MEDICINAL PLANTS – FROM TRADITIONAL USE TO TOXICITY ASSESSMENT: A REVIEWHTML Full Text
MEDICINAL PLANTS - FROM TRADITIONAL USE TO TOXICITY ASSESSMENT: A REVIEW
S. Chanda 1*, J. Parekh 1, Y. Vaghasiya 1, R. Dave 1, Y. Baravalia 2 and R. Nair 1
Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Microbiological Laboratory 1, Department of Biosciences, (UGC-CAS), Department of Biochemistry 2, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360005, Gujarat, India
ABSTRACT: Herbal medicine is gaining popularity once again and there is an increased interest in green medicine simply because it is considered as safe. Traditionally also plants and plant extracts were used to cure many diseases and disorders. However, before usage it is of utmost important to ensure its safety. The extract may be therapeutically very efficient but if it’s toxicity assessment is not worked out, it will not be accepted. Hence, toxicity assessment of plants with proven therapeutic use is of utmost important. Toxicity data are required to predict the safety associated before the use of medical products. In the present review, parameters required to be analyzed in acute, sub acute and chronic toxicity are discussed with their relevant importance. In the end ninty eight plants whose toxicity is worked out are listed along with their botanical name, family, ethnomedicinal uses, part used, solvent used, safety levels, dose levels used, route of administration, LD50 values and references. Researchers who wish to work on some pharmacological activity can directly choose one of these plants since their toxicity assessment is already done.
Acute toxicity, Chronic toxicity, Hematological parameters, serum biochemical parameters, Gross behaviour
INTRODUCTION: Medicinal plants from time immemorial have been used in virtually all cultures as a source of medicine 1. They are considered to be the backbone of traditional medicine and are widely used to treat acute and chronic diseases. The World Health Organization estimated that perhaps eighty percent of the inhabitants of the world rely chiefly on traditional medicines. It, therefore, approved the use of herbal products for national policies and drug regulatory measures in order to strengthen research and evaluation of the safety and efficacy of herbal products
The report has suggested that of the 119 plant derived drug listed by WHO study, 74% were discovered as a result of chemical studies to isolate the active compounds responsible for the use of original plant in traditional medicine 2. The use of plants for healing purpose is getting increasingly popular as they are believed to be beneficial and free of side effects.
However, the rationale for the utilization of medicinal plants has rested largely on long-term clinical experience with little or no scientific data on their efficacy and safety 3. Medicinal herbs have their use as medicament based simply on a traditional folk use that has been perpetuated along several generations. With the upsurge in the use of herbal medicines a thorough scientific investigation of these plants is imperative, based on the need to validate their folkloric usage 4. Herbs are supposed to be safe but many unsafe and fatal side effects have been reported 5, 6. These could be direct toxic effects, allergic reactions, effects from contaminants and/or interactions with drugs and other herbs 7. Phytotherapeutic products are many times, mistakenly regarded as less toxic because they are ‘natural’ 8. Nevertheless, those products contain bioactive principles with potential to cause adverse effects 9.
An adverse effect is defined as an abnormal, undesirable or harmful change following exposure to the potentially toxic substance. The ultimate adverse effect is death but less severe adverse effects may include altered food consumption, altered body and organ weights, visible pathological changes or simply altered enzyme levels 10. Thus, all the “natural” products used in therapeutics must be submitted to efficacy and safety test by the same methods used for new synthetics drugs 11.
Toxicology is the fundamental science of poisons. A poison is generally considered to be any substance that can cause severe injury or death as a result of a physicochemical interaction with living tissue. However, all substances are potential poisons since all of them can cause injury or death following excessive exposure. On the other hand, all chemicals can be used safely if exposure of people or susceptible organisms to chemicals is kept below defined tolerable limits 10. Appropriate dose of a drug should be determined by preliminary studies of acute toxicity. Such studies are essential to prevent any overdose of drug which may interfere with results of experiment.
The lethal dose (LD50) is defined as the dosage of a substance which kills 50 per cent of the animals in a particular group, usually determined in an acute, single exposure study. There are three major sites for the absorption of foreign compounds: the skin, lungs and gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal tract is the most important in toxicology as most foreign compounds are ingested orally.
The lungs are clearly important for all airborne compounds whereas the skin is only rarely a significant site for absorption 12. They are also helpful in understanding toxicity profiles of the drug 13. The multiple dose study with a drug is also necessary. But, in order to choose the doses to be used in the study, the clinical observation of the acute assay is important along with pharmacological activity studies in animals and in humans 14, 15. Daily clinical observation is of major importance as well as the final observation 16. The doses to be evaluated in chronic toxicity in animals must be larger than that suggested for use in humans 17.
Toxicological studies help to decide whether a new drug should be adopted for clinical use or not 18. Depending on the duration of exposure of animals to drug, toxicological studies may be of three types viz. acute, sub-acute and chronic 19. Toxicity depends not only on the dose of the substance but also on the toxic properties of the substance. The relationship between these two factors is important in the assessment of therapeutic dosage in pharmacology and herbalism 20.
For clinical trials designed to study pharmacologic effects of candidate products, more extensive preclinical safety data would be needed to support the safety of such studies. The critical preclinical information required includes a two week toxicology study in sensitive species (usually rodents) plus toxicokinetics that should allow determination of the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). For some compounds and types of toxic effect there will clearly be a dose below which no effect or response is measurable. There is thus a threshold dose. The concept of a threshold dose for the toxic effect is an important one in toxicology because it implies that there is a NOAEL. The NOAEL is usually based on animal toxicity studies. The NOAEL is important for setting exposure limits. For example, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) is based on the NOAEL. This is a factor used to determine the safe intake for food additives and contaminants such as pesticides and residues of veterinary drugs and, hence, to establish the safe level in food 12.
