MIMOSA PUDICA LINN- A SHYNESS PRINCESS: A REVIEW OF ITS PLANT MOVEMENT, ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS, USES AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITYHTML Full Text
MIMOSA PUDICA LINN- A SHYNESS PRINCESS: A REVIEW OF ITS PLANT MOVEMENT, ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS, USES AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Kshema Johnson, Gopinathan Narasimhan* and Chitra Krishnan
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamilnadu - 600116, India.
ABSTRACT: To cure all aliments of mankind, nature provides a complete store house of remedies for time honored period.In legume family, Mimosa is one of the largest genera which distribute more than 500 species. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on plant movement, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and uses on Mimosa pudica, sensitive plant. Its habitat are lowland tropical rainforest, savanna, tropical and subtropical dry forest and thorn scrub, mid-elevation subtropical forest, desert, grassland, and wet land. It is a rich source of flavanoids, tannins, plant hormones, amino acids and glycosides. The innumerable medicinal properties and therapeutic uses of Mimosa pudica as well as its isolated active constituents prove its importance as a valuable medicinal plant.
Mimosa pudica, plant movement, turgorins, pharmacological activity, uses
INTRODUCTION: “Mimic” means to allude and “pudica” means bashful, results the name Mimosa pudica to that plant.1 In legume family, Mimosa is one of the largest genera which distribute more than 500 species. Lowland tropical rainforest, savanna, tropical and subtropical dry forest and thorn scrub, mid-elevation subtropical forest, desert, grassland, and wet land are habitat of Mimosa. To cure all aliments of mankind, nature provides a complete store house of remedies for time honored period. In Indian conditions it is opt to collect plant during September to march.
Active constituents from plant improve health and lighten illness. It gains attention because it is money-spinning, environmental, and true relief from illness.
Mimosa pudica (Mimosaceae) is a shrubby plant with the bipinnate leaves, glandular hairs, spinouts stipules, Companulate calyxes and lilac pinkish axilary flower heads. The stems are erect and well branched.1
In Indian condition it flowers and fruits in the month of August to October. It contains active constituent like an alkaloid mimosine, mucilage, tannins, non- protein amino acid (mimosin), flavonoid C- glycosides, sterols, terpenoids, tannins and fatty acids. M. pudica shows certain movements like nyctinastic movement, thigmonastic movement and seismonastic movement.2
Nitrogen fixing bacteria are habitat in root nodules of Mimosa pudica.
FIG. 1: LEAVEAS OF MIMOSA PUDICA
FIG. 2: FLOWERS OF MIMOSA PUDICA
FIG. 3: SEEDS OF Mimosa pudica
TABLE 1: SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION:
|Family :||Fabaceae/ Mimosaseae|
|Sub – family :||Mimosoideae|
TABLE 2: SYNONYMS: 3, 37
|Ayurveda||Lajjalu||Sensitive plant, humble plant, shame plant, sleeping grass, touch me not|
|Unique property to drop|
|Tamil||Tottal sinungi||Acts when touch|
|Malayalam||Thottavadi||Wilts by touch|
|Kannada||Muttidare muni||Angered by touch
|Chui – mui
|Chinese||Betguen sosa (guam)
Ra Kau Pikikaa (cook islands)
|Philippines||Makahiya||Maka- quite/ tendency to be
Hiya- shy/ shyness
|West Indies||Mori vivi|
|Indonesia||Putri malu||Shy Princess|
|Mayanmar (Burma)||Hti ka yoan||Crumbles when touched|
|Malaysia||Pakok semalu||Shy plant|
|European||Naa - me – toque||Touch me not|
|Spanish||Mori – vivi||“I died , I lived”|
|Central America||Dormilona||Sleepy head|
MECHANISM OF PLANT MOVEMENTS:
Plants are rooted in one place hence they are immobile. Time laps photography makes known that parts of plants habitually move. Most plants move too slowly for the passerby to notice. Ecological stimuli such as: light, gravity and mechanical disturbances make a plant to move such as tropisms and nastic movements.
It is firmed by the direction of an ecological stimulus. Movement towards the stimulus is positive tropism, and away from a stimulus is negative tropism.
