabaceae||Bark||Significant reduction in blood glucose levels increase in glycogen content in liver of Alloxan-induced diabetic rats|
|Desmodium gangeticum 87||Fabaceae||aerial parts||Significant reduction in blood glucose & increase in insulin secretion from MIN6 cells grown as monolayers and as pseudo islets, indicating the antidiabetic activity|
|Diospyros peregrina 88||Ebenaceae||Fruit||Possess significant dose dependent hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity|
|Dioscorea alata 89||Dioscoriaceae||Tuber||Blood glucose level was reduced significantly and Serum lipid levels, total protein, albumin, and creatinine were reversed toward near normal|
|Dioscorea bulbifera 90||Dioscoriaceae||Bulb||Showed α-amylase inhibitory activity|
|Emblica officinalis 91||Euphorbiaceae||Leaf||Showed a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and increase insulin level as compared with the diabetic rats|
|Enicostemma littorale 92||Gentianaceae||Whole plant||Significant decrease in serum glucose and triglycerides|
|Equisetum myriochaetum 93||Equisetaceae||Aerial part||Showed Hypoglycemic activity|
|Eugenia jambolana 94||Myrtaceae||Seed||Showed dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats|
|Eugenia uniflora 95||Myrtaceae||Leaf||Inhibitory activities on increase plasma glucose level in sucrose tolerance test|
|Eucalyptus globulus 96||Myrtaceae||Leaf||Reduces the oxidative stress in alloxan-induced rat|
|Ficus glomerata 97||Moraceae||Leaf||Shows hypoglycaemic Activity in alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats|
|Ficus bengalensis 98||Moraceae||Aerial root||Hypoglycemic effect in normoglycemic and antidiabetic effect in sub- and mild-diabetic models|
|Ficus religiosa 99||Moraceae||Bark||Significant reduction in blood glucose levels glucose- loaded hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.|
|Ficus racemosa 100||Moraceae||Bark||Glucose lowering efficacy in alloxan induced diabetic rats|
|Ficus hispida101||Moraceae||Bark||Hypoglycemic activity in normal and diabetic rats|
|Ganoderma lucidum 102||Ganodermataceae||Fruiting bodies.||Body weights and serum insulin levels of the Gl-PS treated groups are significantly higher whereas FBG levels significantly are lower.|
|Ginkgo biloba 103||Ginkoaceae||Root||Antihyperglycaemic, antioxidant & antihyperlipidemia activities in STZ-induced chronic diabetic rats|
|Garuga pinnata 104||Burseraceae||Bark||Significant increase in the liver glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels|
|Gymnema sylvestre 105||Asclepiadaceae||Leaf||Significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, cholesterol and serum triglyceride content|
|Helicteres isora 106, 107||Sterculiaceae||Fruit||Exhibit significant antioxidant activity and moderate antidiabetic activity|
|Hemidesmus indicus 108||Asclepiadaceae||Root||Decrease blood glucose level significantly and restored serum electrolytes, glycolytic enzymes and hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent enzyme systems|
|Indigofera tinctoria 109||Fabaceae||Leaf||Significant decrease in blood glucose level of rabbits as estimated by Folin-Wu Method.|
|Ipomoea aquatic 110||Convolvaceae||Leaf||Reduces the fasting blood sugar level of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats|
|Inula racemosa 111||Asteraceae||Root||Significant decrease in blood glucose levels,super oxide dismutase and glutathione|
|Juglans regia 112||Juglandaceae||Leaf||Significant reduction of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides|
|Jatropha curcas 113||Euphorbiaceae||Leaf||Significant reduction in blood glucose level in alloxan induced diabetic rats.|
|Kigelia pinnata 114||Bignoniaceae||Flower||Significantly reduced blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels|
|Leucas lavandulaefolia 115||Lamiaceae||Whole plant||Significant and consistent hypoglycemic effects in Alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats|
|Loranthus micranthus 116||Loranthaceae||Leaf||Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycaemic activity|
|Luffa acutangula 117||Cucurbitaceae||Seed||Significantly reduced fasting blood sugar of diabetic rats in a dose-related manner, with Streptozotocin maximum hypoglycemic effect at/after 21 days|
|Luffa cylindrical 118||Cucurbitaceae||Fruit||Shows promising antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats.|
|Malmea depressa 119||Annonaceae||Root||Hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin diabetic rats|
|Mangifera indica 120||Anacardiaceae||Leaf Kernel||Significantly increased insulin level at the dose level of 100, 200 mg/kg in alloxan induced diabetic rats.|
|Momordica charantia 121||Cucurbitaceae||Fruit||Isolated compounds, bitter gourd extract, juices and powders have demonstrated potential in lowering blood sugar|
|Merremia emarginata 122||Convulvulaceae||Whole plant||Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes such as hexokinase were significantly increased whereas G-6-P, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase were significantly decreased in diabetic rats.|
|Morinda citrifolia 123||Rubiaceae||Fruit||Gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate C kinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P), were significantly inhibited|