Acute toxicity is defined as the toxic effects produced by single exposure of drugs by any route for a short period of time 21. Acute toxicity studies in animals are considered necessary for any pharmaceutical intended for human use. The main objective of acute toxicity studies is to identify a single dose causing major adverse effects or life threatening toxicity, which often involves an estimation of the minimum dose causing lethality. The studies are usually carried out in rodents and consist of a single dose. In pharmaceutical drug development, this is the only study type where lethality or life-threatening toxicity is an endpoint as documented in current regulatory guidelines 22, 23. To evaluate toxicity of a compound in animals various routes may be used, but two most commonly used modes of administration for animals studies are via intraperitoneal injection or the oral route 24.
Usually acute (single dose) toxicity study is carried out on laboratory animals by using high dose (sufficient to produce death or morbidity) of the substance in question and/or based on previous report on its toxicity or toxicity of structurally related compounds 25. Acute toxicity studies are commonly used to determine LD50 of drug or chemicals 19. The acute study provides a guideline for selecting doses for the sub-acute and chronic low dose study, which may be clinically more relevant 26, 27.
In sub-acute toxicity studies, repeated doses of drug are given in sub-lethal quantity for a period of 14 to 21 days. Sub-acute toxicity studies are used to determine effect of drug on biochemical and hematological parameters of blood as well as to determine histopathological changes 19.
In chronic toxicity studies, drug is given in different doses for a period of 90 days to over a year to determine carcinogenic and mutagenic potential of drug 19. The parameters of chronic toxicity studies are same as that of sub-acute study. Multiple dose studies are necessary to assure the safety of natural products.
On the other hand clinical observations of acute assays are valuable tools to define the doses to be tested in multiple dose experiments, along with pharmacological studies in animals and in humans 27, 28.
Importance of different parameters in toxicity study:
Gross behaviour assessment:
The gross behaviour assessment generally in mice can be evaluated by the model given by Morpugo 29. The mice are placed one by one at the centre of three concentric circles drawn on a rubber sheet with diameter of 7cm, 14cm and 21cm. The animals are observed for different parameters of behavioural changes. After drug administration, the behaviour modifications were observed every hour till 5h and then at 24h, 48h and 72h. The mortality is observed for 10days after treatment. The observed results are recorded as the score of 0-3 point scale relative to the average intensity of the phenomena observed. Various parameters assessed for gross behaviour studies are CNS depression (Exitus, Hypoactivity, Passivity, Relaxation Narcosis, Ataxia, Ptosis); ANS effect (Exophthalmia, Hyperactivity, Irritability, Stereotypy) and CNS stimulation parameters (Tremors, Convulsions, Straub tail, Analgesia) and other Parameter- Mortality.
Body weight changes are indicators of adverse side effects, as the animals that survive cannot lose more than 10% of the initial body weight 30. The determination of food and water consumption are important in the study of safety of a natural product, as proper intake of food and water are necessary to the physiological status of the animals and to the achievement of the proper response to the drug tested instead of a “false” response due to improper nutritional conditions 31.
The hematopoietic system is one of the most sensitive targets for toxic compounds and an important index of physiological and pathological status in man and animal 32. The various hematological parameters investigated in this study are useful indices of evaluating the toxicity of plant extract in animals 33. Assessment of hematological parameters are not only used to determine the extent of deleterious effect of extracts on the blood of animals, but it can also be used to explain blood relating functions of a plant extract or its products 34.
Hematological status is one of the important ways for the diagnosis of root cause of disease. Hematological disorders include a wide range of abnormal conditions indicating the profile of blood parameters, due to changes in metabolism. Alterations in blood parameters may be due to changes in cellular integrity, membrane permeability of cells or even due to exposure to toxic chemicals 35. Reports regarding toxicological studies of plants on hematological aspects are scanty. However, some reports are available viz. 36, 37. In hematological analysis the following parameters are measured: Red blood cells, Haemoglobin, Packed cell volume, Mean corpuscular volume, Mean corpuscular haemoglobin, Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, Platelet Count, White blood cells, Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils, Monocytes and Basophils.
Each parameter has its own importance and increase or decrease in that particular parameter is indicative of specific disturbance. The fall in hemoglobin content, RBC count and PCV can be correlated with induction of anaemia, defective haematopoiesis, weakness and morbidity in experimental rats 38. The increase in MCV and decrease in MCHC indicate macrocytic and hypochromic anemia 39. WBC and its subpopulations relating to it such as lymphocytes usually show increase in activity in response to toxic environment 40.
The reduction in lymphocyte count and increase neutrophils count suggest some anti-lymphocytic activity 41. Eosinophils normally constitute up to 7% of total circulating leukocytes. Eosinophils are important in the phagocytosis of foreign bodies. Eosinophils are also involved in allergic reactions 42. Platelets also known as thrombocytes, help to mediate blood clotting, which is a meshwork of fibrin fibres. The fibres also adhere to damaged blood vessels; therefore, the blood clot becomes adherent to any vascular opening and thus prevents further blood clot 43.
Organ weight changes have long been accepted as a sensitive indicator of chemically induced changes to organs and in toxicological experiments, comparison of organ weights between control and treated groups have conventionally been used to predict toxic effect of a test material 44, 45. Organ weight is an index of swelling, atrophy or hypertrophy 46. The relative organ weight is fundamental to diagnose whether the organ was exposed to the injury or not. The heart, liver, kidneys, spleen and lungs are the primary organs affected by metabolic reactions caused by toxicants. The liver is the major site of foreign compounds metabolism in the body 47.