TABLE 3: TYPES OF STIMULUS TRIGGERING THE MOVEMENT
|Type of stimulus
triggering the movement
|Movements at night or in the dark||Nyctinastic|
|Response to chemicals or nutrients||Chemonastic|
|Response to water||Hydronastic|
|Response to gravity||Geonastic /Gravinastic|
|Response to contact||Haptonastic|
Most leguminous plants have power over nyctinastic movement. In fourth century B.C much attention towards the nyctinastic movement in Mimosa pudica L based on the surveillance the biological clock was discovered. Under continuous darkness in cave the French chemist maintained nyctinastic leaf movement and discovered an intrinsic rhythm controls the leaf movement.
In Mimosa pudica the pinnules close and open at the usual time was observed by the astronomer de Mairan in 1729 and Hallberg coined the term 'Circadian Rhythm' (circa =approximately, diem = day; hence circadian). According to a circadian rhythm leaves close at night and open in the daytime which is represented as nyctinasty2.
In 1848 a treatise was done by Ernst Wilhelm Briicke on the movement of Mimosa leaves. In 1880 book entitled "The Power of Movement in Plants" includes nyctinastic ones represented by M. pudica which is published by Charles Darwin and his son Francis. As long ago as 1912, Weffer proposed that rapid loss of turgor is caused by an active contraction of the proto- plash, coupled with a simultaneous increase in membrane permeability. The potential set up between the vascular bundle and the turgescent parenchymal sheath and ascription of the periodically stimulated movements to movement of water in the parenchyma were a clear interpretation of plant movement. Pulvini are an autonomous organ houses with mechanoreceptors and photoreceptors located at the base of leaf stalks or petioles’? which induce nyctinastic leaf movement by the swelling and shrinking of motor cells. Anatomically it consists of a rod of sclerenchyma surrounded by collenchymas. In its extended position, the cells of the entire collenchymas are distended with water and surrounded by thin-walled motor cells which can undergo visible swelling and shrinking.
In analogy with animal joints, the motor cells on the lower site of the pulvinus are called flexor and on the upper site extensor cells. A lifting of the leaf is actuated by an increase in tugor pressure and volume caused by the uptake of K+ ions in the extensor cells. Upon darkness K+ channels in the extensor cells close but open in the flexor cells which loose turgor pressure and shrink, the pulvinus joint loses its rigidity and lets the leaf droop. Opposite in position from the extensors are the ﬂexors.
When the extensors lose turgor, the ﬂexor cells stretch. Together these reversible cell volume and shape changes enable elaborate leaﬂet and petiole movements. In Mimosa pulvini like in animal muscles flexor undergoes a measurable shortening upon stimulation by an action potential. Its response can be triggered by touch, sudden darkness and the arrival of action potentials4.
FIG. 4: TURGOR PRESSURE
Ethylene influences growth processes, germination of seeds, and the formation of buds, flowers, roots, and the ripening of fruit in intimate interaction with the hormones namely the auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, and abscisins. In 1983 Hermann Schildknecht successfully isolated a new class of phytohormone, turgorin, which believe to control leaf-closing movement of the plants. The turgorin molecule contains a strongly acidic free sulfuric acid group.
However, it was revealed that turgorins is not a genuine leaf movement factor. All phytohormones hold true in responsible for the rapid movement of fixed plants. The turgorins are phenolic and purine glycosides which is a direct consequence of the turgor effect. Being glycosides they have a strong affinity for water. Their production or accumulation at a particular site, therefore, brings about the 'flow' of water and its structuring as in ice formation (a result of hydrogen bonding).
The consequent change in water pressure produces an osmotic effect resulting, for example, in a shrinking of the pinnate leaf cells. The visible result is that the leaves close; they open up again when the turgorins are metabolized to inactive compounds.
Leaf-closing and leaf–opening substances were observed in several nyctinastic plants. Nyctinastic movement is regulated by a chemical substance that differs depending on the plant 2. Every family or subfamily of plants has its own leaf movement factor that is effective only for plants belonging to its own family, although they have not identified any leaf movement factor.
The presence of leaf-opening substances indicates that nyctinastic movement is controlled not only by the change in the concentration of the leaf-closing factor, but also by the competitive interaction between leaf–closing and leaf–opening substances. When the concentration of the leaf-closing substance was higher than that of the leaf-opening substance, the leaves were closed during the day and vice versa.