|Morus alba 124||Moraceae||Root bark||Hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats|
|Moringa oleifera 125||Moringaceae||Leaf||FBG and PPG levels were reduced whereas, total protein,body weight and haemoglobin were increased|
|Murraya koenigii 126||Rutaceae||Leaf||Increases plasma insulin level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats|
|Merremia tridentate 127||Convulvulaceae||Root||Significant increase in serum insulin, body weight and glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle of STZ- induced diabetic rats|
|Musa sapientum 128||Musaceae||Flower||Antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan diabetic rats|
|Mucuna pruriens 129||Fabaceae||Seed||Hypoglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.|
|Ocimum sanctum 130,131||Labiatae||Leaf||Restored the depressed hepatic glycogen levels possibly by increasing the level of insulin|
|Aerial part||Found potent ant diabetic by ameliorating glucose and lipid parameters|
|Origanum vulgare 132||Lamiaceae||Leaf||Antihyperglycemic activity in STZ diabetic rats without affecting insulin secretion|
|Otostegia persica 133||Labiateae||Whole plant||Shows ant diabetic effects on STZ diabetic rats.|
|Paspalum scrobiculatum 134||Poaceae||Grain||Significant increase in serum insulin level, liver glycogen and a significant decrease in glycated haemoglobin levels|
|Phoenix dactylifera 135||Arecaceae||Leaf||Significantly reduced blood glucose &Plasma insulin level increased in alloxan-induced diabetic rats|
|Plectranthus amboinicus 136||Lamiaceae||Leaf||Significant reduction in blood glucose, possesses hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects mediated through the restoration of the functions of pancreatic and insulinotropic effect.tissues|
|Pterocarpus santalinus 137||Fabaceae||Bark||Significant antidiabetic activity by reducing the elevatedblood glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin, improving hyperlipidemia and restoring the insulin levels in treated experimental induced diabetic rats|
|Punica granatum 138, 139||Punicaceae||Rind||Showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits.|
|Phyllanthus niruri 140||Euphorbiaceae||Leaf||Significant increase in glycogen content in the liver, cardiac, and skeletal muscle and reduced intestinal glucose absorption.|
|Pandanus fascicularis 141||Pandanaceae||Leaf||Reduces the levels of plasma glucose|
|Arieal root||Significant dose-dependent reduction in serum glucose in both normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rats and also improved glucose tolerance test|
|Psidium guajava 142||Myrtaceae||Leaf||Increase the plasma insulin level and glucose utilization in diabetic rats|
|Pterocarpus marsupium 143||Fabaceae||Bark||Exhibits significant antidiabetic activity and corrects the metabolic alterations in diabetic rats and this activity may resemble insulin-like properties.|
|Potentilla fulgens 144||Rosaceae||Root||Hypoglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice|
|Pongamia pinnata 145||Fabaceae||Leaf||Decreased the blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats|
|Panax ginseng 146||Araliaceae||Root, Berry||Antidiabetic and antihyperglycemic activity|
|Retama raetam 147||Fabaceae||Flower||Hypoglycaemic activity in normal and diabetic rats|
|Rehmannia glutinosa 148||Scrophulariaceae||Root||Hypoglycemic activity in glucose-induced hyperglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetc rats|
|Rubus fructicosis 149||Rosaceae||Leaf||Hypoglycemic activity in streptozotocin diabetic rats|
|Salacia Oblonga 150||Celastaceae||Root||Serum insulin was significantly increased & PlasmaHbA1c was significantly decreased|
|Salmalia malabarica 151||Bombacaceae||Sepal||A significant reduction of FBG level in STZ-induced Diabetic rat.|
|Salvia officinalis 152||Lamiaceae||Leaf||Hypoglycaemic effect on streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemic rats|
|Sclerocarya birea 153||Anacardiaceae||Stem, bark||Hypoglycemic activity in normal and in alloxan induced diabetic rats|
|Santalum album 154||Santalaceae||Heart wood||Santalum album pet ether fraction has potential antihyperlipidemic activity that can help in overcoming insulin resistance|
|Scoparia dulcis 155||Scrophulariaceae||Whole plant||Significant increase in plasma insulin levels, evoked two- fold stimulation of insulin secretion from isolated islets, indicating its insulin secretagogue activity|
|Sida tiagii 156||Malvaceae||Fruit||Significant improvement in blood glucose level, glycated hemoglobin and liver glycogen contents|
|Silybum marianum 157||Asteraceae||Aerial part||Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity in normal and STZ diabetic rats without affecting insulin secretion|
|Sizygium cumini 158||Myrtaceae||Bark||Significantly decreased the blood glucose, effect exerted by the extract was greater than that of glibenclamide.|
|Syzygium cordatum 159||Myrtaceae||Leaf||Short-term hypoglycaemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats|
|Stereospermum suaveolens 160||Bignoniaceae||Bark||Significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen|