In preclinical safety studies of new compounds, organ weight changes are often difficult to interpret in relation to primary compound effects when reductions in food consumption are also present. By gaining a better understanding of tissue changes caused solely by feed restriction, it may be possible to differentiate direct compound effects from those of inadequate nutrition. Various studies have yielded information about the effects of inadequate nutrition on body weights, organ weights, histologic tissue changes, and clinical pathology data in rats 48, 49.
On a body weight basis, it is assumed for toxicity data extrapolation that humans are usually about 10 times more sensitive than rodents. On a body surface–area basis, humans usually show about the same sensitivity as test mammals, i.e. the same dose per unit of body surface area will give the same given defined effect, in about the same percentage of the population. Knowing the above relationships, it is possible to estimate the exposure to a chemical that humans should be able to tolerate 50. Body weight and internal organ such as liver, kidney, heart spleen, thymus glands, etc. are simple and sensitive indices of toxicity after exposure to toxic substance 30. Toxicity data are required to predict the safety associated before the use of medical products 51.
Serum biochemical importance:
The serum biochemical tests are frequently used in diagnosis diseases of hearts, liver, kidney and cardiovascular system etc. They are also widely used in monitoring the response to exogenous toxic exposure 52. When an herbal product is ingested, the body interacts with it in an attempt to get rid of any harmful toxins, especially if the body cannot convert the foreign substance into cellular components. These insults are commonly manifested by changes in enzyme levels and other cell components. The enzymes commonly involved are glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST/GOT) glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT/GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Also component like urea and uric acid are vital diagnostic tools for toxicity 53. Generally, liver cell damage is characterized by a rise in serum enzymes like AST, ALT, ALP, etc. 54. In general, GOT concentrations are consistently higher than ALT levels which are expected since body cells contain more AST than ALT. Usually, about 80% of AST is found in the mitochondria whereas ALT is purely cytosolic enzyme.
Therefore, AST appears in higher concentrations in a number of tissues (Liver, Kidney, heart and pancreas) and is released slowly in comparison to ALT. But since ALT is localized primarily in the cytosol of hepatocytes, this enzyme is considered a more sensitive marker of hepatocellular damage than AST and within limits can provide a quantitative assessment of the degree of damage sustained by the liver 55. The urea and creatinine are good indicatiors for renal function. If kidney function falls, the urea and creatinine levels will rise 52.
Total protein measurement is used in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases involving the liver or kidney as well as other metabolic disorders. A decrease in albumin level has been attributed to several causes, such as massive necrosis of the liver, deterioration of liver function, hepatic resistance to insulin and glycogen impairment of oxidative phosphorylation 56. Urea and creatinine are compounds derived from proteins which are eliminated by the kidney.
Table 1 lists some of the plants which show ethnomedicinal uses with botanical name, plant family, plant part (s) used and solvent used for extraction. Table 1 also provides information on toxicity study, route of administration and doses of plants. It lists toxicity studies viz. acute, sub-acute, chronic etc. with their doses, route of administration and LD50 values along with their safety profile. Determination of appropriate dose is a very important issue in the study of plant extracts. Therefore, before starting the study on plants, researchers should determine the dose of extract by referring the previous toxicity trials or do the toxicity workup by themselves.
In the above review, it is seen that in acute toxicity study, the dose is single but observations are carried out for 14 days, but it varied from 24 h to 19 days. In repeated dose studies, the dose is given daily or on alternate days. If done for 21-28 days it was called sub-acute toxicity study if continued for more days up to 90 days or more it was called chronic or sub-chronic toxicity study. The table also lists a number of plants and its toxicity profile so it becomes easy to carry out further work. It also helps in dose and route selection. The most common route was oral or i.p. Such review helps in knowing the toxicity level of different plants. If any pharmacological activity is done or to be done, this toxicity data will help to decide if that particular plant is safe or not.
TABLE 1: LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANTS, THEIR FAMILY, ETHNOMEDICINAL USES, PARTS AND SOLVENTS USED, TOXICITY STUDY, ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION, DOSE LEVELS USED AND ITS SAFETY LEVEL
|No.||Plants (family)||Ethnomedicinal uses||Parts used||Solvent||LD50 (g/kg) b.w. (route of administration)||Toxicity study (experimental periods), Dose (g/kg, b.w.) and route of administration||Result||Ref.|
|1.||Acacia karroo Hayne (Fabaceae)||Gum is an important food source||Stem, bark||Water||-||Acute (48 h) 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 (p.o.) Sub acute (14 days) 0.8 (p.o.)||Toxic||57|
|2.||Acmela brasiliensis DC (Asteraceae)||Respiratory infections and pain||Aerial parts||50% ET||-||Acute (24 h) 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 (p.o.),
Sub acute (15 days) 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 (p.o.)
|3.||Aconium napeilus Linn. (Ranunculaceae)||Pain, coldness, vertigo and general fatigue||Isolated alkaloid Aconitine||-||-||Chronic (22 days) 1 (p.o.)||Safe||59|
|4.||Aframomum melegueta (Roscoe) K. Schum. (Zingiberaceae)||Stomachache, diarrhea and snakebite||Seeds||95% ET||-||Sub chronic (28 days) 0.12, 0.45 and 1.5||Toxic (liver)||60|
|5.||Ajuga iva (L.) schreber (Labiatea)||Hyper tension, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and anthelmintic||Whole plant||Water||3.6 (i.p.)||Acute (14 days) 2, 4, 6, 10 and 14 (p.o.) 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5 and 5.5 (i.p.) Chronic (90 days) 0.1, 0.3, 0.6||Safe (p.o.)