The leaf-movement factors isolated from Mimosa pudica has been characterized as the S-riboglucoside of 2, S-dihydroxy- benzoic acid, indole-3- acetic acid ,adenosine 3'-monophosphate (3'-AMP) and guanosine 3' -monophosphate (3' -GMP).
FIG. 5: MECHANISM OF OPENING AND CLOSING
FIG. 6: OPENING AND CLOSING OF THE STOMATA
Thigmonastic (thigma is the Greek word for touch)/ seismonastic movement:
FIG. 7: NYCTINASTIC MOVEMENT OF MIMOSA PUDICA
TABLE 4: CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS
A touch stimulation results in a very rapid folding up of the small leaﬂets composing the doubly compound leaves. Remarkably, the touch response is not restricted to the stimulated leaﬂet, but can propagate to all the neighboring leaﬂets of the leaf.
A complex electrical signal can be responded by the epidermal cell of plants and animals and capable of sensing mechanical touch which is essential for an organ to function. Sensory hairs found in the surface extrusions enhance the sensitivity e.g. the lower part of leaf joints of Mimosa pudica or sensory papillae. The peripheral vertical cells just below the bending zone experience an increased pressure, which they convert into an electrical receptor potential.
These cells are the genuine mechanosensors in the system designed to transform the mechanical signal into a hydraulic signal, the pressure signal into a receptor potential which - when strong enough - is then transmitted to the rest of the leaf cells in the form of an action potential. Note that the mechanic stimulus is transmitted by the hair structure to the mechano-sensing cell
By release of calcium:
Protoplasmic contraction, permeability increase, and intracellular osmotic pressure decrease are the 3 principal theories proposed to explain the sudden turgor loss in the lower pulvinar cells. The correct parameter describing water movement is the reflection coefficient (σ) derived from the theory of irreversible thermodynamics. In plant cells tannin vacuoles attributes rapid thigmonastic movement. Perturbed plants tannin vacuoles store Ca2+ and release it as a secondary messenger [cell signaling compound]. The releases of ca ions cause leaf movement through the same mechanism of nyctiasty5.
By sugar concentration:
When sugar is loaded to apoplast from phloem initiates the touch-induced extensor cell volume changes in Mimosa. The increased sugar concentration in the apoplast decreases the water potential and triggers the efflux of potassium ions from the surrounding cells. This is followed by an efflux of water, resulting in a sudden change of turgor pressure in the cells of the pulvinus. The process is similar to the mechanism of stomatal closure.
Proton pumps set strong electrochemical gradients enabling rapid ion movements across plasma membranes. Mimosa motor cells have an abundance of H + - ATPase proteins, perhaps to accommodate a requirement for high pump activity. The osmotically driven cellular water loss is extensive, with up to a 25% volume change, and rapid, occurring within 1 s. Such a fast and dramatic loss of water from pulvinar cells is likely facilitated through transporters such as aquaporins or solute-water cotransporters 6.
Presence of flavonoids, phytosterol, alkaloids, amino acids, tannins, glycoside and fatty acids were detected by phytochemical studies.
TABLE 5: MATERIALS AND METHODS
|Plant material obtained from||Extract||Authenticaticated
|Doses mg/kg||Models used|
|1. Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Jabalpur||Ethanol||Prof. (Mrs) Karuna S. Verma, Senior Botanist, Department of Post Graduate Studies & Research in Biological Sciences Rani Durgawati Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur.||250 and 500||Wistar Albino rats 150-200g
Tail flick method
Acetic acid induced writhing test Aspirin 200mg/kg as standard
Carrageen induced hind Paw oedema
Indomethacin as standard.7
|2. Near Solapur district, Maharashtra in month of August||Ethanol, aqueous and Petroleum Ether||Botanist||100,200 & 500||Anthelmintic activity
Indian earthworm’s Pheretima posthuma
Albendazole as standard .8
|Prof. Parthiban, Associate, Prof. (Forestry), TNAU, Tamil Nadu, India.||1g/kg||Antioxidant activity
Male albino Wister rats (150 gm).9
|4. Thaniparai hills, watrap, tamilnadu Month of May 2008||Methanol
|By Dr. Stephen,
Dept of Botany,
The American college, Madurai
|100 and 200
Standard Ranitidine 20 mg/kg
Aspirin and Alcohol induced gastric ulcer
Pylorus ligation induced ulcer
Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-200 g .10
|5. In and around Bhopal||Ethanol||Department of Pharmacy
|100, 250 & 500||Aphrodiasic activity
Sildenafil citrate 5 mg/kg.11
|6. Cherlapally adjacent regions, Nalgonda, AP, India during Aug-sept., 2010.||Petroleumether
|Dept. of Botany, Kakatiya University ,Warangal AP.||50,100,200||Anti-inflammatory activity
Male albino rats, weighing 150-200g.