|Stevia rebaudiana 161||Asteraceae||Leaf||Significant decrease in the blood glucose level, without producing condition of hypoglycemia|
|Swietenia macrophylla 162||Meliaceae||Seed||Significantly reduced blood glucose levels after 45 days of treatment in STZ-diabetic rats.|
|Symplocos cochinchinensis 163||Symplocaceae||Leaf||Significant reduction in plasma insulin, plasma and hepatic total cholesterol and a significant increase in liver glycogen were observed in treated diabetic rats.|
|Tamarindus indica 164||Fabaceae||Seed||Antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats|
|Terminalia arjuna 165||Combretaceae||Leaf||Demonstrated remarkable antihyperglycemic activity inSTZ- induced diabetic rats|
|Terminalia belerica 166||Combretaceae||Fruit||Lower the serum glucose level in alloxan diabetic rats|
|Terminalia chebula 167||Combretaceae||Fruit||Significantly reduced the elevated blood glucose and elevated glycosylated hemoglobin|
|Toddalia asiatica 168||Rutaceae||Leaf||Significant decrease in blood glucose, plasma enzymes(SGOT, SGPT and ALP) and significant increase in body weight, total protein, serum insulin and liver glycogenlevels in treated diabetic rats|
|Terminalia paniculata 169||Combretaceae||Bark||Significantly reduced elevated blood glucose, HbA1c, creatinine, urea, SGPT and SGOT levels|
|Tetrapleura tetraptera 170||Fabaceae||Fruit||Hypoglycemic activity|
|Tectona grandis 171||Lamiaceae||Flower||Shows antidiabetic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats|
|Tinospora cardifolia 172||Meninspermaceae||Stem||prevented the rise in glucose levels by 21.3%, insulin by51.5%, triglycerides by 54.12% and glucose-insulin index by 59.8% of the fructose fed rats|
|Meninspermaceae||Seed powder||Reversed the hyperglycemia induced changes to normal levels in diabetic rat brain.|
|Tridax procumbens 174||Asteraceae||Leaf||Shows antidiabetic activity|
|Vernonia colorata 175||Composeae||Leaf||Antidiabetic activity in normoglycaemic and alloxan- induced diabetic rats|
|Vinca rosea 176||Apocyanaceae||Whole plant||Shows antidiabetic activity in Alloxan diabetic rats.|
|Viscum album 177||Viscaceae||Leaf, stem||Shows anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects inSTZ- diabetic rats|
|Withania coagulans 178||Solanaceae||Fruit||Activities of glucokinase and phosphofructokinase were significantly increased ,whereas glucose-6- phosphatase activity was significantly decreased|
|Withania somnifera 179||Solanaceae||Root, Leaf||Possess hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats.|
|Woodfordia fruticosa 180||Lythracea||Flower||Possess hypoglycaemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) mice|
|Zingiber officinale 181||Zingiberaceae||Rhizome||Reduced fasting blood glucose, increased serum insulin level and also enhanced insulin sensitivity in alloxan- induced diabetic and insulin resistant diabetic rats|
|Zizyphus spina-christi 182||Rhamnaceae||Leaf||Antidiabetic activity|
|Zizyphus jujube 183||Rhamnaceae||Leaf||Significantly reduced fasting serum glucose level and increase serum insulin level|
CONCLUSION: This review discussed medicinal plant species from India and showed that they have anti-diabetic activity. In addition, many of these species have a phenolic content, phytosterols, saponins and flavonoids. However, an overall ranking of the anti-diabetic strength of these species cannot be determined because of the different experimental methods used in various studies. We have focused on plants belonging to several different families to understand their therapeutic use and their potential anti-diabetic activities. It requires biological testing of plant extracts, isolation of bioactive components, as well as toxicological, pharmacodynamical and, ultimately, clinical studies.
Indian medicinal preparations are often considered being effective due to a mixture of active ingredients rather than a single constituent. To make herbal therapies more effective, it is pertinent to isolate anti-diabetic molecules, define their targets for understanding their modes of action, and establish structure and function relationship for better efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile. Prevention of diabetes is our most powerful intervention and successful implementation of these proven strategies should be the focus of our efforts. In future, these efforts will lead to new chemo-types which will be safer and more cost-effective for the rural Indian population suffering from diabetes, whose numbers are increasing linearly.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The financial aid to the department in the form of FIST grant for the purchase of instruments by DST, Govt. of India is fully acknowledged.
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How to cite this article:
Khera N and Bhatia A: Medicinal plants as Natural Anti-diabetic agents. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014; 5(3): 713-29.doi: 15.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.5(3).713-29
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Nishu Khera and Aruna Bhatia*
Immunology and Immunotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala-147 002, Punjab, India
17 October, 2013
27 November, 2013
03 February, 2014
01 January, 2014