|6.||Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae)||Gastrointestinal disorders, mouth ulcer, throat problems and hypertension||Leaves||70% ET||> 2||Acute (14 days) 2 (p.o) Sub acute (30 days) 0.40, 0.70, 1 (p.o)||Moderate toxicity||62|
|7.||Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae)||Diabetes mellitus and inflammation||Leaves||HE||16 (p.o.)||Acute (7 days) 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 (p.o.) Chronic (56 days) 6, 10 and 14||Toxic at high dose (chronic)||63|
|8.||Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae)||Helminthosis, schistosomiasis, leprosy, diarrhea and psoriasis||Leaves||Water||1.4 (i.p.)||Acute 72 h for p.o. and 24 h for i.p. 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2, 2.4, 2.8 (p.o. and i.p.)||Safe (oral) and low toxic (i.P.)||64|
|9.||Artemisia afra (Jacq. Ex. Willd) (Asteraceae)||Cough, colds, sore throat, heart burns, hemorrhoids, fever, malaria, asthma and diabetes mellitus||Leaves||Water||8.96 (p.o.) and 2.45 (i.p.)||Acute (14 days) 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 (p.o.) 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 (i.p.) Chronic (3 months) 0.01, 0.1, 1 (p.o.)||Safe||65|
|10.||Asiasari radix (Aristolochiaceae)||Neuroprotective||Whole plant||70% ME||-||Acute (14 days)
0.1, 0.3, 0.5 (p.o.)
|11.||Asparagus pubescens Bak (Liliaceae)||Used as remedy for liver and kidney disorders||Roots||ME||-||Acute (24 h) 0.25 and 1 (p.o.)||Safe||67|
|12.||Aspilia africana (Pers) C.D. Adams (Compositae)||Stop bleeding, remove corneal opacities, anemia and various stomachs complains||Leaves||Water||6.6 (p.o.)||Acute (7 days) 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 (p.o.) Sub acute (26 days) 0.5 and 1 (every 48 h) (p.o.)||Low toxicity||68
|13.||Basella alba L. (Basellaceae)||Diarrhea, laxative and anemia||Leaves||Water||-||Sub acute 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1 (p.o.)||Safe||69|
|14.||Bixa orellana L.
|Used in food industries||Isolated compound from annatto
|-||-||Sub acute (28 days) 2 (p.o.)||Safe||70|
|15.||Boerhavia diffusa L.(Nyctaginaceae)||Inflammatory disorders, bacterial infection, heart diseases, corneal ulcers, antiviral and hepatic disorders||Leaves||Water||-||Sub chronic (30 days) 0.5, 1 and 2 (p.o.)||Safe||71|
|16.||Boswellia dalzielii Hutch.(Frankincense)||Wound healing, induce vomiting||Stem bark||Water||-||Acute (48 h) 3 (p.o.)
Sub chronic (28 days) 0.9, 1.8 and 2.7 (p.o.)
Toxic at high dose (sub chronic)
|17.||Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae)||diabetes||Root bark||80% ET||-||Acute (14 days) 2 and 5 (p.o.)
Sub chronic (28 days) 0.25, 0 .5 and 1.0 (p.o.)
|18.||Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. (Crassulaceae)||Antiviral, antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidant, diuretic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic||Leaves||ME and water||-||Acute (24 h) 0.5 to 3 (p.o.), 0.35 to 2.60 (i.p.)||Safe||74|
|19.||Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)||Anti-inflammatory, wound healing and antiviral||Flowers||70% ET||-||Acute (14 days)
0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 (p.o.) Sub acute (30 days) 0.025, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 (p.o.)
|20.||Calycopteris floribunda Lam. (Combertaceae)||Dysentery, fever, emesis and ulcer||Leaves||ME, water||ME 0.38 (p.o)||Acute (14 days) 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 (p.o)||ME - toxic
water extract - safe
|21.||Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae)||Antioxidant, anti-allergic, antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic||Catechins||-||-||Sub chronic (90 days) 0.3, 1.25 and 5% (w/w) fed in diet||Safe up to 1.25 %||77|
|22.||Careya arborea Roxb. (Myrtaceae)||Anthelmintic, epileptic fits, bronchitis and astringents||Stem bark||ME||-||Acute (72 h) 0.1 to 1.6 (p.o.)||Safe||78|
|23.||Carica papaya L.
|Anti-fertility||Seeds||ME||-||Acute (14 days)
2 (p.o) Sub chronic (28 and 90 days)
0.05, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 (p.o.)
|24.||Carrica papaya L. (Caricaceae)||Digestive agent, wound healing, ulcer, boils and induce menstruation||Unripe fruit||Water||2.52 (p.o.)||Acute (24 h) 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 (p.o.)