Carrageenan - induced rat paw oedema.12
|7. Thailavaram (near SRM University) month of February 2009||Methanol||By Dr D Narashiman.
Centre for Floristic Research,
Department of botany Plantbiology & Plantbiotechnology,
Madras Christian College,
Tambaram, Chennai, Tamilnadu.
Wistar albino rats weighing 175-225g of either sex
Silymarin as standard 100mg/kg
Month of February 2010
|Methanol||Botonist||In-vitro||DPPH Assay ( Badami S et al, 2005)
ABTS radical cation decolourisation assay (Re R, Pellegrini N et al, 1999)
Scavenging of hydrogen peroxide ( Jayaprakash GK et al, 2004)
Scavenging of nitric oxide radical (Marcooci L et al 1994) Standard ascorbic acid and arutin. 14
|9. Mathar, Kanyakumari district, tamilnadu at
4. 00 pm
|At The institute of sidha medicine, tamil university, tanjavur||150-200g/kg||Wound healing activity
Gentamycin as standard
Wister Albino rats (150-200gms). 15
|10. Thailavaram (near SRM University) month of February 2009||Chloroform||By Dr D Narashiman.
Centre for Floristic Research,
Department of botany Plantbiology & Plantbiotechnology,
Madras Christian College,
Tambaram, Chennai, Tamilnadu.
Wistar albino rats weighing 175-225g of either sex
standard drug Atorvastatin (dose of 1.2 mg/kg body weight per oral).16
|11. University college of Pharmacy, Cheruvandoor
Month of January to march
|By Joby paul, Mahatma Gandhi University||500||Wistar albino rats weighing 150-200 g of either sex
Piracetam standard 50mg/kg
Scopolamine induced model of dementia
Aluminum chloride induced model of dementia
Elevated plus – maze test
Novel object recognition (NOR) test.17
|12. Pattukkottai||ethanol||Botonist||In-vitro||Antibacterial activity
Preliminary phytochemical screening
Disc diffusion method.18
|13. Kalingavaram (KrishnagiriDt).
Leaves and root
|ethanol||Botonist||Chemical test||Phytochemical analysis.19|
|14. Month of April 2007, from Thamaraipatti village, Madurai District, Tamilnadu.||Petroleum ether 40-60
|By Dr.Stephen Botanist Professor in American college, Madurai and herbarium specimen deposited at K.M.College of Pharmacy, Madurai||In-vitro||Enzyme inhibitor activity
Salivary amylase- Mercuric chloride standard
Amylase assay- Mercuric chloride standard
Assay of Urease- Para chloro mercuric benzoate. 20
TABLE 6: ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS
Crocetin dimethyl ester and tannin have been isolated from the plant. The mucilage from seed is composed of D-xylose and D-glucoronic acid 4-O-(3, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid)-b-D-glucoronide. It has four flavones namely 7,8,3’,4’-tetrahydroxyl-6-C-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-b-D-glucopyranosyl flavone (I); 5,7,4’-trihydroxyl-8-C-[a-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2) ]- D-glucopyranosyl flavone (III) and catcher (IV)31. A saponin and a bufadienolide were reported in M. pudica seeds. P-Flavanoids, Phenolic constituents, Saponins10, Glycosides10, Gums, Tubuline, Phytosterol, Adrenaline like substances (leaf extract), Green yellow fatty oil -17%,Terpenoids, Coumarins, Quinines ,derivatives of 4-α-(b-d-glucopyranosyl-6-sulphate) gallic acid , c- glycosylflavone, Phenolic ketone34,Jasmonic acid, Nor-epinephrine, d-pinitol (3-mono-methyl ether of inositol), b-sitosterol. 30
Coumaric acid is a common plant constituent. Coumaric acid derivatives act as leaf-opening substances in other nyctinastic plants. C-glycosyl flavones present in aerial part. The leaves contain beta sitosterol and phenolic ketones. Oil extract contains amino acid and aminoacid derivatives like N-dl-Alanylglycine, dl-Alanyl-dl- Valine, d-Alanin, dl-Alanin ethyl ester, dl-Alanyl-dl-Valine and 1-Alanine ethyl amide .oil extact possess derivatives of fattyacid like 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z), methyl ester, 11, 13-Eicosadienoic acid. The other constituents present in the oil extract are methyl ester, 2-methylamino-N- phenyl-acetamide, 1-Octanamine, N-methyl, 1-Butanamine, N-methyl, Meglumine, 2-methylamino-n-phenyl acetamide, - 1, 3-Dioxolane-4-methanol, 2, 5-Dimethoxy-4-(methylsulphonyl) amphetamines, 9.12-Octadecadien-1-ol and 11, 13-Eicosadienoic acid, methyl ester.35
TABLE 7: PREPARATION OF PLANT MATERIAL:
|Extraction process||Weight of drug||Solvents used||Percentage yield w/w||weight obtained|
|Leaves Continuous hot extraction in soxhlet apparatus. 10||500 g of Mimosa pudica||
|Extraction in a soxhlet apparatus 14||Methanol||-||8.20 g|
|Extraction in Soxhlet apparatus
|250 g of Mimosa pudica shoot||Petroleum ether
|Extraction in Soxhlet apparatus 15||250 g of Mimosa pudica root||Chloroform
|Extraction in soxhlet apparatus 12||
|Successive solvent extraction
|Roots of Mimosa
| Successive solvent extraction
|Roots of Mimosa
| Extraction in soxhlet apparatus
|leaves of plant Mimosa pudica||Petroleum ether,
Benzene, Chloroform, Acetone, Ethanol
| Hot continuous percolation using Soxhlet apparatus 20
|whole plant of Mimosa pudica||Petroleum ether
|Soxhlet apparatus||Leaves of Mimosa pudica||Petroleum ether
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS: 37
Anti - ulcer activity: 10
The extracts used for the activity were, 90% ethanol, methanol, chloroform and diethyl ether extract. The activity was investigated in albino rats. The models used were aspirin induced model, alcohol induced model and pylorus ligation induced ulcer and the parameters evaluated were ulcer protection, gastric ulcer protection and reduction in total volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity of gastric secretion, gastric ulcer respectively. 100 and 200 mg/kg dose levels of extract and 20 mg/kg of dose levels of standard drug Ranitidine were
used orally. The extracts were found to be safe up to 2000mg/kg body weight- 100mg shown good activity.
Anti – inflammatory activity: 12
The extracts used to find this activity was petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts. The animals used for the investigation of anti inflammatory activity were male albino rats. The models used were Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats. Carrageenan induced rat paw edema was used for evaluating the reduction of edema induced by carrageenan. Different doses like 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of extracts were used and Indomethacin was the standard used at a concentration of 10 mg/kg. The route of administration was oral.
Anti-microbial activity: 18
The Methanolic extract of Leaves of M. pudica was tested against micro organisms like Aspergillus fumigates, Citrobacter divergens and Klebsiella pneumonia at various concentrations like 50 , 100, 200 μg/ml. Terpenoids, flavanoids glycosides, alkaloids, quinines, phenol, tannins, saponins and coumarin were the active substances found in the extract which may be responsible for this activity.
Anti – malaria activity: 32
Plasmodium berghei was the organism used to test the anti- microbial property of methanolic extract of mimosa pudica. The presence of active constituents like terpenoids, flavinoids andalkaloids may be responsible for the activity.
Antifungal activity: 32
Methanolic extract and aqueous extract of leaves of M. pudica were tested against Aspergillus fumigates by well diffusion assay at various concentrations like 100, 200, and 500 mg.
Carcinogenic potential: 27
Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of seeds of Mimosa pudica were tested against S. typhimurium.