Chronic (42 days) 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25 (p.o.)
|25.||Cassia fistula L. (Caesalpiniaceae)||Mild, pleasant purgative action, antifungal, antiviral, menstrual disorders and fever||Pods||Water||6.60 (i.p.)||Acute (48 h) 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 (i.p.) Sub chronic (6 weeks) 0.25, 5 and 1 (i.p.)||Low toxic||81|
|26.||Cassia sieberiana DC (Caesalpiniaceae)||Urinogenital infection, antimicrobial and dysentery||Pod pulp||Water||1.95 (p.o.)||Acute (24 h) 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 (p.o.) Sub acute (5 weeks) 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 (p.o.)||Toxic at high dose (sub acute)||82|
|27.||Cassytha filiformis R.Br. (Lauraceae)||Diabetes mellitus, ulcer and cough||Stems, leaves||Water||-||Sub chronic (28 days) 0.25, 0.5, 1 (p.o.)||Safe||83|
|28.||Ceiba pentandra L. (Bombacacease)||Antiameobic and antibacterial||Leaves||40% ME||-||Acute (24 h) 0.01 to 5 (p.o. Chronic (21 days) 0.25 to 5 (p.o.)||Safe||84|
|29.||Centaurium erythraea(L.) Rafn. (Gentianaceae)||sedative, antipyretic, asthma, jaundice, intestinal parasitic infestation, rheumatism, wounds and sores, blood pressure, edema and digestive disorders||Whole Plant||Water||0.12 (i.p.)||Acute (14 days) 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 (p.o.),
2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13 and 14 (i.p.)
sub-chronic (90 days) 0.1, 0.6 and 1.2 (p.o.)
|30.||Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc (Rubiaceae)||Rheumatic disorders, emetic, antidiarrheic, purgative, diuretic, antipyretic, tonic and delayed menstruation||Roots||ET||-||Acute (14 days) 0.062, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 (p.o.), 0.062, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 (i.p. and s.c.)
Repeated (14 days) 0.5, 1 and 2 (p.o.), 0.015, 0.013, 0.062 and 0.125 (i.p.)
|Low toxicity (oral)
|31.||Cissampelos pareira L. var hirsute (Menispermaceae)||Menstruation problems, pain reliever and used as remedy to control fertility temporarily||Roots||50% ET||-||Acute (13 days) 2 (p.o.) Sub acute (4 weeks) 1 and 2 (p.o.)||Safe||46|
|32.||Crateva nurvala Buch.-Ham. (Capparidaceae)||Digest, laxative, anthelmintic, antilithic, expectorant and antipyretic||Stem bark||PE, BZ,C,
95% ET, water
|> 5 (p.o.)||Acute (14 days) 0.05 to 5 (p.o.)||Safe||87|
|33.||Cucrbita maxima Duch. (Cucurbitaceae)||Stomach pain, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic||Seeds||50% ET||> 5 (p.o.)||Acute (24h)
0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 (p.o.), Sub acute (30 days) 1 (p.o.)
|34.||Cylicodiscus gabunensis (Taub.) Harms (Mimosaceae)||Diarrhea and gastrointestinal disorders||Stem bark||EA||11 (p.o) for female and 14.5 (p.o.) for male||Acute (7 days)- 4, 8, 12 and 16 (p.o)
Sub acute (6 weeks) 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6 (p.o.)
|Toxic at high dose||89|
|35.||Datura stramonium L.(Solanaceae)||Asthma, gastric pain, anti-inflammatory, stimulation of central nervous system and skin infection||Leaves||60% ET||-||Chronic (5 weeks) 0.05 and 0.2 (p.o.)||Safe||90|
|36.||Delphinium denudatum Wall (Ranunculaceae)||Anticonvulsion, anti-sterss, hepatoprotection, cardioprotection and antimicrobial||Roots||Water||16.1 (p.o.)||Acute (24 h)
14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 24 (p.o)
|Safe up to 16 g/kg b.w.||91|
|37.||Dimorphandra mollis Benth (Caesalpiniaceae)||Antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti platelets||Fruits||20% ET||-||Acute (13 days) 0.5, 2, 3.5 and 5 (p.o.)||Safe||17|
|38.||Drimys angustifolia Miers (Winteraceae)||Analgesic, antiulcer and anti-inflammatory||Leaves, stem bark||ET||-||Acute (48 h) 1.75, 3.5 and 5.25 (p.o.)||Toxic at high dose||92|
|39.||Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels. (Fabaceae)||diarrhoea, coughing, pneumoni and tick-borne diseases||Rhizomes||Water||-||Acute (24 h) 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 (p.o.)
Sub acute (14 days) 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 (p.o.) Chronic (35 days) 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 (p.o.)
|Toxic at high dose||93|
|40.||Entada africana Guill. and Perr. (Mimosaceae)||Antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, respiratory tract disorders and wound healing||Stem bark, leaves||ME||Stem bark 0.146 and leaves 0.249 (i.p.)||Acute (72 h)
0.05 to 0.4 (i.p.)
|41.||Erythrina senegalensis DC (Pailionaceae)||Bronchial infection, cough, and throat infection||Stem bark||C||0.526 (i.p.)||Acute (24 h)
0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.2 (i.p.) Chronic (12 weeks) 0.25, 0.5 and 1 (fed in diet)
|Toxic at high dose||95|
|42.||Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae)||Inflammation, respiratory tract and asthma||Leaves||ET, HE, EA, ME||-||Repeated (14 days) 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 (p.o.)||Toxic||96|
|43.||Ficus exasperata (Vahl) (Moraceae)||Stimulant, ring worm and chest complications||Leaves, stem||98% ET||Repeated (3 days) 0.5, 0.1 and 0.5 (p.o)||Leaves were toxic while stems were safe||97|
|44.||Ficus exasperata (Vahl) (Moraceae)||Chest pain, eye troubles and stomach pains and to arrest bleeding||Leaves||Water||0.54 (i.p.)||Acute (24 h)
2.5, 5, 10 and 20 (p.o.) 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1 (i.p.)