Wound healing activity: 15
The Methanolic extract of shoot of M. Pudica was found to have phenolic constituents which shows wound healing property. The methods used were excision, incision, and estimation of biochemical parameters.
The ethanolic extract of leaves of M. pudica shows activity at a concentration of 200 and 400 mg/kg. The active substance responsible for this activity is flavanoids. The models used in this activity are hot plate method, tail flick model and acetic acid induced writhing model. Oral administration of ethanolic extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg showed significantly reduction of writhing response induced by acetic acid.
Anti-convulsant activity: 32
The decoction of leaves of M. pudica when given intra peritoneal at a concentration of 1000-4000 mg/kg showed anti convulsant activity.
Anti-diarrheal activity: 32
Ethanolic extract leaves of M. pudica at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant anti diarrheal activity. Tannins and Flavanoids were the bioactive constituents which were responsible for the activity. The models used were castor oil induced diarrhea and PGE2 induced enteropooling.
The air dried Methanolic root extracts of M. pudica at a dose of 300 mg/ kg body weight/ day was administered through oral route. This dose prolonged the estrous cycle. The extract of the root altered the estrdiol secretion and gonadotropin release. The animals used for determing the activity were Swiss albino rats.
The root powder of M. pudica when given intragastrically at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight in female Rattus norvegicus. It altered the estrous cycle pattern. There was a significant reduction in the number of ova.
12. Antioxidant activity: 14
The activity was tested using the Methanolic crude extract of aerial parts of M. pudica. The Methanolic extract’s IC50 value is 296.92μ/ml. When compared to ascorbic acid whose IC50 value is 131.29μg/ml showed a moderate anti oxidant activity.
The Methanolic extract showed significant inhibition in Nitric oxide (IC50 values -78.1±1.75) and DPPH free radical (IC50 values - 35.00±1.15 g/ml). In the cases of ABTS and Hydrogen peroxide free radicals IC50 values were 81.00±3.85 and 449.60±2.55 g/ml respectively. The methods used for determing the activity are Scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, DPPH Assay, ABTS radical cation decolourisation assay, Scavenging of Nitric Oxide radical. The activity was assessed for parameters such as glutamate oxalo acetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphate, bilrubin and total protein.
Anti- hepatotoxic activity: 9
The ethanolic extract of M .pudica was given at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. The animal used was Wister albino rats. The extract showed dose dependent hepatoprotective effect in CCl4 induced hepatic damage. The activity was assessed for parameters such as glutamate oxalo acetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphate, bilrubin and total protein.
Antihelmintic activity: 7
Various extracts of seeds of M. pudica like petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous was used. The test worm used was Pheretima posthuma. The test was used in the concentrations of 100, 200, 500 mg/kg. The standard drug used was albendazole. Petroleum ether showed weak anthelmintic activity. An alcoholic and aqueous extract showed paralysis and also caused death in a dose dependent manner compared to standard Albendazole.
Aphrodisiac property: 10
Ethanolic extract of roots of M. pudica were administered orally at a concentration of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg. The standard drug used was sildenafil citrate. The animal used was Swiss albino male mice and female albino mice. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of roots of M. pudica produced a significant and sustained increase in the aphrodisiac activity of normal male mice, without any adverse effects.
Anti hyperglycemic activity: 32
The chloroform extract of leaves of M. pudica was used for determing the anti hyperglycemic activity. The animal used was Wister albino rats. The chloroform extract exhibited atherogenic index and protection against hyperlipidemic activity. The bioactive constituents responsible for this activity may be flavanoids, glycosides and alkaloids.
Antivenom activity: 28, 32
The Aqueous extracts of dried roots of M. pudica showed antivenom activity at concentrations of 0.14 mg and 0.16 mg.The animals used for determing the activity are Naja naja, Bangarus caerulus. The aqueous extract was tested for inhibitory activity on lethality, phospholipase activity and hemorrhagic activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms.The extracts were able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD50 of the venoms. The extract of M. pudica, dose dependently inhibited the hyaluronidase and protease activities
Spasmogenetic potential: 32
The ethanolic extracts of the whole plant of M. pudica was used to determine the spasmogenetic activity.The animal used was guinea pig.
Regeneration of sciatic nerve 32
The extract of M. pudica was given at a concentration of 1.6mg/100g through parenteral route to rats having experimental injury of sciatic nerve. The extract of M. pudica showed 30–40% higher results in the process of regeneration of sciatic nerve.
Effect on uterine bleeding 32
The aqueous extract of root powder of M. pudica was used for determing the activity. The test was carried in patients with dysfunction uterine bleeding.
Diuretic effect 32
The decoction of leaves of M. pudica showed activity at doses of 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg. The animals used were dogs and rats. The standard diuretic used was hydrochlorothiazide at a concentration of 2.5 mg/kg. There was significant reduction of Na+ and Cl- excretion without affecting K+ excretion.
Antidepressant activity: 32
Aqueous extracts from dried leaves of M. pudica was used to test the behavioral actions at various doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg/kg. The animal used was rat. Diazepam at a conc. of 1.3 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. The methods used were elevated plus-maze and DRL-72 s test.
The Whole Plants: 21, 23, 31
- Treats leprosy, dysentery, vaginal and uterine complaints, burning sensation, asthma, leucoderma, inflammation, neurological problems, diabetic, fever, piles, bronchitis, cholera, cough, dyspepsia, fever, jaundice, smallpox, syphilis and tuberculosis biliousness, fatigue, blood diseases, whooping cough, fevers in children and sore gum
- Used as a blood purifier.
- Vesicle calculi are treated internally.
- Externally used for odema, rheumatism, myalgia and tumors of the uterus.
- They are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta, leucoderma, vaginopathy, metropathy, ulcers, dysentery, burning sensation, hemorrhoids, asthma, fistula, small pox, strangury, spasmodic, affections and fevers.
- It arrests bleeding and fastens the wound healing process.
- It is mainly used in herbal preparations for gynecological disorder.
- It is also used in conditions like bronchitis, general weakness and impotence.
- This herb can replace contraceptive pills
- Mimosa can reduce the onset of baldness, due to its ability to promote healthy cell growth.
- It relieves the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
- It possesses sedative, emetic, tonic properties and ability to treat alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, and various urogenital infections.
- Plant juice applied externally to fistulous sores.
- Whole plant is used for scabies and uterine tumor.
Leaves: 21, 23
- The juice of leaves is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
- Paste of leaves is applied to hydrocele.
- Cotton impregnated with juice of leaves is used for dressing sinus.
- The leaves are bitter, sudorific and tonic, and are useful in hemorrhoids, fistula, scrofula, conjunctivitis, cuts and wounds and hemorrhages.
- The juice of leaves is useful in vaginal diseases, salutary in whooping cough, benevolent in diarrhea and also recommended as a panacea for viral hepatitis and cervical adenitis.
- The juice of leaves is used in dressings for sinus and also an application for sores and piles.
- A paste of the leaves is applied to glandular swellings.
- Leaf decoction showed moderate diuretic response.
- Bruised leaves applied to bruises.
- Decoction of leaves used for diabetics.
- The warmed leaf paste is applied around furuncle, abscess, and boils to burst and release of pus.
- The leaf paste is applied on the burst boils and itches for quick healing.
- The leaf paste is applied on forehead to get relief from headache and migraine.
- The leaf paste with honey is prescribed twice a day in empty stomach for 3–4 days for stomach ache and intestinal worms.
- Piles and fistula are treated by taking leaves with milk.
- Leaves used for hydrococle, hemorrhoids, fistula, scrofula, conjunctivitis, wounds and hemorrhages.
- Infusion of leaves used for dysentery and also as a bitter tonic
- Poultice of leaves is used for glandular swelling
- Decoction or infusion of leaves is used in asthma and as expectorant.
- Entire plant in decoction used as alternate and anti asthmatic.
Roots: 21, 23
- In Western medicine, Mimosa root is used for treating insomnia, irritability, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), menorrhagia, hemorrhoids, skin wounds, and diarrhea.
- The warmed root paste is plastered with the help of a cloth on boils to get relief. The paste of root fried in castor oil is applied on deep cut wounds to stop bleeding and for healing.
- Decoction of root is used as gargle to reduce toothache.
- The roots have contraceptive properties.
- The paste of root fried in ghee is applied on caries teeth for relief from toothache.