|45.||Galega officinalis L. (Papilionaceae)||Antidiabetic and increasing lactation||Aerial parts||Crude powder||-||Acute (14 days)
0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 (p.o.) Subchronic (90 days) 0.15%, 1.5 %, and 3% (w/w) fed in diet
Toxic (for liver and lung in Sub chronic )
|46.||Galphimia glauca Cav. (Malpighiaceae)||Mental disorders, diminishing nervous excitement||Leaves||Water, ME, ET||-||Sub chronic (28 days) 2.5 (p.o.)||Safe
|47.||Garcinia haburyi Hook. f. (Guttiferae)||Cytotoxic and anticancer activity||Gambogic acid (resin)||-||-||Chronic (13 weeks) 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 (p.o.)||Safe||101|
|48.||Glinuus lotoides L. (Molluginaceae)||Anthelmintic||Seeds||60 % ME||-||Acute (14 days) 1 and 5 (p.o.)
Repeated (28 days) 0.25, 0.5 and 1 (p.o.)
|49.||Gynura procumbens (Merr.) (Compositae)||Eruptive fiver, rash, migraines, constipation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney diseases, and cancer||Leaves||ME||-||Acute (14 days) 1.25, 2.5 and 5 (p.o.) Sub chronic (90 days) 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 (p.o.)||Safe||103|
|50.||Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae)||Diabetes mellitus, colic, gastropathy, diarrhea and dysentery||Bark||Water||-||Acute (12 days) 2 (p.o.), Repeated (28 days) 0.5 (p.o.)||Safe||104|
|51.||Ipomoea batatas L. (Convolvulaceae)||Isolated compound ipomeamarone||Tuber||-||-||Acute (48 h) 0.25 and 0.5 (p.o.)||Toxic for liver||105|
|52.||Jatropha curcus L. (Euphorbiaceae)||Biodiesel||Phorbol
|-||0.027 (p.o.)||Acute (19 days) 0.036, 0.032, 0.29, 0.026, 0.023 and 0.021 (p.o.)||Toxic||106|
|53.||Kielmeyera coriaceae Mart. (Clusiaceae)||Schistosomiasis, malaria, fungal and bacterial infections||Stem||DM||1.50 (p.o.) and 0.538 (i.p.)||Acute (14 days) 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.8, 2 and 2.2 (p.o.) 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8 (i.p.) Repeated (90 days) 0.005, 0.025 and 0.125 (p.o)||Safe||107|
|54.||Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. Hassk (Cyperaceae)||Diuretic, sedative and antispasmodic properties||Rhizomes||70 % ET||0.575 (i.p.)||Acute 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 (i.p.)||Safe||108|
|55.||Laportea crenulata Gaud (Urticaceae)||Weakness, asthma, gout, mumps, chronic fever||Roots||PE, C, ME||> 1 (i.p.)||Acute (24 h) 0.2 to 1 (i.p.)||Safe||109|
|56.||Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae)||Antipyretic, antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidant||Leaves||95% ET||-||Acute (14 days)
5 (p.o.) Sub acute (14 days) 1 (p.o.)
|57.||Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Ching Thelypteridacea)||Hydropsy and traumatic bleeding||Roots||EA||2.76 (p.o.),
|Acute (14 days)
6.67, 5, 3.75, 2.81, 2.11, 1.58, 1.19 and 0.89 (p.o.) 2.14, 1.57, 1.18, 0.89, 0.67, 0.50, 0.37 and 0.28 (p.o.) Sub acute (14 days) 6, 60, 600 and 1200 (p.o.), 4, 40, 400 and 800 (p.o.)
|58.||Magnistipula butayei Subsp. montana (Hauman) F. white (Chrysobalanceae||Trunk bark and root used as decoction and leaves and fruit used as killing wild animals (rats, dogs and other animals)||Trunk bark||Water||0.37 (p.o.)||Acute (3 days) 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 (p.o.)||Toxic
|59.||Mammea africanna Sabine (Guttiferae)||Hypercholesterolemia, internal heat, microbial infection||Stem bark||Water||0.387 (i.p.)||Acute (24 h) 0.05 to 1 (i.p.) Sub acute (21 days) 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09 (p.o.)||Low toxic||113|
|60.||Manihot esculenta Crantz
|Human and animal nutrition and raw material for industrial products||Cassava||-||-||Acute (14 days)
5 ml/kg b.w.
Sub chronic (28 days) 25%, 50%, and 100% ml/kg b.w.
|61.||Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O.Kuntze (Rubiaceae)||Malaria and fever||Leaves||60% ET||-||Acute (4 days) 0.30 and 3 (p.o.)Chronic (28 days) 0.30 to 3 (p.o.)||Toxic at high dose||115
|62.||Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae)||analgesic, antipyretic, antidiarrheal and local anesthetic||Leaves||ME||-||Acute (14 days) 0.1, 0.5 and 1 (p.o.)||Severe hepatotoxic and mild nephrotoxic||116|
|63.||Monascus purpureus MTCC 410 (red mould rice)||Lowering blood pressure and blood cholesterol||-||-||-||Acute (14 days) 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 (fed in diet) Sub chronic (14 weeks) 2, 4, 8 and 12% w/w (fed in diet)||Safe||117|
|64.||Murraya koenigii (L.) spreng (Rutaceae)||Tonic, stomachic, anti-vomiting, dysentery, diarrhoea, hypoglycemic, febrifuge, antifungal and antiperiodic||Leaves||ME||0.316 (p.o.)||Acute (72 h)
0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 (p.o.) Sub chronic (14 days) 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45 (p.o.)