- Root extracts are reported to be a strong emetic.
- The roots are bitter, astringent, acrid, cooling vulnerary, alexipharmic, resolvent, diuretic, antispasmodic, emetic, constipating, and febrifuge.
- A decoction of the root of the plant is considered useful in gravel and other urinary complaints.
- In the Philippines, roots are used as diuretics, and are used in dysentery and dysmenorrheal.
- Roots are used for leucoderma, vaginopathy, metropathy, ulcers, inflammation, jaundice, asthma, small pox, strangury and fevers.
- Root are considered aphrodisiac and used for bladder gravel and similar urinary complaints.
- Piles and fistula are treated by taking powdered roots.
Seeds: 21, 23
- Powdered seeds are applied to sores and wounds.
- Seeds showed nematicidal activity against the second stage juveniles of meloidogyne incognita chitwood .
- Seeds are used as coffee substitute.
Sidha medicinal uses: 21, 23
- The plant is sheetala (Sheetaveerya), tikta, kashaya; subdues deranged kapha and pitta beneficial in hemorrhagic diseases, diarrhea, and gynecological disorders.
- It is used in suppresses kapha and pitta heals wounds, Coagulates blood and sexual weakness
- For diabetics, the juice of samoolam of this plant is taken and given in dose of 20 – 30 ml in early morning.
- The leaves and roots are dried and powered and given in the dose of 2- 5 grms for diabetics.
- The leaves are boiled with water and are used for pain in the hip and kidney region.
- The juice of the plant is mixed in equal quantity of horse urine and externally applied for Pterygium.
- 10 ml of the juice of samoolam is given daily once for 2-3 days for the treatment of bronchial asthma.
- One part of the juice of this plant is boiled with ¼ of gingely oil and is used to treat skin infections.
- The samoolam of this plant is crushed and decoction is prepared. This is used to wash ulcer, diabetic ulcers, skin infection etc.
Ayurvedic and unani uses: 21, 23
- This plant has been used in diseases arising from corrupted blood and bile, billious fever, piles, jaundice, leprosy, ulcers, small pox
- Ayurveda has declared that its root is bitter, acrid, cooling, vulnerary, alexipharmic, and used in the treatment of leprosy, dysentery, vaginal and uterine complaints, inflammations, burning sensation, asthma, leucoderma, and fatigue and blood diseases.
- Unani Healthcare System its root is resolvent, alternative, and useful in the treatment of diseases arising from blood impurities and bile, bilious fevers, piles, jaundice, and leprosy etc.
- It is very useful in diarrhea (athisaara), amoebic dysentery (raktaatisaara), bleeding piles and urinary infections.
- Some herbal doctors recommend it for general weakness and impotence.
- It is a mood enhancer and improves circulation of the blood.
TABLE 8: SCIENTIFIC USES:
|Antitoxin 37||CNS Stimulant||Hypolipidemic 15|
|Urolithiasis||Anti Diarrhoeal 32||Anti-Convulsant 32|
|Hyperglycemic 32||Ovulation, Vibriocidal 37||Antimalarial 32|
|Estrogenic and Antiestrogenic Activities||Cytotoxic Properties & Anticancer 26||Anticoagulant|
|Antioxidant14||Antiasthmatic 37||Immunomodulatory effect|
|Anitdepressant Activity32||Nematicidal Activity||Analgesic 7|
|Antipyretic||Antihepatotoxic activity 9||Enzyme Inhibitory Hyaluronidase|
|Diuretic Actions 31||Wound Healing Activity 15||Anti Implantation|
|Anti-Ulcer 10||Aphrodisiac 10||Antidepressant 32|
|Anti Bacterial 31||Antispasmodic 31||Protease Activities 29|
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How to cite this article:
Johnson K, Narasimhan G and Krishnan C: Mimosa Pudica Linn- A Shyness Princess: A Review of Its Plant Movement, Active Constituents, Uses and Pharmacological Activity. Int J Pharm Sci Res2014; 5(12): 5104-18.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.5 (12).5104-18.
All © 2014 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Kshema Johnson, Gopinathan Narasimhan* and Chitra Krishnan
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamilnadu - 600116, India.
25 April, 2014
02 July, 2014
08 August, 2014
01 December 2014