|Toxic at high dose||118|
|65.||Musanga cecropioides R.Br. (Cecreopiaceae)||Rheumatism, leprosy and chest infection||Stem bark||Water||-||Acute (12 days) 3 (p.o.) Repeated (28 days) 0.75 (p.o.)||Safe||119|
|66.||Ocimum suave wild. (Lamiaceae)||Ulcers, anticathartic, mosquito repellent and analgesic||Leaves||Water||-||Acute (7 days) 2 and 8 (p.o.) Sub acute (6 weeks) 0.25, 0.5 and 1 (p.o.)||Safe||120|
|67.||Pluchea arguta Boiss (Compositeae)||Antiinflammatory, antioxiant||Leaves||ME||- (p.o.)||Acute (7 days) 1,3 and 6 (p.o.)||Safe||121|
|68.||Polygala fruticos (P.J. Bergius) (Polygalaceae)||Chronic ulcer, poor circulation, intestinal sores, gonorrhoea and the snuff to improve sinusitis||Leaves||Water||10.8 (p.o.)||Acute (14 days) 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 (p.o.) Sub chronic (31 days) 0.1 to 1 (p.o.)||Toxic at high dose||122|
|69.||Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thw(Annonacea)||Treatment of fever, skin disease, diabetes, hypertension||Leaves||ME||- (p.o.)||Acute (7 days) .54,1.1,2.1 and 3.2 (p.o.)||Safe||123|
|Pongamia pinnata (L.) Merr. (Papilionaceae)||Anticonvulsant, hypotensive effects, bronchitis, chronic fever, whooping cough, and skin diseases||Pongamol (isolated)||
|Sub acute (14 days) 300 µg/0.3 ml (i.p.)||Safe||19|
|70.||Portulaca grandiflora Hook. (Portulaceae)||Sore throat, skin rash and detoxification||Aerial part||Water||-||Chronic (6 months) 0.01, 0.1 and 1(p.o.)||Safe||124|
|71.||Pothomorphe umbellate L. Miq. (Piperaceae)||Liver and inflammation disorders||Roots||50% ET||-||Acute (14 days)
1, 2, and 5 (p.o)
Sub chronic (40 days) 0.5 (p.o.)
|72.||Salacia oblonga Wall.
|Used as remedy for diabetes||Whole plant||Water||-||Sub chronic (90 days) 0.25, 1.25 and 2.5 (p.o)||Safe up to 0.25 g/kg||126
|73.||Salvia przewalskii Maxim (Labiatae)||coronary heart diseases, myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis, angina pectoris and liver diseases||Rhizomes||ET||2.54 (p.o.), 0.90 (i.m.),
|Acute (14 days)
1.72, 1.98, 2.27, 2.62, 3.01 and 3.46 (p.o.), 0.288, 0.412, 0.58, 0.84, 1.2 and 1.71 (i.m.) 0.5, 0.625, 0.781, 0.977, 1.22 and 1.52 (i.p.) Sub acute (30 days) 0.05 and 0.25 (p.o.)
|74.||Salvia scutellarioides Kunth (Lamiaceae)||Antihypertensive and diuretic properties||Bark, leaves||Water||-||Acute (14 days) 2 (p.o.) Sub acute (4 weeks) 1 and 2 (p.o.)||Safe||128|
|75.||Schinus molles var areira (Anacardiaceae)||Antibacterial, antiviral, antiseptic, astringent, digestive, purgative, diuretic, tooth ache, wound healer, menstrual disorders and rheumatism||Fruits||ET||
|Acute (14 days) 2 (p.o) Sub-acute (14 days) 1 (p.o)||Safe||129|
|76.||Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae)||ulcers, gout, tumors, respiratory problems, wounds, rheumatism, diarrhea, skin ailments, arthritis, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, balsamic and haemostatic
|Stem bark||70% ET||-||Acute (14 days)
0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 (p.o.) Sub acute (45 days) 0.25, 0.625 and 1.5625
|77.||Semecarpus anacrdium L. (Anacardiaceae)||Asthma, piles digestive disorders, cardiac tonic, antimicrobial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory||Fruits (oil)||-||-||Sub acute (7 days) 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 (p.o.) (21 days) 0.083 and 0.166 (p.o.)||Toxic||131|
|78.||Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Ceasalpiniaceae)||Hepatitis and skin diseases||Leaves||Water and ET||18.5 (p.o.)||Acute (8 days) 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 (p.o.)
Sub acute (28 days) 0.5 and 1 (every 48 h) (p.o.)
|79.||Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae)||Stomatitis of asthma and nasal congestion||Leaves||70% ET||2.64 (i.p.)||Acute (48 h) 0.5 to 5 (p.o.), 0.5 to 3 (i.p.)||Safe (p.o.)
Toxic at high dose (i.p.)
|80.||Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae)||Antiseptic, wound-healing activity, diarrhea, cough, ulcer||Whole plant||Water / ME||-||Acute (24 h) 4, 8, 12 and 16 (p.o.)||Toxic at high dose||134|
|81.||Smilax kraussiana (Liliaceae)||Inflammation||Leaves||ME||0.24 (i.p.)||Acute (24 h)
0.01 to 1 (i.p.)
|Safe up to 0.24 g/kg b.w. (i.p.)||135|
|82.||Sphenocentrum Jollyanum Pierre (Menispermaceae)||Vermifuge, chronic wound, cough and anti-inflammatory||Leaves||ET||1.44 (i.p.)||Acute (24 h)
11 (p.o.) 0.25 to 4 (i.p.) Sub chronic (120 days) 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 (p.o.)
|83.||Stachtarpheta cayennensis (Verbanaceae)||Stomachic, febrifuge and chronic liver diseases||Leaves||Water, 50 % ET, BT, EA||50% ET extract 0.09 (i.p.) in mice||Acute (72 h)
Rat- 0.25, 0.5 and 1 (i.p.) Mice- 0.005 to 0.1 (i.p.) and 0.05 to 0.25 (p.o.)
|50% ET extract was toxic in mice other extract were safe||136|
|84.||Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (Scrophulariacea)||Dermatosis, leprosy, jaundice and antibacterial||Leaves, flowers, stem||80% A||17.53 (i.p.)||Acute (24h) 15.5, 16.5, 17.5, 18.5, 21.5 and 23 (i.p.)||Safe up to 17.53 g/kg b.w.||137|
|85.||Strychnos potatorum L (Loganiaceae)||Astringent, refrigerant, emetic, antithelmintic, diuretic, digestive, tonic, stomachic, ophthalmic, appetizer, water purifier and relive colic||Seed||Water||-||Acute (72 h) 0.05, 0.3 and 2 (p.o.)
Chronic (90 days) 0.1 and 0.2 (p.o.)
|86.||Stryphnodendron adstringens (Martius) coville (Leguminosae)||Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and gastric mucosa||Stem, bark||Water||-||Acute (7 days) 2 (p.o.) Sub acute (30 days) 0.80 and 1.60 (p.o.)||Safe (acute)
Toxic (sub acute)
|87.||Syzygium cumini L. (Myrtaceae)||Diabetes, high blood pressure, diarrhea and fever||Stem, bark, leaves||70% ME||Leaves 0.387 (p.o.) Stem bark > 5 (p.o.)||Acute (24 h) 0.01, 0.1 and 1 (p.o.)||Safe||140|
|88.||Syzygium cumini L.(Myrtaceae)||Hypoglycemic, anti-HIV, antibacterial and anti-diarrheal||Seeds||EA, ME||Acute (14 days) 0.05, 0.3 and 2 (p.o)||Safe||141|
|89.||Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae)||Cold, jaundice, stomach disorders, diarrhea, fever and skin cleanser||Pulp||Water||-||Sub acute (28 days) 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, 3.6 and 4.5 (p.o.)||Safe||142|
|90.||Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae/compositae)||Menstrual irregularities, anthelmic, carminative, antispasmodic, stimulant and tonic properties||Leaves||Water||9.9 (p.o.) and 2.8 (i.p.)||Acute (14 days) 1 to 13 (p.o.) 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4 and 4.5 (i.p.) Chronic (90 days) 0.1, 0.2 and 0.6 (p.o.)||Safe||143|
(Schumach. & Thonn.) Taub. (Mimosaceae)
|Convulsion, leprosy, inflammation, jaundice, rheumatism, flatulence||Fruit||80% ET||-||Sub acute (10 days) 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 (p.o.)||Toxic||144|
|92.||Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) (Asteraceae)||Malaria, menstrual pains, diabetes mellitus, sore throat, liver and measles||Leaves||Water||-||Repeated (7 days) 0.1 and 0.2 (p.o.)||Toxic (liver, heart and kidney)||145|
|93.||Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) (Asteraceae)||Malaria, diarrhea, bacterial and parasitic infection||Leaves||Water||0.12 (p.o)||Acute (24 h) 0.05, 0.08, 0.1, 0.12 and 0.14 (p.o.)||Toxic||146|
|94.||Toona sinensis Roemor (Meliaceae)||Carminative enteritis and dysentery||Leaves||Water||-||Acute (14 days) 5 (p.o.) Sub acute (28 days) 1 (p.o.)||Safe||147|
|95.||Vernonia amygdalina Del (Compositae)||Antimalaria, anticancer, antimicrobial, as laxative herbs and anthelmintics||Leaves||95% ME, HE, EA, ME||-||Sub acute (6-fraction) (28 days) 0.08, 0.16 and 0.32 (p.o.)||Safe||148|
|96.||Vernonia condensate Baker (Asteraceae)||Gastro intestinal disorders, headache, diarrhea and protection against snakebites||Leaves||Water||-||Acute (0.30, 0.45, 0.67, 1, 1.5, 2.25, 3.4 and 5 (p.o. and i.p.)||Safe||149|
|97.||Zingiber zerumbet Smith. (Zingiberaceae)||Anticancer and cytotoxic activity||Zerumbone from rhizomes||-||1.84 (i.p.)||Acute (48 h) 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 (i.p.)||Toxic at high dose||150|
A – acetone, BT – butanol, BZ – benzene, C – chloroform, DM – dichloromethane, EA – ethyl acetate, ET – ethanol, HE – hexane, ME – methanol, PE – petroleum ether, p.o. – per oral, i.p. –intraperitoneally, s.c. – subcutaneous, i.m. – intramuscular
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The authors thank Prof. S.P. Singh, Head, Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India for providing excellent research facilities.
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How to cite this article:
Chanda S, Parekh J, Vaghasiya Y, Dave R Baravalia Y and Nair R: A Review: Medicinal Plants - From Traditional Use to Toxicity Assessment. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2015; 6(7): 2652-70.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6(7).2652-70.
All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
S. Chanda *, J. Parekh , Y. Vaghasiya , R. Dave , Y. Baravalia and R. Nair
Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Microbiological Laboratory, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
28 October 2014
27 January, 2015
28 February, 2015
01 July, 2015